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Full text of "The Survey October 1921-March 1922"

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MfflMfi LIST NOV 1 1922! 







Volume XLVII 

October, 1921 — March, 1922 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few cases 
under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 
The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase 

has seemed more desirable. 

Abbey Theater, Dublin (ill.), 303. 
Absence of mind, 913. 
Accident compensation, 8. 
Accident prevention, New Jersey, 596. 
Accidents, industrial, 76. 
Ackerman, F. L., 476. 

Leaves from an architect's diary, 
890, 922. 

Model tenements, 460. 

Reply to Mr. Stokes, 461. 
Acquaintance Club, 433. 
Actors' Equity Ass'n, 357. 
Adams, M. E., 483, 741. 

Camp of the come-backen, 503. 

\ <udams", Thomas, 577, 762 

„. ar \ddams, Jane. 

g! et (Peace and bread, 527, 659, 741, 842. 

_,P ieti ddams, Judge G. S., 186. 

f 'er, Felix, 80S. 

:* ,.as* er 4er, H. M., 143, 186. 

, ■ lt, '.j ~ .'""Ministration, National Institute, 60. 
inAdnv *omj escenc 470 

,r A I' hi* ,s "' ^ssell. G. W. 

& plica, educational survey, 125. 


B< Micultural " bloc," 693. 

'"ticultural labor, 248. 
a JjT '^culture, emergency credit for, 681. 

»v' Vffsa, 679, 680, 674. 
Ahu. ,an te . . . 
Alal- fat'l Cou 04g 

M 'i Ie S a !; iv< \ttitude (letter), 256. 

Rjj studies s 24g 

V,! mon 7 eal di " ase law < Ietter)> 737 - 

ff? i-e fane*?, 555. 


c >anc-, 
g t S'"1 e also Prohibition. 

J "piAlifornia Land Law, 959. 

f,£. fixation of, 959. 

"', eI America Cooperative Commission, 

"■ IV -:-77. 

E. F., Tucked up in church, 

Florence, 136. 
Henry J., 822. 
tter from, 967. 
Big. E. T., 

nply to Dr. Fulton (letter), 902. 
(inning a community, 251. 
■"_,' ion, B. D., Labor education in 




■ a) 

' .ifiermany, 55. 

\te, 4S5. 

[lgamated Clothing Workers, Co- 
perative bank proposed, 642. 
gamated Textile Workers of 
merica, 102. 

the Red Indians (cartoon), 
Jmn of love adapted from. My 
^Country, 'Tis of Thee, 116. 

Ass'n for Labor Legislation, 
nnouncement, 476. 

oj II 
ire ll 

', »ican_Apprenticeship and Indus- 


». Education (Douglas), 574. 
J'. ' \. Ass'n of Social Workers, 422. 
mm . Bar Ass'n. . 
'/;, ((gal aid work, 81. 
X V"'"K' 476 - 

,,'pUlr. Civil Liberties' Union, 38. 
J firican Country Life Ass'n, 376. 
r.iSlr. Dietetic Ass'n, 378. 
iit a r. Economic Ass'n, conference at 
; \V Pittsburgh, 640. 
r '/ ican Empire, The (Nearing), 58. 
. fr. of L., Canada and, 44. 
J er. Merchant Marine Library 
s'I a Ass'n, 752. 

pier. Nat'l Municipal League, 588. 
Public Health Ass'n. 
Semicentennial, notice, 220. 
'iemicentennial, report, 377. 
l\er. Relief Administration, 22, 202, 
J 535, 561, 720. 
(ier. Socialist Society, 21. 
ner. Sociological Society, 641. 
ner. Steel Foundries, 559. 
ier. Union Against Militarism, 937. 
jericanism, 57. 
lericanismin Americanization 
(Baghdigian), 800. 
aericanization, 956. 
Carnegie Study, 811, 815. 

Church and, 116. 

Cincinnati, 259. 

Correspondence courses, 959. 

Foreman as factor, 960. 

Italian family incident, 959. 

Reading list on the United States, 
Americanization (cartoon), 552. 
Americanizationists, extreme, 960. 

By choice, 815. 

What is an American? 815. 
America's Making, 203. 
Amsterdam, 431. 
Anderson, Judge A. B., 202, 236, 360, 

Anderson, G. J., Letter on the print- 
ing industry, 607. 
Anderson, Sherwood, 976. 

My fire burns, 997. 
Anderson, Sydney, 77. 
Andritch, Y. E., 472. 
Angell, Norman, 742. 
Anglo-Saxons, 960. 
Annals of the Amer. Acad, of Political 

and Social Science, 470. 
Ansari, M. A., 19. 
Anthologie Negre (Cendrars), 473. 
Anti-lynching bill, 233. 
Appalachian mountain life, 845. 
Appeals to the poor, 698. 
Apprentices, wages for scholarships, 

Apprenticeship school, 618. 
Aran islander and risherman (ills.), 

308, 309. 

Landis decision, 753. 

Newspapers and pressmen, 929. 

Printers, 69. 
Archbald, Hugh, 976. 

Mister Super, 1021. 
Architect's diary, 890, 922. 
Arizona statute on picketing, 560. 
Ark of the New Year (cartoon), 536. 
Army and boys, 632. 
Artists, League of New York, 617. 
Arts League of Service, 276. 
Aspects of Child Life and Education 

(Hall and others), 27. 
Aspirations and absolutes (social 

studies), 287. 
Association for Improving the Condi- 
tion of the Poor, 924, 925, 499. 

Unemployed workers on Staten Is- 
land property, 103. 
Association for Labor Legislation, 

Association of nations, 361. 
Athens, 52. 
Athens, Ga., 788, 802. 
Atkinson, M. T., Ohio experiment, 

Atlanta library for Negroes, 54, 55. 
Atwood, W. W., 80S. 
Australia, 698. 

Child welfare, 472. 

Christmas and, 468. 

Relief needed, 423. 
Automobile accidents, 805. 
Avksentyev, Mr., 205. 

Babson, R. W., Wellesley plan, 764. 

Back to normalcy (cartoon), 356. 

Back to the land (social studies), 704. 

Bacon, A. F., Indiana juvenile proba- 
tion, 792. 

Bahaists (letters), 2S7. 

Bailey, Pearce, obituary, 904. 

Bailey, W. L., 376. 

Baker, D. C, 266. 

Baker, G. P., 274. 

Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, 110, 

Ballard, Thurston, 453. 

Baltimore Red Cross Institute for the 
Blind, 601. 

Balzac wanted, 402. 

Bank for students, 949. 

Banks, cooperative, 642. 

Bar Ass'n. See Amer. Bar Ass'n. 

Bard, H. E., 125. 
Barker, Miss, T. D., 54. 
Barkley, M. M., 752. 
Barnhart, Harry, 272. 
Bary, H. V., 471. 
Bassot, Marie-Jeanne, 783. 
Battle Creek Sanitarium, 773. 
Battleships at Newport News, 494, 

Bauer, Fred, 701. 
Beattie, A. B., Doctor of Domestic 

Difficulties, 599. 
Bechhofer, C. E., 276. 
Beck, E. J., 274. 

Beekman Hill Cooperative Ass'n, 115. 
Beet fields, children and, 235. 
Behavior clinic, 598. 
Belfast, along the docks (ill.), 301. 

Apprenticeship, railways, 618. 

Eight-hour day, 245. 

Eight-hour law, 435. 

Health legislation, 914. 

Home rule movement — the Flam- 
ingants, 665. 

Legislation of children, 132. 

Medical social service, 734. 

Prison reform, 888. 

Social service schools, 252. 
Bemis, A. S., Conf. of civic reform 

organizations, 377. 
Benedict, Bertram, letter of correc- 
tion, 902. 
Benjamin, Paul. 

Gift, the (verse), "90. 

Second government business meet- 
ing, 756. 

Vachel Lindsay — a folk poet, 73. 

Vassar plan, 886. 
Bentley, Henry, High-brow hoboes, 

Berea College, 453. 

Community education, 728. 
Berkeley, Cal., zoning, 765. 
Berle, A. A., Jr., Bread and guns, 
(Washington Conf.), 269, 361, 
395, 723, 754. 

Dominicans, 41. 
Bern, Switzerland, 472. 
Bernheim, A. L., An unsettling set- 
tlement, 929. 
Bethesda, pool of, 12. 
Better Hope (ship), 330. 
Bettman, Alfred, 137, 139, 143, 144, 

Big Brothers, 631. 
Bigger, Sir E. C. 

New health for old, 311. 

Personal, 289. 
Billboards in Cleveland, 765. 
Bing, A. M., British building guilds, 

Birth control. 

France, 554. 

Gleason, Arthur, on, 113. 

Penal code section which prohibits, 

Pennsylvania conf. at Philadelphia, 

Problem (letter), 902. 

Smaller families (letter), 772. 

War and, 267. 
Birthrate in France, 125. 
Black snow, 782. 
Blackmar, F. W., California citrus 

growers, 796. 
Blackwell, A. S. 

Compulsory medical examination 
(letter), 803. 

Dangerous law (letter), 737. 
Blankenhorn, Heber, 976. 

Conquest of isolation, 1006. 

Temper of the coal miners, 105. 
Blauvelt, W. S., 38. 
Blind, books for the, 773. 
Blue books, 410. 
Bokelmann, C. L., 822. 
Boiler, A. E., Amer. Dietetic Ass'n, 

Bolo Book, The (Cole), 401. 
Bolt, R. A., 470, 898. 
Bombay, 60. 


Books as a beacon (cartoon), 388. 

Challenge of a book (social studies), 

Child welfare, 602. 

Children's, 83. 

Education, 602. 

England's reading, 397. 

Ireland, 340. 

Labor, 82. 

Latest, list, 27, 59, 124, 222, 254, 
280, 375, 407, 440, 475, 576, 603. 
736, 769, 801, 901, 933, 966. 

Plays and games, 84. 

Sailors' reading, 398, 752. 

For social workers, 85, 7S1. 
Borderland Coal Corporation, 39. 
Bores, 233. 
Borst, H. W., 937. 

Church and drama, 274. 

Council of Social' Agencies, 725. 

Folk songs, 275. 

Health League, 733. 

Probation and parole, 430. 

School for 1 Training Women for 
Public Service, 783. 
Bourdelle, Antoine, 455. 
Boy Scouts, 631. 
Boyd, D. K., 436. 
Boyd, Neva, 784. 

Army placing, 632. 

Notes, 632. 

Settlement diagnostic clinic, 961. 

Settlements and, 630. 

West Virginia, 628-629 (ills.), 630. 

When you were a boy, 627. 
Braider, C. A., 601. 
Brand, L. F., The modem medicine 

man, 218. 
Brangwyn, Frank, 1001. 
Braucher, H. S., Appreciation of O. 

F. Lewis, 904. 
Brazil, 60. 
Bread and guns, 269, 361, 395, 723, 

Bread labor, 527. 
Breed, A. H., 653. 
Briar Brae Lodge, 699. 
Bricklayers', Masons' and Plasterers' 

Internat'l Union, 883. 
Bridgeman, C. T., Immigration legis- 
lation, 958. 
Bridges, H. J., 960. 
Briis, young men of, 627. 

Educational settlements, 562. 

Patent medicines, 220. 

Profit-sharing in agriculture, 125. 

Women in civil service, 60. 
British cooperative societies, 247. 
British Ministry of Health, 234. 

Diet and health, 368. 

Influenza, 365. 
British seamen, 752. 
British Trade Union Congress, 24. 
Broadbent, Benjamin, 573. 
Brockway, Zebulon, 751. 
Brooklyn, Bureau of Charities report, 

Brooks,' J. G., 411. 
Brsoks, Van Wyck, 701. 
Brooks, W. R., Infant welfare work 

in Greece, 52. 
Brophy, John, 359, 750, 976. 

Miners' program, 1026. 

Portrait, 1026. 
Brown, Bernice V., 783. 
Brown, Gilmor, 274. 
Bruere, Henry, 70. 

Mexico righting herself, 16. 
Bruere, R. W., 975. 

Coming of coal, 979. 

Decorative panel (ill.), 797. 

Palais Cinquantenaire, 391. 
Bryant, L. T., 596. 
Bryce, James, appreciation, 741. 
Bryn Mawr Summer School for 

Women Workers, 372. 
Bubonic plague, 368. 
Bucklin, George, 632. 
Budget, Bureau of the, 756. 



e x 



Community fettiral, 272. 

Dispensary abuse, 219. 

Negroes, 118. 

Unemployment, 621, 904. 
Buffington, Judge Joseph, 921. 
Building Guilds, British, 167. 
Building industry, Chicago and Judge 
Landis, 753. 

Housecleaning, 586. 

Landis decision, 77. 

Many hands and no skill, 890. 

Waste, 436. 
Bullock, C. S., letter on Van Loon's 

cartoon of progress, 606. 
Bullock, E. T., 442. 

Labor during the war, 75. 

Reply to critics of his article (let- 
ter), 443. 
Bunker, F. F., Pan-Pacific education, 

Bureau of the Budget, 756. 
Burgess, R. W., 768. 
Burleigh, Edith, 430, 431. 
Burritt, B. B., 925. 
'Bus as pulpit, 717. 
Business cycle, 640. 
Butler, Caroline B., 751. 


Alien Land Law decision and ap- 
peal, 959. 
Appeala for funds, 252. 
Bureau of Juvenile Research, 279. 
Citrus fruit growers, 796. 
City planning conferences, 969. 
Czecho-Slovaks, 227. 
Japan and, 174. 
Labor camps (letter), 608. 
Land settlements, 651, 698. 
Migratory laborer (letter), 443. 
Migratory laborers, 76. 
Vaccination law, 447. 
California Indians, 785. 
Calkins, M. C. 

Carol of the famished children 

(verse), 468. 
First chapter (immigration film), 

Folk theater 

Friends Creek, 845. 
Mr. Jefferson's shop, 175 
Pool of Bethesda, 12. 

California labor, 77. 
Summer camp exhibit 

A. F. of L. and, 4-^. 
Child welfare, 472. 
Child welfare (letter), 737. 
Election results, 454. 
Fathers' pensions, 793. 
Immigration, 958. 
Model town, 762. 
Canal Zone, 248. 
Cancer control today, 366. 
Cancer Week, 37. 
Candy industry, 437. 
Cannon, C. J., 433. 
Canton, Ohio, 471. 
Cardiff meeting, 24. 
Carlton, F. T., Drifting stockholders; 

floating workers, 632. 
Carmel Credit Union, 234 
Carpenter, M. B. 

Carriage-maker's shop, 175. 
Carris, L. PL, 773. 
Carstens, C. C, 471. 
Carter, James, 399. 
Cartoonist cartooned, 413. 
Caruso foundation, 413. 
Carwomen (letter), 256. 
Case Number 83, 730. 
Case work, clue-aspects, 241. 
Case work themes (verses), 766. 
Casey, J. B., Shipyard conditions 

(letter), 803. 
Casuals of the Northwest, 101. 

Philadelphia Welfare Federation 

and, 591. 
Priest and social worker, 600. 
Cattell, J. McK., 882. 
Causes of International War (Dick- 
inson), 253. 

of social agencies, 

-Lenox Hill players, 



Central councils 

624, 724. 
Centralization, 53. 
Ceres (ill.), 526. 
Cesare cartoon, 814. 
Castre, Charles, 642. 

Family extra-wage in France, 239. 

In northern France, 394. 

Split in French labor, 589. 
Chain stores, 244. 
Character-Training in Childhood 

(Haviland), 88. 

Brooklyn Bureau, report, 252. 

Fakes, 553. 

Providence, R. I., 768. 

Publicity departments (letter), 771. 
Charnock, Gen. J. H., 183. 
Chautauqua, 26. 
Check-off, 360. 
Check-off injunction, 438. 

Chen, Ta, 266. 
Chenery, W. L. 
Labor books, 82. 
Mr. Hoover's hand, 107. 
Mr. Zero, 15. 
Reply to letter of O. T 

Storm's passing (railway strike), 

Unemployment Conference emer- 
gency program, 42. 

Building industry, 77. 

Building trades and Judge Landis, 

Civic bodies, meetings, 588. 
Civic reform conf., 377. 
Council of Social Agencies, 724. 
Court of Appeals and coai injunc- 
tion, 236. 
Jail survey, 945. 
Unemployment, 621. 
Vaccination, 718. 
Child, Stephen, An international civic 

union, 634. 
Child hygiene, progress, 898. 
Child labor, 471. 
Beet fields, 235. 
National committee, 805. 
Unemployment and (social studies), 

Wisconsin laws, 245. 
Child welfare, 119, 277, 469, 627, 791, 
Canada (letter), 737. 
Conf. in New York, 608. 
Developments, 964. 
Foreign notes, 122, 472. 
Migration, interstate, and, 964. 
Notes, 279. 
South and Central American con» 

ferences, 60. 
Standards, 470. 

Symposium in Annals of Amer. 
Acad, of Political and Social 
Science, 470. 
Childers, Erskine. 

Government under the Dail Eireann, 

Personal, 289. 

Adopted mother, 962. 
As actors, 717. 
Books for, 83. 
Colored, 937. 
Croatia, 70. 
Foster home, 963. 
Nutrition, 50. 
Protection, 471. 
Starving (ill.), 783. 
Trades, 793. 
Children's Bureau of Philadelphia, 

letter-head (ill.), 962. 
Children's courts. 
Indiana, 792. 
Is the children's court necessary? 

(letters), 442. 
Is the juvenile court passing? 119. 
Juvenile court dynamics, 122. 
Russia, 278. 

Health education, 367. 
Japanese immigrants in, 266. 
People's soup, 610. 
Red Cross, 610. 
Unionism, 246. 

Washington Conference and, 395. 
Bahaists (letter), China, Captive or Free (Ried), 88. 
Chinese laundryman, 577. 
Chinese poem to Kingsley House, 921. 
Chita Republic, 205. 
Christ child statue in Alsace, 455. 
Baskets, 430. 
Disabled soldiers, 447. 
Christmas carols, 469. 
Christmas seal poster, 219. 
Church, The, and the Immigrant 

(Harkness), 474. 

Disarmament and (Union Theo- 
logical Seminary Conf.), 903. 
Drama and, 274. 

Duty in education of political opin- 
ion, 741. 
Health church, 572. 
Sleeping in St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, 598. 
Chute, C. L., 430. 

The " crime wave," 622. 
Americanzation methods, 259. 
Child actors, 717. 
Civic League, 741. 
Health federation, 732. 
Mental hygiene survey, 898. 
Unemployment, 798. 

Criminal justice in >.R. Pound) 

Health departments, 731. 
International Union, 634. 
Citizenship, women's manuals, 118. 
Citrus fruit growers, 796. 
City Club of New York, 586. 
City Managers' Ass'n, 588. 
City mother, 599. 
City planning. 

California conferences, 969. 
Progress, 762. 

Civic problems, 215. 

Civic reform organization!, Chicago 

Conf., 377. 
Civic Secretaries' Assn., 588. 
Civics, 115, 272, 633, 761, 956. 

Petrograd, 835. 
Notes, 637. 
Organization, 633. 
Winning a community, 251. 

Mallery, Chicago meetings of civic bodies, Community, The (Linderman), 965 


Community buildings, 637. 

Plans, 117. 
Community Center Movement, 637. 
Community Council, 642. 
Community drama, 272. 
Community Service, Inc., 741. 
Compensation, New York law, 577. 
Conferences, 223, 376, 608, 640, 738, 

802, 903, 935. 
Congress and the lynching bill, 587. 
Connecticut manufacturers' creed, 

Conservation, New York state, 236. 
Constantinople, social conditions, 557. 
Consumers' Cooperative Movement, 
The (Webb), 769. 
599. Contemporary Science (Harrow), 475. 
Continuation school work, 892. 
Continuation schools, Wisconsin, 895. 
Justice — correction of portraits, Contract, sanctity, 236. 

203. Control, The, of Life (Thomson), 638. 

Ladies' garment industry, 594. Cook, Henry (portrait), 993. 

Survey of criminal justice, 135. Cook, Sam (portrait), 994. 

Cleveland, Moses, 134/ Cooke, M. L., 700. 

Cleveland Foundation. Cooley, E. J., 430. 

Staff in survey of criminal justice, Cooperation, 364, 697. 

Civil service reform 
Civility, 717. 

Civilization in the United States, 701. 
Cizek, Professor, 468. 
Clairton, Pa., 265. 
Clark, B. W.., Turners of the other 

cheek, 519. 
Clark, J. B., 819. 
Clausen, George, 650. 
Clerambault (Rolland), 402. 

Ass'n for Criminal Justice, 421. 

Atmospheric contamination, 782. 

Billboards, 765. 

Criminal justice (R. Pound), 149. 

Doctor of domestic difficulties, 

Election reforms, 413. 

Health Federation, 732. 





Survey of criminal justice in Cleve- 
land, 135. 
Clinics, pay, 202. 
Cloth Hat and Cap Manufacturers' 

Ass'n 969-970. 
Clothing industry, 77. 
Cleveland, women's, 594. 
Employers under injunction, 454. 
Fifth Avenue holiday traffic, 421. 
Coal industry 
Alabama miners, 946. 
Anthracite, economic aspects, 
Bituminous miners' broken 

Bituminous production, 246. 
Check-off system, 360. 
During the strike (ill.), 978. 
Editorials, 1038. 
Fact-finding agency, 359. 
Government's function in cr; 

(social studies), 943. 
Intermittency, 596. 
Kansas court, 822, 863, 871. 
Miners' demands, 750, 1042. 
Miners' income, 1010, 1039, 1041 
Miners' isolation, 1006. 
Miners' portraits (Hine) 

Miners' program, 1026. 
My fire burns, 997. 
Operators' position, 1040. 
Public stake, 987. 
Sankey Commission called for, 750. 
Strike prospect, 863. 
Strike prospect (social studies), 

Survey Graphic number on, 973- 

Temper of the miners, 105. 
Two days from a diary, 1033. 
Union injunction modified, 236. 
Warfare imminent (social studies), 

West Virginia — breaking the min- 
ers, 887. 
West Virginia, civil war, 177. 
West Virginia distress, 786. 
West Virginia hearings, 202. 
West Virginia report, 721. 
Workers and their wages (social 
studies), 911. 
Coal mine (Brangwyn etching), 1001. 
Cole, G. D. H., 78. 
Coler, B. S., 553. 
Colgate & Co., 476. 
Collective bargaining, 39. 

Bank for students, 949. 
Disarmament in, 719. 
Social work training, 601. 
See also University control. 
Collier, Mrs. John, 805. 
Collins, S. D., 897. 
Colorado, mining and strikes, 248. 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 390. 
Colored children, 937. 
Colum, Padraic. 

Fair Hills of Eire O (verse), 294. 
Personal, 288. 
Portrait, 341. 

Tendencies in Irish art, 341. 
Columbia University, work for boys, 

Columbus, O. 

Council of Social Agencies, 624. 
Local life, 637. 
Commons, J. R., 224, 819. 
Sketch and portrait, 864. 
Unemployment, compensation and 

Agricultural, 758. 

Finland, 669. 

Germany, 636. 

In American production (social 

studies), 747. 
Ireland, creameries, 320. 
Recreational, 961. 
Cooperative laundry movement, 904. 
Cooperative production, 77. 
Cooperative societies, 247. 
Cooperative stock corporations, 805 
Cornell Univ. Medical College, p 

clinic, 203. 
Corwin, H. L., 392. 
Cost of living, index prices and I 

ters), 442. 
Costa Rica, 60, 447. 
Cotton mills, closing, 884. 
Council for the Reduction of Arn 

ments, 741. 
Council of Limitation of Armame 

Counter-wisdom, 881. 
County health officers, 220. \ 
Country Life Ass'n, 376. 
' Course of Empire, The (Pett. 


Ohio and Cleveland, 134, 135. 
Poor man's court, 767. 
Reversals of reactionary decisic' 

Unification proposed in New Yi 

state, 586. 
Workers' feelings toward, 597. 
Covington, Tenn., 609. 
Cox, Governor C. H., as reform 
782 I 

Cox, Harold, 267. \ 

Cox, R. L„ 421. J 

Craftsmanship and wages, 424. 
Craftsmen and builders, 922. 
Credit, agricultural, 758. 
Credit unions, 234, 248. 
Crime In Philadelphia, 719. 
Crime wave, 622. 
Criminal justice. See Justice. 
Cripples, 701. 

Teachers of, 60. 
Crise economique, La, et la baisse 

salaires (Picard), 575. 
Croatia, 70. 
Cuba, 447. 

Culture, radiating, 948. 
" Cumbered about much servin 

(cartoon), 780. 
Curry, H. I., 472. 
Cutter, Marian, Season's books i 

children, 83. 
Cuvillier, L. A., 959. 
Czecho-SIovak Child Relief, 577. 
Czecho-Slovakia, state aid, 781. 
Czecho-Slovaks in Southern 
fornia, 227. 


prevention, 5. 

Commonwealth Fund of New York Dawes ^Gener'ar'c G 

City, 423. D aV) g £ 927. 

Communism. Day, H. F. See Kennedy, 
Huterisch people, 519. and H. F. Day. 

Dail Eireann. 

First "public session " of 
Fein Parliament (ill.), 298. 
Government, 295. 
Dallas Civic Federation director! 

Daniel H. Burnham (Moore), 932. ; 
Daniels, Maude, 717. 
Darwin, Leonard, 22. \ 

On Eugenics, 572. 
Das, Taraknath, 3. 

Gandhi and the spinning wheel, 18 
David, Judge J. B., 718. 
Davies, W. H., Forgiveness (verse) 

Davis, K. M., 897 

248, 756 


: : 



A. J. 



Prosorff, N. R., School counselors, 
Labor 29. 

IOfentield, Colo., 556. 
IOearholt, H. E., Rules needed for 

questionnaires (letter), 804. 
UDe Berry, W. N., 782. 
Debs, E. V., New York Times on 

Lhis release, 556. 
ecentralization fn education, 53. 
[Delaware & Hudson Co., 596. 
Delbastee, F., Prison reform in Eu- 
rope, 888. 
i Delhi, Cal., 651, 654, 698. 
Delinquency, 471. 

Program to prevent, 423. 
Demand, stabilizing, 642. 
Internat'l, 235. 

Wisconsin participation in social 
movements, 236. 
Democracy and the Human Equation 
(Ireland), 58. 
, i Demonstration school, 211. 

Denmark, Workers' High School, 

370, 371. 
Dennison Mfg. Co., 5, 595. 
Deputy sheriffs, type, 139. 
Detroit. , 

Community Union pamphlet, 768. 
Fire prevention campaign, 741. 
Unemployment relief, 798. 
Devine, E. T. 

Central councils of social agencies, 

624, 724. 
Hills of Habersham, The, 788. 
Joint finance, 591. 
Montana farmers, 426. 
Diaries of war orphans, 794. 
Diet, 368. 

Diet (verse), 773. . . , ,,„ 

• tics, Amer. Dietetic Ass n, 378. 
»*. ,-ferentiation, 101. 
MS.Hf.X ond> jack, 476. 
inAdir."',, m acy, Old and New (Young), 
il'AdoI 253. 

A. fe hied Veterans, Nat'l Conf., 773. 

Afrp ( jmament. 

Agi . lucation and, 891. 

Agr T ic ts on (illustrative exhibit), 21*!, 

Agr, 213. 


Ahii, an tern slides, 60. 
Alal^ ,'at'l Council, 69. . 

M', egative or constructive? (social 
R() studies), 263. 
U, s-pes (social studies), 199. 
V nion Theological Seminary Conf., 
Alc<- 903. 

Y\ l e also Washington Conference. 
&t., S mament Education Committee, 
vliei ij-iosters, 212-213. 
C.ji'pse prevention, 731. 
TijiC washing realm (cartoon), 780. 
° ri;nsary abuse, 219. 
~* rict of Columbia, lawmakers dis- 
cussion of juvenile court bill, 393. 

_,,jfrespondence, 934. 

,. Ifirst five divorces, 759. . 

L\ ' W. F., Housing legislation in 

7,1 (linois, 115. 

... nspector, 156. 
/ J tic difficulties, doctor of, 599. 
•™.) stic relations court, humor and 

T^lthos, 433. 

.... \icans, 41. .'.,,. 

•'I fcv cartoon of Cleveland, 134. 

,,1> Is, J. U. 

,'7.> White Cross, 326. 
l\: jnal. 289. 
t s, P. H. 
,,i fetics of giving, 80. 
fcjlJstics of giving (letter), 608. 

' "i4 actors, 717. 

.?' '-munity, 272. 

,;, Vnunitv life abroad and, 276. 

;?;> theater, 273. 

• P ]53 

•£, ieb, Herman, 499. 

JiV 610. 

JStrol, 718. 

S, filler bill, 786, 937. 

j P u 274. 

.^Ee, 327. 

■*J. R., 78. 

aJ*. Waltei. Z2. 

Wr Cal., 651, 653, 698. 

■ Ilaldeman- Julius), 90. 
Wantii-lynching bill, 233, 587, 741. 
Mra.JMr., 588. 
i% E 

}t Rutherford, 358, 456. 
It Sid;, history test, 37. 
Itman, Fred, 117. 
Trstadt, Rudolf, 577. 
.nomic association, conference, 640. 
Jnomic Imperialism (Woolf), 253. 
Inomic progress (social studies), 
I 779. 

ncomes in the United States, 270. 
nternational, 206. 
momics, The, of Communism (Pas- 

volsky), 82. 
momy, 248. 
( ador, 904. 
fall, D. L., on medical education, 


Educated Nation, An (Yeaxlee), 26. 

Africa, Survey, 125. 

Berea, 728. 

Books, 26. 

Decentralization, 53. 

Disarmament and, 891. 

Germany, labor, 55. 

Germany, Socialists in, 369. 

Immigrants, 125. 

Ireland, of tomorrow, 305. 

New York (city) Teachers' Union 

program, 57. 
Pan-Pacific Conf., 214. 
Peru, 125. 
Problem one, 565. 
Straws in the winds, 216. 
Success and, 728. 
Universal physical, 617. 
What can education do? (social 

studies), 355. 
Workers', 567. 
Education and World Citizenship 

(Garnet), 602. 
Educational settlement, 562. 
Egyptian women, 913. 
Ehrmann, H. B., 141, 143. 
Eight-hour day in Belgium, 245, 435. 
Eire (verse), 294. 
Electric machines and engineers 

(ills.), 511-518. 
Electricity — the white revolution 

(Steinmetz), 1035. 
Elements, The, of Social Science 

(Maclver), 639. 
Eliot, T. D., 259. 
Elkan, Bruno, 21. 
Ellerbe, P. L., 960. 
Elliott, J. L., 424. 
Ellis Island. 

Film story, 957. 
Reforms, 585. 
Liability, 577. 
Under injunction, 454. 
Employers' press, 78, 246, 438. 

Gain in manufacturing, 246. 
Guaranteed, 594. 
Handicapped workers, 12. 
Job security at Dennison's, 595. 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 

Vol. XI. (Hastings), 439. 
Engineers (ills.), 514, 515. 

Community drama, 276. 
Diet and health, 368. 
Housing, 78. 
Unemployment, 71. 
What England reads, 397. 
England and the New Era (Villiers), 

England, E. T, 180. 
Epidemics, 365. 
Epsom, N. H., 633. 
Esbjerg, 370, 371. 
Essays in Taxation, Ninth Edit. (Sel- 

lgman), 900. 
Estabrook, A. H., A conference of 

judges, 738. 

Agricultural poster (ill.), 466. 
Nationalization of land, 465. 
Eugenic Prospect, The tSaleeby), 403. 
Eugenics, 22, 572. 
European conditions, Warburg on, 

Evans, E. G.. Sacco-Vanzetti case 

(letter), 737. 
Everett, R. H., Sign posts in social 

hygiene, 217. 
Ex-service men, 503. 
Disabled, 80. 

Family, size, 247. 

Family extra-wage in France, 239. 
Family welfare, 79, 249, 430, 598, 767. 

Problems, 432. 

Government by force and (car- 
toon), 39. 

Intellectual, 566. 

Russia (poster), 531. 

See also Hunger. 
Far East, 205. 

Factor in Washington Conf., 395. 

Situation, 755. 
Farm Conference, 757. 
Farm crops, 247. 
Farm woman (ill.), 650. 
Farmers, 697. 

Agricultural bloc, 693. 

Amazing situation (social studies) 

Curtailing acreage, 686. 

Georgia, 788. 

Middlemen and, 77. 

Montana, 426. 

Ohio State Univ. Conf., 802. 

See also Agriculture. 
Farrell, Miss Josephine, 101. 
Fear (cartoon), 716. 
Fear and good faith (social studies), 

Feary, Amelia, on Tacoma Federation 

(letter), 968. 
Federal Board of Vocational Educa- 
♦' n, 503. 

Federal employes, 246. 
Federal Reserve Board, 690. 

Farmers and, 697. 
Federation, financial, statistics of giv- 
ing, 80. 
Feeblemindedness in Massachusetts, 

Fois. Herbert, 9o7. 

Kansas miners and the Kansas 

Court, 822. 
Letter from, 968. 
Fellowship, 969. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, Yonkers 

Conf., 917. 
Ferrara, Peter (portrait), 1028. 
Fess-Capper bill, 617. 
Fieser, James, 45. 
Fifth Avenue Coach Co., 717. 
Fight the Famine Council, 206. 

Joint finance, 591. 
World conditions, 688. 
Finletter, Judge, 719. 
Finns, 668. 

Fires, causes (letter), 61. 
Fireside Industries of Berea College, 

Fiske, Haley, 750. 

Fitch, J. A., Peace by constraint, 786. 
Fitzpatrick, E. A., on Wisconsin con- 
tinuation schools, 895. 
Fitzpatrick, Henry, 595. 
Five and ten cent stores, 244. 
Flag, spinning wheel, 645. 
Flamingants, 665. 
Flanders fields, 462. 
Fleisher, Alex., Industrial hygiene, 49. 
Flemish language, 665. 
Flemish peasant (ill.), 462. 

San Antonio, 45. 
Shantung, 266. 
Floor Plans for Community Build- 
ings, 117. 
Folk poet, 73. 
Folk songs, 275. 
Folk theater, 273. 
Folklore, Syrian, 146, 508, 840. 
Folks, G. H., 773. 

"Sonny" side (West Virginia), 630. 
Food pamphlet, 398. 
Forbes, C. R., 70. 
Ford, G. B., 764. 

Ford, Henry, Muscle Shoals and, 764. 
Foreign Language Information Ser- 
vice, 60, 959. 
Foreign Policy Ass'n, 69. 
Foreign Press Service, 60, 727. 
Foreign students' club, 216. 
Foreigners or Friends (Burgess and 

others), 474. 
Foremen in Americanization, 960. 
Forests, 413. 

Fort Sheridan (111.), vets' camp, 503. 
Forty-niners, new, 651. 
Fosdick, R. B., 137, 143. 
Foster, E. C, Do you remember when 

you were a boy? 627. 
Foster, W. Z., 915. 
Foster homes, 963. 
Foundations of Sovereignty, The 

(Laski), 374. 
Frame, Nat, 633. 
Anti-alcohol movement, 555. 
Birth control, 554. 
Birthrate, 125. 
Cotton-weaving strike, 394. 
Family extra-wage, 239. 
Split in labor, 589. 
Teaching play, "783. 
Frankel, L. K., Humanizing the Post 

Office Dept., 434. 
Frankfort monument, 21. 
Frankfurter, Felix, 143. 
Frasier, Governor, 358. 
Free Negro, The, in Maryland 

(Wright), 966. 
Free speech, public school forums, 

French Foreign Policy (Stuart), 222. 
French league for internat'l democ- 
racy, 235. 
Friday, David, 535. 
Friends, 76. 

Russian relief, 531, 535. 
Friends Creek, 845. 
From Marx to Lenin (Hillquit), 82. 
Fruits of Victory, The (Angell), 374. 
Full Up and Fed Up (Williams), 735. 
Fulton, J. S., Maryland medical con- 
ditions (letter), 902. 
Fumigation, 731. 
Funeral Management and Costs 

(Dowd), 91. 
Furbish. E. M., 896. 
Furuseth, Andrew, and radicals, 207. 

Gaelic miracle play (ill.), 302. 

Gaelic tradition, 291. 

Gallagher, Patrick, 327. 

Games, books on, 84. 

Games — S c h o o I, Church, Home, 

(Draper), 84. 
Gandhi, M. K., 18. 

Gospel of Mahatma Gandhi, 677- 


Portrait, 1. 

Sketch of the man, 674. 

Spinning wheel flag, 645. 
Garden Cities Ass'n, 610. 
Garden suburbs, 118. 
Gas and consumer, 38. 
Gatchell, Earle, Bank for students, 

Gateway to Health, The (Hecht), 403. 
Gavit, J. P., 811. 

Americans by choice, 815. 
Gebhard, Hannes, 669, 673. 
Geddes, Patrick, 20. 

Plans for Zionist capital, 457. 

Labor meeting, 425. 

Woman workers of the world, 376. 
Genoa Conf., prospects, 723. 
George, W. L., on social workers, 585. 

Farmers, 788. 

Northeast Georgia Conf., on Wel- 
fare, 802. 
German Society for the Care of Juve- 
nile Psychopaths (poster), 277. 

Adolescents' week, 472. 

Books and literature, 410. 

Community drama, 276. 

Cooperation, 636. 

Crippled children, 60. 

Labor education, 55. 

Manufacturers' profits, 125. 

Pacifism (letter), 444. 

Productive unemployment, 463. 

Socialists in education, 369. 

Trade union bloc, 789. 

Wages for apprentices, 618. 

Youth movement, 487. 

Youth movement — bibliography, 
Gibson, W. W., Fires (verse), 1000. 
Gift eternal, 456. 

Gifts, exemption from income tax, 37. 
Gilbert, Richard (portrait), 1029. 
Gilmore, Frank, 357. 
Girls, fitting jobs and, 920. 

Scientific, 768. 

Statistics, 80. 

Statistics (letter), 608. 

What shall we give? (social 
studies), 451. 
Glassberg, Benjamin, 21. 
Gleason, Arthur. 

Birth control, 113. 

On Albert Mansbridge, 969. 
Gliebert, Dr., 914. 
Going down, 761. 

Gold and wheat (social studies), 71. 
Golden Rule in business, 951. 
Goldmark, Pauline, Carwomen (let- 
ter), 256. 
Good faith of governments (social 

studies), 231. 
Goodrich, Constance, 963. 
Gosler, Hans, 751. 
Gossip, 699. 

Gould, K. M., Public Health centen- 
nial, 377. 

Books, 58. 

By force (cartoon), 39. 

Employes and unemployment, 246. 

Function in crisis (social studies), 
Government problems, 215. 
Government Research Conf., 60. 
Governments of Europe, The (Ogg), 

Govil, H. G., 700, 701. 
Grace Dodge Hotel, 266. 
Graham, Mildred, 433. 
Grand Central Terminal (ills.), 1036, 

Great Britain. See Britain ; England. 
Great Falls, Mont., 391. 
Greece, infant welfare, 52. 
Greeley, W. B., 413. 
Green, F. C, A churchman's protest, 

Greenwood, Ernest, Labor at Genera, 

Gregory, Lady, portrait, 341. 
Griffith, Sanford, 413, 811. 

German trade union bloc, 789. 

Petrocommuna, 835. 

Petrograd death ward (with ill.), 

Productive unemployment in Ger- 
many, 463. 
GrundtVig, N. F. S., portrait, 371. 
Guatemala, 60. 

Guilds, building, British, 167. 
Gulick, L. H., 946, 60. 
Gullible public, 553. 
Gwin, J. B., 610. 

San Antonio — the flood city, 45. 


Habersham, 788. 
Hackett, Francis. 

Irish interpretations (books), 340. 

Personal, 288. 
Hackmach, Hans, 493. 
Haenisch, Konrad, 370. 
"nines, Anna, 534. 
Halley, S. D., 125. 


Library for Negroes, 54, 55. 
Halsey, O. S., Employment guaran- 
teed, 594. 
Hamburg University, 370. 
Hamill, J. M., 368. 
Hamlet, 389. 
Hamsun, Knut, 447. 
Handbook of Social Resources of the 

I'nited States (Hendricks), 374. 
Handicapped workers, 12. 
Hankkija, 672. 
Hansorr.e, Marius, 752. 

Books that go to sea, 398. 

Workers' High School, 371. 
Hapgood, Powers, 976. 

Two days from a diary, 1033. 
Harbor-workers, 859. 

Portraits by Hine, 851-858. 
Hard, William, 975. 

Public stake in the coal industry, 
Harding, W. G. 

On unemployment, 21, 42. 

Suggestion as to association of na- 
tions, 361. 

To the Red Cross meeting, 424. 
Tarmon, W. E., 358. 
-larmon Foundation, 358, 456. 
Harris, L. I., War and influenza, 365. 
Harris, R. J., In this I find solace 

(verse), 158. 
Harrison, Frederic, 215. 
Hart, H. H. 

On migration and child welfare, 964. 

Socialization test, 249. 
Hart, J. K. 

Radiating culture, 948. 

See also Social studies. 
Harvard Medical School, 898. 
Hasken, Byron, 899. 
Hat and cap makers, 969-970. 
Hatfield, Sid, 180. 
Hatton, A. R., 413, 588. 
Hawaii, 173. 

Child welfare, 964. 
Hayes, E. C, Practical sociology 

(letter), 738. 
Haynes, J. R., Vaccination (letter), 

Haynes, Rowland, 742. 
Hays, Will H., 763. 
Health, 49, 217, 365, 570, 731, 896. 

Belgium, legislation, 914. 

British economy, 234. 

Healthiest year, 421. 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 
value of work, 259. 

Municipal departments, 731. 

Notes, 220, 368. 
£ Notes and news, 573, 898. 
r Ohio law, 618. 

Pandemic of Influenza report, 365. 

State administration, 51. 
Health, church, 572. 
Health federation in three citie», 732. 
Health Institute, 377, 741. 
Health teaching, 805. 
Helsingfors, 670, 672. 
Helsinki. 670, 672. 
Henry, E. G., 899. 

On prevention, 571. 
Henry, Grace, 290. 
Henry, Paul. 

Personal. 289. 

Potato digger (ill.), 313. 
Henry, R. M. 

Irish schools of tomorrow, 305. 

Personal, 289. 
Here and Now Story Book (Mitchell), 

Heredity, instance of, 471. 
Hewes, Amy, New wine in old bottle*, 

Hewins,' K. P., 471. 

Child in the foster home, 963. 
High-brow hoboes, 923. 
High school in Denmark, workers', 

370, 371. 
Hill, T. A., Portrait of a gentleman 

(letter), 256. 
Hilles, Edith. 

Who pays the waiter?, 795. 

See also Swartz, Nelle, and Edith 
Hilton Village, 495, 498. 
Hine, L. W., 976. 

Harbor- workers (portraits), 851-858. 

Man on the job — miners' portraits, 
991-996, 1014-1015. 

Portraits of power makers, 511-518. 

"Sonny" side of life in West Vir- 
ginia (ills.), 628-620, 773. 

Work portraits of the railroaders, 
History, loose leaves from (cartoon), 

Hobart, Ethel, A modern mystic, 272. 
Hobhouse, Stephen, 884. 
Hoboes, high-brow, 923. 
Hodson, William, 471. 
Hoffman, F. L, on health progress 

in South America, 572. 
Holbrook. D. H., 432. 
Holden, A. C, Settlements and the 

boy, 630. 
Holiday trarhc, 421. 
Holland, social school, 431. 
Holme, E. R., 894. 

' F.^cT 

e x 

Holmes, J. H., 235. 

Holmes, L. G, 219. 

Holy night, 1921 (cartoon), 452. 

Home economist, 599. 

Home ownership experiment, 115. 

Homeless men, 252. 

In former days (ill.), 785. 
Homeward bound (ill.), 832. 
Honolulu, Pan-Pacific conf. on edu- 
cation, 214. 
Hooker, G. E., Progressive labor in 

politics, 935. 
Hoover, H. C, 577. 

Temper revealed, 107. 
Horniman, Miss, 276. 
Horwill, H. H., 76. 

New type — Fifth Avenue, 573. 

New York, 392. 

Planning, 734. 

Rural, 899. 

Keeping, 266. 

Women help, 947. 
Hours of work, Belgium, 435. 
House Property and Its Manage- 
ment (jeffery and Neville, edit- 
ors), 404. 
Houses, tax exemption, 447. 

British building guilds, 167. 

England, 78. 

Illinois legislation, 115. 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. 
proposal, 749. 

Model tenements, 460, 917. 

Suburban property values, 761. 
Houston, D. F., 805. 
Houston, Tex., school survey, 220. 
How Much Shall I Give? (Brandt), 

Howat, Alex., 105. 

Hoyer, R. A., Kentucky Conf. of So- 
cial Work, 378. 
Hrvatski, Radisa, 70. 
Huber Unemployment Prevention bill, 

Hudzinski, Stanley (portrait), 1028. 
Huggins, W. L., 822. 
Hughes, C. E. 

Disarmament program, 338. 

Naval limitation proposals, 269, 494. 
Human Behavior (Paton), 85. 
Human Factor in Business, The 

(Rowntree), 280. 
Human inventory, 367. 
Humanity, path of (Brussels fres- 
coes), 391. 

Levant, 22. 

Man who feeds the hungry, 15. 
Hunt, C. L, 898. 

Hunt, E. E., Results of Unemploy- 
ment Conf., 427. 
Hunt. Matilda, Children of the con- 
querors, 569. 
Husband, W. W., 265, 585. 
Huterisch people of South Dakota, 

Huyck, L. T., 902. 

Smaller families (letter), 772. 
Hyde, B. C, Bahaists (letter), 257. 
Hyde, D. W., Jr., 215. 
Hyndman, H. M., 447. 

Ihlder, John, 924. 
Illegitimacy, 470. 
Illinois, housing legislation, 115. 
Imagination (social studies), 546. 
Immigrant Press, The, and Its Con- 
trol (Park), 965. 
Immigrant Service and Citizenship 

Bureau, 476. 

Contributions to American life, 203. 

Education in New York (state), 

Film story, 957. 

Massachusetts education of, 959. 

New and old, 817. 

Of the second generation, 956. 

See also Ellis Island. 

Canada, 958. 

Legislation, 918. 

New York conf. on the law, 642. 

Outstanding statistics, 959. 

Swiss problems (ills.), 958. 
Incivility, 717. 

Income in the United States, 270. 
Income tax and gifts, 37. 
Independent, The, 101. 

Constitutionalism vs. revolution, 

Education question, 569. 

Revolution, 674. 

Revolution, sympathetic view, 18. 

Juvenile probation, 792. 

Medical social service, 899. 

State Conf. of Charities, 259. 

Welfare problem, 925. 
Indianapolis, convention of U. M. W., 


America for (cartoon), 960. 

California, 785. 
Smallpox among, 897. 
Industrial accidents. See Accidents. 
Industrial court. 

Labor press on, 597. 
Letter from Gov. Allen, 967. See 
also Kansas. 
Industrial disputes, two New York 

bills concerning, 786. 
Industrial Government (Commons), 

Industrial hygiene, 49. 

Census, 937. 
Industrial Ideals (Gollancz), 27. 
Indust. management, publicity (let- 
ter), 224. 
Industrial rehabilitation, 916. 
Industry, 75, 244, 434, 593. 
Acid test (letter), 903. 
Amazing factors in the situation 

(social studies), 583. 
Currents, 76, 245. 
Earnings, 77. 
Field for novelists, 402. 
Future (dinner address of B. S. 

Rowntree), 362. 
Making work fascinating, 456. 
New Jersey Chamber of Commerce 

on relations, 799. Report. 
Problem of incentives, 532. 
Infant mortality, 470. 

Rates and fathers' earnings, 767. 
Infant welfare in Greece, 52. 

Negro story, 794. 
War and, 365. 
Information, Institute of Interna- 
tional, 805. 
Injunctions, labor press on, 597. 
Insanity, growth, 896. 
Institute of Politics, Survey's report 

criticized (letter), 61. 
Institutional workers, 437. 
Insular possession, 525. 
Insurance, social, in Czecho-Slovakia, 

Insurance companies and health rec- 
ords, 421. 
Intellectual famine, 566. 
Interchurch World Commission, final 

reports on steel industry, 40. 
Intercollegiate Cosmopolitan Club, 

Internatl. Congress of Working Wo- 
men, 376. 
Internatl. democracy, 235. 
Internatl. economics, 206. 
Internatl. Information, Institute of, 

Internatl. Labor office, 390. 
Internatl. Labor Organization, Geneva 

meeting, 425. 
Internatl. Ladies' Garment Workers, 

421, 454. 
Internatl. Union of Cities, 634. 
Books, 253. 
Pioneers, 391. 
Introduction, An. to the Psychological 
Problems of Industry (Watts), 
Inwood House, 249, 433. 

Child Welfare Research Station, 

Public health education, 227. 
Iowa State Univ., 60. 

Agricultural cooperation, 317. 
Agricultural industries and tools 

(ills.), 323. 
Art, 341. 
Cooperative creameries (ills.), 318, 

320, 321, 322, 324. 
Donkey cart and peasant (ill.), 318. 
Economic consequences of freedom, 

Future evolution of society, 291. 
Graphic number, 285-352. 
Health, 311. 
Literature on, 340. 
New civilization, rural and cooper- 
ative, 339. 
Returning to her fountains, 302. 
Schools of tomorrow, 305. 
•Tentative agreement, 390. 
Irish Republic. 

Torch-bearers, 296. 
Underground Ministry of Labor, 
Irish tvpes (paintings by Power 

O'Mallev), 307-310. 
Irish White Cross, 326. 
Is America Safe for Democracy? 

(McDougall), 92. 
Italians, American courts and, 237. 

Tackson, O. T., 556. 

Chicago survey, 945. 

Children in, 279. 

Cleveland. 138. 
Jankowitz, Mr., 447. 

Accident prevention campaign, 60. 

Korea and, 10. 

Labor conditions, 77. 

Pacific dwellers and, 172. 
Japanese immigrants in China, 
Jaundice, epidemic infectious, 6*.. 
Jazz, The, of Patriotism (Spencer 

Jefferson's (Mr.) shop, 175. 
Jenkins, Mrs. H. H., 413. 
Jenness, Mary, 483. 

Syrian folklore, 146, 508. 
Syrian stories, 840. 
Jennings, A. S., New generation, Th 

(verse), 950. 
Jerusalem, map, 457. 
Jerusalem, Univ. of, model of pro 

posed building, 457. 
Jewish Agricultural and Industria 

Aid Society, 960. 

Jerusalem, Palestine and, 457, 458. 
Monthly information summary, 904. 
" Jist dogs," 156. 
Job counsellors, 964. 
Jobst, Stjepan, 70. 
Johnson, E. M., Wages and living 

costs (letter), 607. 
Johnson, W. L., Poor man's court, 

Johnston, R. B., Trends in country 

life, 376. 
Jones, Mrs., 598. 
Jordan, D. S., President Wilson's 

policies (letter), 803. 
Josselyn, L. W., Libraries for Negroes 

(letter), 125. 
Journalism, changes in New York 

weeklies, 101. 
Joy, J. S., 433. 
Judges, conference of, 738. 
Jugoslavia, emigration decree, 959. 
Jury system reform, 586. 
Justice. I 

Cleveland, 421. 4 

Cleveland, survey, 135. 
Criminal justice in the Amer. 

city (R. Pound), 149, 332. 
Teaching, in the schools, 391. 
Turn in the tide, 392. 
Juvenile courts. See Children's cc 
Juvenile delinquency, 471. 
Juvenile Delinquency (Goddard), 

Kalfvaart, 118. 
Kamloops, B. C, 762. 

Citizenship for foreigners, 118. 
Miners and the court, 822. 
Kansas City Community Chest, 7j 
Kansas City Public Service Instii 

Kansas Court of Industrial Relati 
822, 863, 871. 
Letters on the article of Prof 

Karelia, 668. 
Keeney, C. F 
Kelley, E. R. 


on the public 

Kelley, Florence, appeal for cc 
Oregon minimum wage bri 
Kellogg, Vernon, 202. 

On Russia, 22. 

Personal, 577. 

Technique of Russian relief, 
Kemp, C. C, Acid test of ir 

(letter), 903. 
Kennedy, A. J., and H. F. D 

A settlement diagnostic cli 
boys, 961. 
Kennedy, G. A. S., 599. 
Kennedy, J. S., 279. 
Kennedy, Thomas (portrait), 
Kentucky Conf. of Social Woi 
Kenyon, W. S., 23, 177. 

Report on West Virginia, 72 
Kilpatrick. W. H., on educatio 
Kimball, Theodore, 762. 
King, C. L., Farm Conference, 
King, Delaware, 476. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie, 454. 
Kingsbury, S. M., Woman wor 

the world, 376. 
Kingsley House, Pittsburgh, 7 

Chinese poem to, 921. 
Kirchwey, G. W., 945. 
Kirkpatrick, J. E., Control of 
sity policy, 565. 

Responsible university contr 
Klyce, Scudder, 700. 
Knappert, Miss, 431. 
Knight, A. S., 367. 
Kohler, M. J., 203. 
Korea, 10. 
Korpi, 668, 672. 
Krassin, Mr., 206. 
Kreutzer, G. C, 652, 655. 
Ku Klux Klan, 392. 


Agricultural, 248. 

Books, 82. 

British, Cardiff meeting, 24. 

California, 76. 

California camps (letter), 608. 

California migratory (letter). 44j 

France, split. 589. 

Geneva meeting, 425. 


Germany, education, 55. 

Japan, 77. 

Political Action Conf., 935. 

Prosperity during the war, 75. 
Labor and sorrow (etchings), 827-834. 
Labor Herald, 915. 
Labor International Handbook, The 

(Dutt), 82. 
Labor Movement, The (Tannenbaum) 

Labor party, need of, 248. 
Labor poets, 399. 
Labor press, 77, 247, 438, 597. 
Labor spies in W. Virginia, 110. 
Labor Theater Guild, 969. 
Labor's Challenge to the Social Order 

(Brooks), letter on, 411. 
Lachmann, Vera, As youth would 

have it (with portrait), 727. 
La Fontaine, Henri, 390, 391. 
Lakeman, C. E., 642. 

Cancer control today, 366. 

Three city health federations, 732. 
Land in Esthonia, 465. 
Landis, Judge K. M., 77, 753. 
Lane, W. D., 976. 

Black avalanche (coal mines), 1002. 

Breaking the miners, 887. 

Labor spy in W. Virginia, 110. 

Miners in distress, 786. 

Senators in W. Virginia, 23. 

West Virginia, civil war in its coal 
fields, 177. 

West Virginia — Kenyon report, 721. 
Lansing idea, 637. 
Lantern slides on disarmament, 60. 
Laquer, B., 751. 
Larkhall, 1030. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

Flamingants, 665. 

Toward fellowship, 917. 
L Two labor poets, 399. 
^_^ Youth movement of Germany, 487. 

fa >^s > 

,ki, H. J. 
rdiff meeting, 24. 

fL\o7~ England's unemployed, 71 
inAdir I'hat England reads, 397. 
UfAdol lrop , j u iia C, 470. 
,. A fe ck, W. J., 976. 

Afr^,, iners' demands (coal industry), 
Agi , 1042. 

Agr» mdry, cooperative movement, 904. 
Agr, r „. 

Anil lompelling progress by law (social 
Ala]- f studies), 871. 
M i liberty and, 57. 

*V) iunicipalities and criminal justice 
U) (R. Pound), 149, 332. 
V, r and order, 247. 
Alcxj Vlessness (social studies), 194. 
Fi _lch, H. C, Finns in their own 
St. 5, r and, 668. 
iliei i- rue for Industrial Democracy, 

TiiSCKue of brains, 390. 
ilVue of Nations, Health organiza- 
tion, 899. 
(tCell, R- H., 476. 
/y'-.jrers in this country, foreign, 

t c ux, Urbain, 15, 272. 
£2,1 Harry, 699. 
it i Hung, 577. 
ci i Joseph. 

/ 5 oks on democracy (letter), 411. 
'mL icism of Survey's report of In- 
, ,itute of Politics (letter), 61. 
mj tice to the foreigner (letter), 

iVs' '44. 

,,4' jco-Vanzetti case (letter), 737. 
llcfon, Harvey, Making a survey 
itjf/ount, 635. 

He 1 aid, Amer. Bar Ass'n and, 81. 
i a ) Wen der Wohlfahrtspflege (Salo- 
tt-jflon). 639. 
«'n* Hill players, 273. 
0,'fot, K. L., 470. 
Ir0 |r, C. E., 976. 985. 
ai<. -rators' position, 1040. 
nil it, hunger in, 22. 
■*.l, B. S., 143, 145. 

fll, J. L., 105. 

■Strait, 1043. 
.Or'. O. F. 
-lU 'reciatton, 904. 

tjjtf 1 le. the (verse), 577. 
fii E t. L., 180. 
tJS3"Ttnn, Ky., Conf. of Social 
,j,a rk. 378. 
■y, 265. 
W and law, 57. 
lies, 410. 
inr <••.,, 752. 
tncS, Atlanta, 5<, 55. (letters), 125. 
j'ei?,« • revenue, 937. 
■ttfih" Sage, 751. 
■Efcial handbook, 215. 
'pel' v. The, and Society (Bostwick, 
rallit). 36. 

e,|nf Elie Metchnikoff (Metchni- 
>ff), 403. 

iving and industrial hygiene 
nsus, 937. 

National? de la Democratic de 
i' France, 235. 
ien, E. M., 459. 

Limites, Les de la Psychotherapie 

(Schnyder), 403. 
Lincoln, Abraham, Emerson quoted 

on, 749. 
Lindsay, Vachel, 73. 
Lindsley, M. E., 266. 
Linndalc, 761. 

Literary test for voters, 203. 
Little theaters, 274. 
Lively, C. E., 110. 

Ohio farmers go to school, 802. 
Lloyd George's speech of Jan. 21, 

Lockwood Committee, 586. 

Church open all night, 598. 

Economic conf., 206. 

New child welfare center, 794. 
London of the Future (Webb), 932. 
Longshore, 859. 
Longshoremen, 859. 

Portraits by Hine, 851-858. 
Looker, S. J., 400. 
Loon. See Van Loon. 
Loree, L. F., 596. 
Lorenz, Dr. Adolf, 392. 
Los Angeles, 471, 763. 
Louisville Welfare League and Com- 
munity Council consolidation, 234. 
Love, J. W., Cleveland Foundation's 

survey of criminal justice in Cleve- 
land, 135. 
Lovejoy, O. R., 471. 
Lowell, Guy, 117. 

Lubin, S. J., Labor camps in Cali- 
fornia (letter), 608. 
Lundberg, E. O., 470. 
Lyman, E. W., Churches and dis- 
armament (conf.), 903. 
Lynching, 233. 

Congress and, 587. 

Dyer bill, 233, 587, 741. 

Maps of lynchings from 1889 to 
1921, 916. 
Lyonsl Eugene, 444. 

Italians in American courts, 237. 


McCormick, M. G., Nutrition work in 

the schools, 50. 
McCray, W. T., 738, 925. 
McDonald, J. G., Pacifism in Ger- 
many (letter), 444. 
McDougald, G. E., 937. 
McGannon, W. H., 135, 136. 
Machinists, Illustrations, 511-518. 

Protests against discharge of navy 
yard workers, 781. 
McKenney, W. F., 976, 1009. 
McKenzie, R. D., 637. 
MacKinnon, Cecilia, Dom Polski 

(verse), 429. 
McLean, F. H, 925. 

Tribute to Mrs. Tenney, 476. 
McMullen, Alec (portrait), 1028. 
McNair, W. N., 201. 
Macy, V. E., 120. 
Maddux, E. W., Community commis- 

sion, 636. 
Magdalens, 249, 433. 
Magee, W. A., 201. 
Maison Heureuse, La (Benoit-Levy), 

Male delinquents (letter), 737. 
Mallaianny, 290. 

Mallery, 0. T., Unemployment con- 
ference (letter), 255. 
Manchester, N. H., cotton mills, 884. 
Mangan, J. C, Woman of three cows 

(verse), 316. 
Manhood, The, of Humanity (Kor- 

zybski), 221. 
Manners, 717. 
Manning, C. G., 391. 
Man's Unconscious Spirit (Lay), 85. 
Mansbridge, Albert, 969. 
Manual for Health Visitors and In- 
fant Welfare Workers (Eve), 93. 
Manufacturers' Ass'n of Connecticut, 

creed, 247. 
Manuscript, contributor's, 773. 
Mark, James (portrait), 1027. 

Farmers' markets, 758. 

Problem, 623. 
Marketing, The, of Whole Milk (Erd- 

man), 439. 
Markievicz, Constance de. 

Personal, 289. 

Underground Ministry of Labor, 

Divorce and (letters), 534. 

Russia, 47. 
Mars and Ceres (ill.), 526. 
Marsh, B. C, What is back of the 

agricultural "bloc, 693. 
Martin, Col. C. S., 183. 
Martin, H. J. G.. 797. 
Martin, L. J., 279. 

Prince George county conditions 
(correspondence), 902. 

Social work in Prince George 
county, 251. 

Credit unions, 234, 248. 

Dept. of Education, bulletin, 57. 

Feebleminded, etc., 782. 

Immigrant education, 959. 

Midwives, 898. 

Minimum wage commission (let- 
ter), 607. 

Minimum wage in candy industry, 

Planning boards, conf., 223. 

Suicide, 432. 

Unemployment relief. 805. 

Venereal diseases, 252. 

Vocational training for the disabled, 
Maternity bill, passage, 357. 
Maternity in Russia, 47. 
Matthews, W. H., 699. 

A voice from the bread line (verse), 
Mead, Elwood, The new Forty-niners, 

Meaning, The, of Education (Snow- 
den), 88. 
Medical examinations, value, 367. 
Medical social service, 734, 899. 

Dispensary abuse, 219. 

Oneida Indian clinic, 218. 

Pay clinics, 202. 
Mein Kampf gegen das militarische 
und nationalistische Deutschland 
(Lorster), 59. 
Meints, John, 392. 
Mental disease, 896. 
Mental hygiene, National Committee 

surveys, 898. 
Merchants' Ass'n of New York, 247. 
Merkulov Government, 205. 
Merriman, Christina, 69. 
Merriweather, Jimmie, 600. 
Messer, Prof. A., 537. 
Metal furniture, 497. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 259, 

367, 476. 

Housing proposal, 749. 
Mexico, 16. 
Meyer, Annie N., The gentle art 

(letter), 771. 
Meyer, Eugene, Jr., Emergency credit 

for agriculture, 681. 

Public health nurses, 773. 

Vaccination, 898. 
Middlemen and farmers, 77. 
Middlesex Fells, 805. 
Middfetown, O., 798. 
Midwives in Massachusetts, 898. 
Migration and child welfare, 964. 
Milan, 573. 

Medical inspection of school chil- 
dren, 794. 
Miliukov, Mr., 205. 

Direct delivery, 247. 

London, cartoon, 234. 

New York strike, 240. 
Milkmen, Madison Square Garden 

parley, 201. 
Miller, Governoi. 

On prison industries, 642. 
Miller, H. A., Case of Korea, 10. 
Miller, R. J., 76-77, 443-444. 

Council of Social Agencies, 724. 

Health Service Building, 572. 

Newsboys, 793. 

Unemployment, 621. 
Mind and Work (Myers), 85. 
Mind, The, in the Making (Robinson), 

Mind, The, of a Woman (Schofield), 

Mine accident, a (ill.), 831. 
Mine foreman (portrait), 1020. 

Alabama, 946. 

Alliance of railway men and long- 
shoremen with, 882. 

Distress in W. Virginia, 786. 

Kansas, 822, 863, 871. 

Portraits (Hine), 991-996, 1014- 

See also Coal industry. 
Minimum wage 

Massachusetts, 437, 607. 
Minneapolis, 122. 

Community Fund prospectus dia- 
gram, 768. 

Unemployment, 620. 
Missouri, industrial rehabilitation, 

Mitchell, L. M. B. 

Male delinquents (letter), 737. 
Mob violence, 392. 
Modern Democracies (Bryce). 85. 
Modern Social Movements (Zimand), 

Mond, Sir Alfred, 234. 
Monroe Doctrine (ill), 83. 
Montana farmers, 426. 
Monthly Labor Review, 358, 447. 
Mooney, Fred, 181. 
Moore, C. B., A demonstration 

school. 211. 
Moore, Naomi, 897. 
Morals Court, 432. 
Mordell, Albert, 410. 
Morel de Villiers, 573. 
Morgan, Gov. E. F., 181. 
Morrow, J. D. A. (portrait), 1041. 

Moscow, drama, 276. 

Moses, 840. 

Mosher, A. M., Fitting girls and jobs, 

Mosher, W. E., 437. 

Inefficiency of public servants. 796. 

Unemployment committees (letter), 

Adopted mothers, 962. 

New York State and, 881. 

Platform of organized, 750. 
Motion pictures. 

Children in, 471. 

Immigrant story, 957. 

Long Island center, 763. 

Mining safety films, 610. 

New York commission, 741. 
Moyer, J. A., 57. 
Muck-Lamberty, 493. 
Mumford, Lewis, Reeducating the 

worker, 567. 
Mundella, A. J., 556. 
Munich, child welfare, 472. 
Municipal Research, New York Bu- 
reau, 60. 
Murphy, J. P., 433, 470, 608. 
Murray, Gilbert, 390. 
Murray, Philip, 202. 
Muscle Shoals, 764. 
Myers, Edgar, 471. 
Mysticism. Freudianism and Scientific 

Psychology (Dunlap), 85. 
Mystics, modern, 272. 

Naidu, Sarojini, To India (verse), 

Nansen, Fridtjof, 535. 
Narcotic Drug League, 718. 
Narcotics, 610. 
Nash clothing factory, 951. 
Nason, W. C, 637. 
Natl. Conf. of Social Work, pub- 
lished report, 773. 
Natl. Council for the Limitation of 

Armaments, 741. 
Natl. Council on Limitation of Arma- 
ment, 69. 
Natl. Information Bureau, 553. 
Natl. Institute of Public Administra- 
tion, 60, 610. 
National Rip Saw (magazine), 806. 
Natl. Women's Party, 20. 
Nationalism (Gooch), 253. 
Naturalization, 815. 

Cartoon by Cesare, 814. 

Establishing one's status, 960. 

System, 863. 
Naval holiday, workers' jobs and, 393. 
Naval limitation, 269. 
Naval program, Newport News and, 

Navy Department, protest of dis- 
charged yard employes, 781. 
Near East Relief, 22. 
Negro pantomime, 275. 

Alabama attitude (letter), 256. 

Buffalo, 118. 

Children, 937. 

Kingsley House, Pittsburgh, 794. 

Libraries (letters), 125. 

Library at Atlanta, 54, 55. 

New England, 782. 

Open Door (pantomime), 259. 

Pioneers, Colorado,) 556. 
Neighbors — a back porch department, 
699, 741, 773, 805, 864, 904, 937, 
New Bedford, Mass., Central Council, 

New Hampshire Farm Bureau, 633. 
New Haven. 

Boys, 632. 

Yale Univ. arid. 762. 
New Homes for Old (Breckinridge), 

New Jersey. 

Chamber of Commerce report on 
industrial relations, 799. 

Labor Department work, 596. 
New Labor Outlook, The (Williams), 

New Mexico. 

County health officer, 220. 

Court ruling on sedition law, 476. 
New Orleans. 

.Country Life Conf., 376. 

Survey, 946. 
New World (periodical), 805. 
New World of Islam, The (Stoddard), 

New Year, Ark of the (cartoon), 536. 
New York (city). 

City Hall park, 765. 

Hospitals, 392. 

Milk strike, 240. 

New pay clinic, 202. 

Placement of handicapped workers, 

Port plans, 881. 

Printing wages, 424. 

School buildings, sanitary condi- 
tions, 368. 

School children's health, 368. 

Street soliciting, 553. 

Teachers' Union, 57. 
New York (state) 

Children in jail, 279. 



e x 

Conservation, 236. 

Constitutional amendments to be 
voted on, 102. 

Immigrant education, 125. 

Industrial disputes, bills, 786, 937. 

Judicial system, 586. 

Literacy test for voters, 203. 

Maternity Act and, 881. 

Mental disease, 896. 

Radio news service, 904. 

Road building, 610. 

Veteran preference, 20. 

Workmen's compensation law, 577. 
New York Ass'n for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, 499, 924, 
925, 103. 
New York Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search, 60, 610. 
New York Evening Post, 101. 
New York Magdalen House, 249, 433. 
New York School of Social Work, 252. 
New York Times, on the release of 

Debs, 556. 
New Zealand, 525. 

Newport News and the naval pro- 
gram, 494. 

Milwaukee, 793. 

Ohio, 793. 

Experiences with editors, 791. 

Pressmen's strike, 929. 
Niedermair, Hans. 

Children's courts in Russia, 278. 

Marriage and maternity in new 
Russia, 47. 
Nineteen Points, 586. 
Non-cooperation, 674, 678. 
Non- Partisan League, 358. 
Non-Partisan League, The (Bruce), 

Non-resistance, 18, 674. 
Normalcy, back to (cartoon), 356. 
North Carolina credit unions, 234. 
North Dakota. 

Labor press on election results, 438. 

Recall election, 358. 
Nowell, first (ill.), 449. 
Noyes, C. D., on nursing, 570. 

Indians with smallpox, 897. 

Michigan and public health nurses, 

Oklahoma, 50. 

St. Louis, 573. 

School nurse (chart), 573. 

Sub-nurse, 570. 
Nutrition, 368. 

Univ. chair of, 60. 

Work in the schools, 50. 


Oakland, Recreation, survey, 635. 
Obregon, President, 16. 

Labor and, 20. 
Odum, H. W., 118. 

Cartoon, 780. 

Child street trades, 793. 

Court system, 134. 

Employer's liability, 577. 

Experiment in care of children, 277. 

Farmers' week, 802. 

Hancock County children's home, 

Health law, 618. 

Social waste in institutions, 104. 

Unemployment, 798. 

Better cities campaign, 447. 

Nurses, 50. 

Public Health Conf., 379. 

Teacher's position, 784. 
Olin, R. M., 898. 
O'Malley, Power. 

Irish scene (ill.), 327. 

Irish types (paintings), 307-310. 
Oneida Indians, 218. 
Ontario, child legislation, 472. 
Open Door (Negro pantomime), 275. 
Open Shop in the packing industry 

(letter from Swift & Co.), 224. 
Opffer (cartoonist), 413. 
Optimist, an (cartoon), 748. 
Oregon minimum wage briefs wanted, 

Organ grinders, 969. 
Organization, the, of the Boot and 
Shoe Industry in Massachusetts 
(Hazard), 82. 
Orient cruise and the Survey, 773. 
O'Ryan, J. F., Washington and the 

next war, 271. 
Osborn, R. W., Tuberculosis in Port- 
land, Ore., 219. 
Osgood, E. L., Case Number 83, 730. 
Otlet, Paul, 390, 391. 
Out of Their Own Mouths (Gompers 

and Walling), 82. 
Outlines of Public Finance (Hunter), 

Output, limitation of individual, 883. 
Outspoken Essays (Inge), 638. 
Overhead, 600. 
Owings, Chloe, 577. 

Pacific island, 525, 755. 
Pacific problems — Japan and white 
people, 172. 

Pacifism in Germany (letter), 444. 
Packing industry, 248. 

Communication from Swift & Co., 

Earnings (letter from Swift & Co.), 

Strike, 389. 

Two sides of the controversy (let- 
ters of Weld and Saposs), 604. 
Paddon, M. E., 433 

Halfway house for Magdalens, 249. 
Paddy the Cope, 327. 

America'* Making, 203. 
Community plans, 275. 
Administration, 458. 
University nucleus (ills.), 459. 
Palo Alto, Cal., Community Commis- 
sion, 636. 
Pam, Judge Hugo, 738. 
Pan-Amer. Conf. of Women, program, 

- 259. 
Pan-Islamism, 375. 
Pan-Pacific Conf. on Education, 214. 
Panama Canal, rats, 368. 
Parent, The, and the Child (Cope), 

Parenthood, 22. 
Parisian children, effect of the war, 

Parole and probation, 430. 
Parsons, H. C, 430. 

City mother, 599. 
Community players, 274. 
Passive resistance, 678. 
Patent medicines, 220. 
Patina, 617. 
Patrick, M. M., Social conditions in 

Constantinople, 557. 
Patriotism and the Super-State 

(Stocks), 253. 
Patterson, C. H., Libraries for Ne- 
groes (letter), 125. 
Patterson, Margaret, 741. 
Paulsen, Wilhelm, 369. 
Pay clinics, 202. 
Pay day (ill.), 830. 
Payne, J. B., portrait and note, 71. 
Peabody, F. G., 275. 
Peabody, Mrs. G. F. (Katrina Trask), 

Peace and bread (Addams), 527, 659, 

741, 842. 
Peace exhibition at Tokyo, 413. 
Pearson, Sir Arthur, 447. 
Peet, W. M.. 413. 
Peking: A Social Survey (Gamble), 

Pellervo, 669. 

Pennsylvania birth control conf., 803. 
Pennsylvania R. R. 

Portraits of power makers (Hine), 

Portraits of workers (Hine), 159- 
Penology, books of Z. Brockway, 751. 

Czechoslovakia, 781. 
Widowers, Canada, 793. 
People (Hamp), 91. 
People, voice of the (social studies), 

Periodicals, publicity departments 

(letter), 771. 
Periodicals of German youth move- 
ments (ills.), 491. 
Perry, C. A., 637. 
Personality, socialized, 241. 
Peru, compulsory education, 125. 
Peter, W. W., on health education in 

China, 367. 
Peter Points the Way (film story), 


Death ward (with ill.), 467. 
Industrial district, 835. 
Phelps-Stokes Fund, 460. 
Contributions to social agencies, 251. 
Crime, 719. 
Unemployment, 620. 
Visiting teachers, 56. 
Welfare campaign, 250. 
Welfare federation, 591. 
Philanthropies, federated, 80. 
Philippines, child welfare, 964. 
Phillips, E. A., Two sonnets, 726. 
Physical education, universal. 617. 
Physicians, rural shortage, 899. 
Piccadilly, 794. 
Picketing, 597. 

Divisions, 558. 
Pioneers, Negro, 556. 

Labor meeting, notice, 476. 

Police, 201. _ 

Public charities, 610. 

Steel strike silence (quotation from 

report), 104. 
Streets and Citizens' Committee, 

Unemployment, 621. 
Pittsburgh, Univ. of, Demonstration 

Schools. 211. 
Pittsburgh Survey, 185. 
Placing out, 963. 

Planning boards, Massachusetts conf., 

Play, teaching, in France, 783. 
Playgrounds, Harmon Foundation 

and, 358. 
Plays, books on, 84. 
Plunkett, Sir Horace. 

Message of the farmers of Ireland, 

Personal, 289. 

Trying out a motor plow (ill.), 319. 
Poetry, 410. 

Labor poets, 399. 
Lindsay, 73. 
See also Verse. 
Poetry Society of America, 699. 
Polakov, W. N., 456. 
Police, Pittsburgh, 201. 
Policy, The, of the United States as 
Regards Intervention (Martin), 
Polish children's diariei, 794. 
Polish Peasant, The, in Europe and 
America (Thomas and Znaniecki), 
Political prisoners, 453, 806. 
Relief, 38. 
Still in jail, 946. 
Politics, Institute of, criticism of 

Survey's report (letter), 61. 
Pollock, H. M., 896. 
Poor man's court, 767. 
Popular Government (Hall), 124. 
Popular Misgovernment in the United 

States (Cruikshank), 58. 
Portland, Ore. 

City planning, 763. 
Tuberculosis, 218. 
Ports, social conditions, 265, 359. 
Post Office Dept., humanizing, 434. 
Postal savings, 969. 
Posters of the Russian famine, 531. 
Potato digger (ill.), 313. 
Pound, Roscoe, 132, 143. 

Criminal justice in the American 
city, 149, 332. 
Pour et'Par'la Terre (Boret), 406. 
Poverello, II (play), 699. 

Fighting against, 925. 
Some factors, 79. 
Poverty and Dependency (Gillin). 473. 
Povertv and Its Vicious Circles 

(Hurry), 800. 
Powell, P. O., 793. 
Power makers (work portraits by L. 

W. Hine), 511-518. 
Practical Psychology and Psychiatry 

(Burr), 85. 
Pratt, A. B., 433, 470, 729. 

Juvenile court (letter), 442. 
Prevention. 571. 
Price, C. W., 8. 
Prices, 75, 757. 

Chart of, 1790-1917, 6. 

Federal investigation of retail. 642. 

Index prices and cost of living 

(letters), 442. 
Stee), 78. 
Wages and, 76. 
Prince George county, Md., 251, 902. 
Principles of Government Accounting 

and Reporting (Oakley), 440. 
Printing industry. 
Arbitration, 69. 
Wage award, 924. 
Wages (letter), 607. 
Prison officers, training, 947. 
Prison reform. 
Belgium, 888. 
Wave, 883. 
Prison yard (ill.), 883. 

Christmas gifts for, 453. 
See also Political prisoners. 

Children in, 279. 

Industries, survey planned for New 

York, 642. 
Reform (letter), 607. 
Probation and parole, 430. 
Producing Amateur Entertainments 

(Ferris), 84. 

Cooperative, 77. 

Wages and, replies from economists, 

Workers' share, 927. 
Production industrielle et justice so- 

ciale en Amerique (Cestre), 90. 
Profit-sharing, British agriculture, 125. 
Profits, 364. 

Cartoon by Van Loon, 268. 
Compelling by law (social studies), 

Fair distribution of wealth (social 
studies), 779. 
Progressive Political Action, Conf., 

Attitude toward, 476. 
Missionaries for, 751. 
Ridiculing, 610. 

Washington conference of Anti- 
Saloon League Workers' Council, 

Property-valuei, 761. 

Prostitution, 217, 571. 

Prostitution in the United States 

(Woolston), 638. 
Providence, R. I., getting and giving, 

Psalms, The, of a Naturalized Amer- 
ican (Baghdigian), 800. 
Psychiatry, 598. 
Psychoanalysis, Sleep and Dreams 

(Tridon), 85. 
Psychological Corporation, 882. 
Phychologist, 393. 
Psychology, The, of Adolescence 

(Tracy), 85. 
Psychology, The, of Persuasion (Mac- 

Pherson), 603. 
Psychology, The, of Thought and 

Feeling (Piatt), 85. 
Public health. 

Benefits of the movement, 899. 
Pioneer (Stephen Smith), 106. 
See also U. S. Public Health Ser- 
Public health administration, 51. 
Public Health Ass'n, centennial, 377. 
Public libraries, 937. 
Public Opinion and the Steel Strike. 

Quotation from on Silence in 

Pittsburgh, 104. 
Public service, training women for, 

Public taste, 274. 
Public workers, 796. 
Public works and the unemployed, 


Adventures in, 791. 
Milwaukee committee, 784. 
Publicity departments (letter), 771. 
Puckett, H. W., Socialists in German 

education, 369. 
Pushcart publisher. 447. 


Quakers. See Friends. 
Questionnaires, rules needed for 
ter), 804. 






R 0,t 

K Via, 

Raby, R. C, Remedial Loan Asarl 

convention, 223. ~,' 

Race deterioration, 22. 

Racial unrest (social studies), 67 

Radiophone, 948. 

Railroad Labor Board, 247 

Railroaders, work portraits (L. 

Hine), 159 


British features of reorganiza 


Northwestern and the casua 

borer, 101. 

Passing of the strike threat, 20 

Strike announced, 102. 

Strike collapse, press comment, 

Struggle of managers and un 


Wage reduction claim, 246 

Wages, 78. 

Women employes (letter), 256 

Railway councils, British, 885 

Rand (So. Afr.) strike, 945. 

Rand, Helen, Community ide; 

plied, 633. 

Rand School opening, 21. 

Ratcliffe, S. K., Sastri and G; 


Rational Education, The, of the 

(Levy), 603. 


Canal Zone, 368. 

Jaundice and, 617. 

Rauh, Mrs. Enoch, 610. 

Readings in Evolution, Genetic 

Eugenics (Newman), 403. 

Real Democracy in Operation 

jour), 123. 

Real estate, suburban values, 76 

Real Wealth of Nations, The (H 



Cooperation in, 916. 

Oakland survey, 635. 

See also Play. 

Recruiting for social work, 422 

Red Cross. 

Aliens, 52. 

Baltimore, 601. 

Budget and Roll Call, 252. 

China, 610. 

European operations, report, 

Ex-service men, 80. 

First nat'l convention, 71. 

Harding, W. G., on, 424. 

Roll call, 267. 

Toledo, O., 433. 

Red Cross Courier, 642. 

Red Cross Juniors (frieze, ill.),i 


Reed, E. F., Public worki I 

unemployed, 593. 

Registered Acquaintance Club, 

Remedial Loan Ass'ns, annual 

vention, 223 

Reports, 410. 

Restaurants in New York, tippkj 

system, 795. |n 








Holland, socu 



Revolution (Beresford), 91. Satellite cities, term, 577. 

Reynolds, Franklin, Confessions of a Sayre, F. B., Picketing deciiiom, 558. 

school teacher, 210. Scharrenberg, Paul, 208, 209. 

Reynolds Mrs. P. R., 791. Scheu-Riesz, Helene, Intellectual fam- 

Rheiras, 764. ine, 566. 

Rhode Island, Boy Scouts, 632. Schevitz, Jules. 

Rhode Island Foundation, 768. Nurses in Oklahoma, 50. 

Rice, Mrs. Wm. B., 476, 864. Oklahoma Public Health Conf., 379. 

Ripley, W. Z., Longshore, 859. Schneider, G. L., 765. 

Rising Generation, The (play), 717. School and community, S3, 210, 369, 

Risk, Uncertainty and Profit 565, 727, 891. 

(Knight), 82. Schorol doctor, chart, 573. 

Ritzhaupt, Adam, 493. 
Road workers (ills.), 833. 
Robinson, J. H., 387. 
Robinson, L. N., Prison reform (let- 
ter), 607. 
Rochester surrey, 925. 
Rockefeller, J. D., Jr., 216, 532. 
Rockefeller industrial plan, 390. 
"omance, The, of Child Reclamation 
(Spielman), 602. 

osenthal Rural Schools Fund, 904 
-oss, E. A., 819. 
'Ross, M. I., Massachusetts' planning 

boards, conf., 223. 
iRoubaix-Tourcoing, 394. 
Roumania, 60. 
Rousseau, Victor, 486. 
doutzahn, E. G., 784. 
Lowell, C. H. 

Insular possession, an, 525. 

Japan and the kin of Balboa, 172. 
lowley, Richard. 

Personal, 289. 

Ulster's position, 299. 
^owntree, B. S., 751. 

Future of industry, 362. 
loyden, A. M., 969. 
:ural Community Organization 

(Hayes), 475. 
ural hospital, 899. 
ural problem, in Appalachia, 845. 
iUssell, G. W. 

Irish anticipations, 291. 

Personal, 289. 
rtrait, 293 

School nurse, chart, 573. 
School of the Theater, new, 274. 
Schoolmasters (cartoon), 751. 
As youth would have it, 727. 
Forums and discussion, control. 

Medical inspection in Milan, 794. 
New York City, buildings and chil- 
dren's health, 368. 
Nutrition work. 50. 
Open-air, 573. 
School counselors, 729. 
Self-made town, school building in 

(cartoon), 944. 
Some who left school, 892. 
Teaching social justice, 391. 
Schools with a Message in India 

(Fleming), 27. 
Schuyler, Louisa Lee (with portrait), 

Scott, Charles, Jr., 259. 
Scrap heap at Newport News, 495. 
Seafarers' Education Service, 752. 
Seager, H. R., Income in the United 

States, 270. 
Books for, 398. 
Furuseth and the radicals, 207. 
Y. M. C. A. for, 601. 
Sedition laws, 476. 

Self-Government and the Bread Prob- 
lem (Petavel), 124. 
Self-government in India, 18. 
Senators in W. Virginia, 23. 

IllOll, ti S sJ . WX-UUbV* j iu u , w »■ g, HI 1(1 , _ ,j . 

\ell., H. L., Burned corn and idle Senior, Mary, Thirsty babies, 240. 

kcres, 686. Serbia, child welfare, 472. 

til Sage library, 751. Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Kingdom 

ia. of, 122. 

)sence at Washington Conf., 205. Settlements. 

inerican relief, 455. Boys and, 630. 

IA. R. A. in, 22. Diagnostic clinic for boys, 961. 

(peals from, 534. Educational, 562. 

(ildren's courts, 278. Sex delinquency courts, 432. 

jnsolidating relief, 265. Sex relations in Germany, 492. 

(operative Agricultural Instruc- Seyfert, E. W., 618 

)ors, 904. 
(mine poster, 531. 
Hod drafts, 202. 
<irriage and maternity, 47. 

lef and supplies, 720. 

>ke of burning grain (cartoon), 

Shantung flood, 266. 
Shaw, S. A. 

5:5:3 in terms of Newport News, 

Hitting the trail in industry, 951. 
Shawnee, Okla., 447. 
Sheffield, A. E., Clue-aspects in social 

ilus army stores for relief of, „ case work, 241 
19. Sheila, Little (ill.), 307. 

hnique of relief, 561. 
persity professors, 609 

n Famine Fund, 265, 531, 535. 
to revolution, 527. 
is, new publication for, 227. 
T., Education for success, 


Sheppard, H. R L., 599. 
Sheppard-Towner Act, 357. 
a community "drama in Lon- „, In J SIew York sta te, 881. 
.n, 276. Sheriffs, deputy, type, 139. 

■e\<_: — -c-.—j />zrc !••>, p,p Sherman, C. B., To market to mar 

ket, 623. 

Conditions (letter), 803. 
Newport News, 494. 
Workers, 393. 
Shishkoff, Nicholas, 534. 
Shop organization, 246. 
Shortridge, S. M., 23, 177. 
Siberia, 205. 
Sibley, J. L., Progress in Georgia, 

Sierras, nursing in the, 897. 
Sigrist, Salomon, Labor and sorrow 

(? etchings), 827-834. 
Simplicissimus, cartoon from, 39. 
Sinn Fein Parliament, first "public 
session" (ill.), 298. 

Vanzetti case. 
Bl of new trial, 556. 
ign sympathy, 237. 
r from Joseph Lee, 444. 
. letters, 737. 
ws (ill.), 829. 
b draped in red (ill.), 310. 
[ Union of the Pacific, 207. 
,ir. Gen. Arthur, 134. 

nat'l Institute of the Y. W. Skeffington, H. S. 

Personal, 289. 
Torch-bearers, the, 296. 
Skulls showing progress (cartoon), 

Sleszynski, Thaddeus, 60. 
Smallpox among Indians, 897. 
Smillie, Robert, sketch (with por- 
trait), 1030. 
of Civilization Smith, Marshall D. 

Smaller families (letter), 902. 
Unemployment (letter), 804. 
Smith, R. Heber, 141, 143. 
Ad tonio flood, 45. „ Bar adopts legal aid,_81. 

c, 279. 
« 'r. Rene, 60, 734. Smith-Gordon, Lionel. 

ur g, Carl, 976. Economic consequences of Irish 

;s of Henry Stephens (verse). freedom, 313. 

Personal, 289. 
Smith-Towner bill, 53. 
Smith & Kaufmann, 246. 
Smoke nuisance, 782. 
Snyder, G. W., on education, 216. 
Social agencies. 

Central councils, 624, 724. 
Joint finance, 591. 
Types, 924. 

Washington (state) Federation, 768. 
Social-economic research fellowships. 

A., 958. 
ing, 573. 

1 and religious survey, 720. 
iployment, 621. 
rtin's-in-the-Fields, 598. 
)hia, 147, 148. 
Ohio, 577. 
|. S., 233, 413. 
, g i n g, The, 
■ells), 222. 
', 534. 

,tonio flood, 45. — • — „ r .. a .^ B „. =, u , „, 

children's mental Smith, Dr. Stephen, 377. 

As pioneer in public health, 106. 

Mrs. Margaret, 113, 267. 
r;r. Marc, 235. 
f Committee, 750. 
Barbara, 433. 
Domingo, 41. 
, D. J. 
tter in reply to Swift & Co. on 
„ packing industry, 604. 
)fits at Swift's (letter), 934. 
Srinivasa, Gandhi the man, 

Social Helps Aspects of the Jewish 
Colonies of South Jersey (Gold- 
stein), 88. 
Social History, A, of the American 

Negro (Brawlcy), 966. 
Social hygiene, 571. 

Inwood House, 249, 433. 
Sign posts, 217. 
Social interpretation, 184, 185. 
Social Mission, The, of Charity 

. (Kerby), 439. 
Social organization, 923. 
Social Organization in Parishes 

(Garesche), 280. 
Social service. 
Literature, 410. 
Medical, 734, 899. 
Publicity committee, 784. 
Trends, 252, 432, 925. 
Social studies, 4, 35, 67, 99 194 igo 
231, 263, 287, 355, 387, 419 451 
546, 551, 583, 615, 704 715 747' 
„ .779, 871, 879, 911 943. 977. 
Social work. 

As a profession, 422. 

Books, 85. 

Holland school, 431. 

Organization publications, new 

Recruiting for, 422. 
Swiss school, 431. 
Social workers 

Catholic priests and, 600. 
Colleges and, 601. 
Conf. at Covington, Tenn., 609. 
£rror in organization, 923. 
George, W. L., on, 585. 
Socialist Party, 21. 
Socialists and German education, 369 
Socialization test, 249. 
Socialized personality, 241. 
Sociology, practical (letter), 738 
sociology and Ethics (Hayes), 92. 
S. O. K., 672. 
Soldiers, disabled, 503. 

Christmas remembrance, 447 
Soldiers bonus. 
State bonuses, 914. 
War pensions in disguise, 913. 
Solenberger, E. D., 969. 
Solicitors, worthless, 553 
Soot, 782. 
Soul, The, of an Immigrant (Pa- 

nunzio), 473. 
South Africa, miners' strike, 945. 
South America, health progress, 572. 
South Bend, Ind., 937. 
South Dakota, Huterisch people, 519. 
South End Troubadours, 275. 
Special libraries handbook, 215 
Speybrouck, Joseph, 664, 665, 666 

Speyer, Leonora, Signal-fire (verse), 
510. " 

Spies. See Labor spies. 
Spinning wheel, 18, 645, 698. 
Springfield, Mass., Negro population, 

Stabilizing demand, 642. 
Standardized world, 215. 
■ Star-Child, The, and Other Plays 
(Benton), 84. 
Stark, S. L., Nationalization of the 

land in Esthonia, 465. 
Starvation of children (ill.), 783. 
State, The, and Government (Dea- 
_ ley), 58. 

State Charities Aid Ass'n, 864. 
States, health administration, 51 
Statesmen, utility (social studies), 

Stearns, A. W., 432. 
Stearns, Harold, 702. 
Stecker, M. L., Index prices and the 

cost of living (letter), 442. 
Steel industry 

Blanket of silence in Pittsburgh 
(quotation from steel report") 
104. ' 

Final reports of Inter-Church Com- 
mission, 40. 
War prices, 78. 
Steinmetz, C. P., 976. 

The white revolution, 1035. 
Stella, Joseph, 15. ' 

Stephen, Alexander, 399. 
Stephens, Henry, Sayings (verse), 

Stephens, James. 

Ireland returning to her fountains. 

Personal, 289. 

Portrait, 341. 
Sterner, Albert, 700, 701. 
Steward, L. C, 246. 
Stewart, W. W., 927. 
Stockholders, 532. 
Stockyards, 76. 
Stokes, I. N. Phelps, 476. 

Rejoinder to Mr. Ackerman, 461. 
Stopes, Marie C, 113. 
Story of Chautauqua (Hurlburt), 26 
Straight, Mrs. Willard D., 476 
Strecker, E. A., 432. 
Street car tracks, laying (ill.), 828. 
Street collections, 553. 
Strike deputation (ill.), 822. 
Strike pickets (ill.), 834. 

-prospect, 105, 973- 


Coal industry- 

Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 390 
Colorado law, 248. 
France, 394. 

Ladies' Garment Workers, 454. 
New York, milk, 240. 
Packing industry, 389. 
Railroad, announcement, 102. 
Railroad— passing of the storm, 

«' g ^u *° " rike . New York bill, 786 
South African miners. 945 

Student bank, 949. 

Student Disarmament Conference 719 

stud s > ;ud , ies): t 4 worth * hiie? <•<«& 

t tU l" deVa w' J a- B V H y mn 0{ '°ve, 116. 
Style r s ' W. A. L. Child welfare in 

Canada (letter), 737. 
Subotniki, 839. 
Success and education, 728 
Successful Family Life on the Mod- 

erate Income (Abel), 404. 
Sugar-beet growers, 684 
Suggestion and Autosuggestion (Bau- 

douin), 85. \"au 

Suicide in Massachusetts. 432 
Sullenger, T. E., 784 

Sull ' t V le n '609 D -' Th °"«h thou be lit- 

Summer camp exhibit, 773 
Summitville, Ind., 633 
Survey, The. 

Name, 185. 

New cover, 101. 

Orient crime and, 773. 
Survey Associates, 184. 

Annual statement by the Editor 
Section II of November 19 issue' 
Survey Graphic, 131 184 

Chicago jail, 945. 
-Oakland, Cal., 635. 

St. Louis, 720. 

Southern municipal, 946 
Swaraj, 18, 674. 

Swartz, Nelle, and Edith Hilles, 
Women workers in the 5 and 10, 

Sweatshops, 70. 
Swift & Co. 

Double policy, 248 

^Kr 3 ). ^ 6 PaCkiDg iDdUStry 

Letter (per L. D. H. Weld) on the 
packing industry, 604. 

Lettter to the Survey, 224. 

Profits (letter), 932. 
Swiss etchings, 827-834. 
Swiss national festival (ill.), 526 

Child welfare, 472. 

Lessons in democracy (ills.), 958 

Social school, 431. 

Welfare work, 752. 
Sykes, George, 588. 

Sym (Stre y et): n 9 d 3 SyStCm ta Gi ™« 

Syrian folklore, "146, 508. 

Syrian stories, 840. 

Szold, Robert, The check-off, 360. 

Ta Chen, 266. 
Tacoma, 968. 
Taft, Jessie, 470. 
Talbert, George, 181. 
Talbot, Homer, 969. 
Talley, Judge Alfred, 392. 
Tarkington, Booth, 274. 
Taylor, Graham. 

Marriage, 413. 
Taylor, G. M., on education, 216 
Taylor, J. Will, 265. 
Taylor, Mrs., 699. 
Teacher, The (Pearson), 93. 

Confessions of a school teacher, 

Oklahoma Survey, 784. 

Visiting, 56, 70. 
Teachers' Union, New York city, 57. 
Team play, 250. 
Team-work (ills.), 433. 
Teeth of New York school children. 

Teller, S. A., 104. 
Templecrone, 327. 
Tenements, model, 460, 917. 
Tenney, Mrs. S. E., 476. 
Textile industry, step toward unifica- 
tion, 102. 
Theater. See Drama. 
Theis, S. V. S., 963. 
Theories of Americanization (Berk- 
son), 965. 
Theresa, N. Y., 899. 
Theunissen, 978. 
Thomas, A. J., 460, 461, 476. 
Thomas, Edward, Publicity for indus- 

trial management (letter), 224. 
Thompson, Rev. Wm. H., 637. 
Three Soldiers (Dos Passos), 221. 
Thrift Week, 577. 
Thurston, II . \Y. 
Is the juvenile court passing? 119. 



Juvenile court (letter), 442. 

Tilton, Elizabeth, Prohibition (letter), 

Timber depletion, 413. 

Time Study and Job Analysis 
(Lichtner), 574. 

Tipping system, study, 795. 

Tired Radicals (Weyl), 439. 

Tobey, J. A., Public health adminis- 
tration, 51. 

Fighting strength, (with diagram), 

Injunction against, 39. 
Leaders and program, 1026. 
Step in constructive organization of 

coal industry, 359. 
West Virginia troubles, 202. 
U. S. Public Health Service, 741. 
Changes proposed and opposed, 587. 
Pamphlets on industrial hygiene, 49. 

Tokyo, peace exhibition project. 413. g; f ^^^ration 179. 247. 265 
^Newsboys, 793. ... K™"- (K>ce), 700. 

Poor man's court, 767. 
Red Cross campaign, 433. 
Too much of everything, 583. 
Town Parson, The (Green), 280. 
Town survey — Webster Groves, Mo., 

Towne, A. W., 80S, 937. 
Toy makers, 499. 
Trachtenberg, Alexander, 21. 
Trade Union Congress, 24. 
Trade Union Educational League, 915. 
Trade Unionism and Labor Problems 

— Second Series (Commons), 93. 
Trade unions. 
Germany, 789. 
Militants, 915. 
Unlimited output, 883. 
See also Unionism. 
Tratte comparatif des nationalities, 

vol. 1 (Gennep), 639. 
Transportation workers, 159. 
Transvaal strike of miners, 945. 
Trask, Katrina (Mrs. G. F. Peabody), 

Traus, Edouard. " Three eights " in 

Belgium, 435. 
Trautschold, Reginald, Fire lossei 

(letter), 61. 
Travail industriel, Le, aux Etats- 

Unis, 800. 
Treaties, lost, 785. 
Tri City Trades Council, 559. 
Triple alliance, new, 882. 
Tryon. F. G., 976. 
Tryon, F. G., and W. F. McKenney, 
The broken year of the bitumin- 
ous miner, 1009. 

Christmas seal poster, 219. 
Indians and, 218. 
Portland, Ore., 219. 
Sleszynski's work, 60. 
Taxes and, 587. 
Tuberculosis and How to Combat It 

(Pottenger), 404. 
Turkey, 557. 
Turkish boys, 632. 
Turner, E. S., 483. 
Toy makers, 499. 
Typographical Union No. 6, 69, 424. 
Tyson, F. D., Conference of Ass'n for 

Labor Legislation, 641. 
Tyson, H. G., Birth control, Pennsyl- 
vania conf., 803. 

Ubbelohde, Otto, 449. 
Ulster, 299. 

Unemployed, public works for, 59J. 
Unemployment, 865, 890. 
As waste, 436. 
Association for Labor Legislation, 

Beating out, 798. 
Casuals of the Northwest, 101. 
Child labor and (social studies), 

Committees (letter), 935. 
Compensation and prevention, 5. 
Conference's emergency relief pro- 
gram adopted at Washington, 

Sept. 30, 42, 43. 
Considerations (letter), 804. 
Education of the unemployed, 556. 
England, 71. 

Family welfare agencies and, 79. 
Germany, 463. 
Government and, 246. 
Harding on, 21. 
Massachusetts relief, 805. 
Relief: 1922, 619. 
Sea Breeze, Staten Island, and A. 

I. C. P., 103. 
South Bend, Ind., 937. 
Van Deventer, J. H., on, 247. 
World over, 720. 
Unemployment (social studies), 35. 
Unemployment Conf. 
Attitude of tome members, 107. 
Correspondence on Mr. Hoover's 

Hand (Mallery 

Labor press comment, 438. 
Measures arising from, 427. 
Recommendations adopted Oct 17, 

Unemployment insurance, 363. 

Delaware 4 Hudson Co. plan, 596. 
Dennison's, 595. 
Unionism, 364, 532. 
Alabama, 248. 
Legality of unions, 39. 
Nee also Trade Unions. 
United Mine Workers, 721. 
Appeal, 750. 
Check-off system, 360. 
Convention at Indianapolis, 105. 

University control, 565. 

Responsible, 894. 
University, The, in Overalls (Fitz- 

patrick), 27. 
Unrest, racial (social studies), 67. 
Untermyer, Samuel, 586. 
Upjohn, Anna M. 

Frieze of Red Cross Juniors (ill.), 
Upson, L. D., 798. 
Uruguay, child welfare, 122. 

Vaccination, 447. 
Letter on, 804. 
Michigan, 898. 
Parents' rights and, 718. 
Valentine, John, Of the second gen- 
eration, 956. 
Van Deventer, J. H., 247. 
Van Gogh, Vincent, 883. 
Van Loon, H. W., 975. 

Americanization (cartoon), 552. 
Ark of the New Year (cartoon), 

Back to normalcy (cartoon), 356. 
Book as a beacon (cartoon), 388. 
Cartoon on progress of man criti- 
cized (letter and reply), 606. 
Coal industry drawings, 980-985. 
Cumbered about much serving (car- 
toon), 780. 
Fear as man's only enemy (car- 
toon), 716. 
Holy night, 1921 (cartoon), 452. 
Loose leaves from history (car- 
toon), 912. 
Optimist (cartoon), 748. 
Personal, 413. 
Progress (cartoon), 268. 
Self-made town, school building 

(cartoon), 944. 
Smoke of burning grain (cartoon), 

Strange wind that does not blow 
someone out of business (car- 
toon), 420. 
Why not stop it altogether? car- 
toon), 616. 
Vassar College. 

Disarmament sentiment, 904. 
Vocational conference, 886. 
Vaughn, M. E., Community education 

at Berea, 728. 
Venereal diseases. 

Alabama law (letter), 737. 
Examination (letter), 803. 
Massachusetts campaign, 252. 
Vers la vie (ill.), 486. 

Carol of the famished children 

(Calkins), 468. 
Case work themes (Woodberry), 

Circle, The (Lewis), 577. 
Diet, 773. 

Dom Polski (Mackinnon), 429. 
Fair Hills of Erie O (Colum), 294. 
Fires (Gibson), 1000. 
Forgiveness (Davies), 14. S 

Gift, The (Benjamin), 790. 
Hymn of love (Sturdevant), 116. 
In this I find solace (Harris), 158. 
New generation, the (Jennings), 

Sayings of Henry Stephens (Sand- 
burg), 1044. 
Signal -fire (Speyer), 510. 
To India (Naidu), 676. 
To Ireland in the coming times 

(Yeats), 304. 
Two sonnets (Phillips), 726. 
Voice from the bread line (Mat- 
thews), 889. 
Woman of three cows (Mangan), 
Veteran Preference, Committee 

against, 20. 
Veterans, 70. 

Conf. of disabled, 773. 
and Chenery), Vets' camp, 503. 

Vickrey, C. V., 22. 
Vienna, 468. 

Brain workers (letter), 902. 
Children (ill), 844. 
Desperate need (with cartoon), 423. 
Visiting teachers, 56, 70. 
Vitamins, 368. 
Vocational guidance, 964. 

Pocket manual, 619. 
Voice of the people (social studies), 

Volga, appeals from, 531, 534. 
Volksdienst, 752. 
Volstead Act, 610. 
Voters, literacy test, 203. 
Vmlgarity, 274. 


Wages, 77. 

Craftsmanship and, 424. 
Coal industry, 911. 
Institutional workers, 437. 
Living costs and (letter), 607. 
Moral issue, 931. 
Prices and, 76. 

Printing industry (letter), 607. 
Production and, replies from econ- 
omists, 929. 
Railroads, 78. 

Workers' share in production, 927. 
Wagner, J. L., 969. 
Waite, Judge E. F., 122. 
Waiters' earnings, 795. 
Walburn, N. W., Home ownership ex- 
periment, 115. 
Walloons, 665. 

Expenditures in 1923, 741. 

Facts on disarmament, 212-213. 

Influenza and, 365. 

Washington Conf. and the next war, 

Why not stop it altogether? (car- 
toon), 616. 
War Finance Corporation, 681. 
War Memorial, German, 21. 
War orphans in Poland and Russia, 

War slogans, 527. 
Warbasse, J. P., 636. 
Warburg, P. M., Barking up th« 

wrong tree, 688. 
Wardwell, Allen, 265. 
Warriner, S. D. (portrait), 104. 
Washington '(state), Federation of So- 
cial Agencies, 768, 968. 
Washington, D. C, public opinion, 233. 
Washington Conf., 723. 
American program, 338. 
Dangerous stage, 361. 
Far Eastern factor, 395. 
Hughes proposals, 269. 
Next war and (address by J. F. 

O'Ryan), 271. 
Results, 754. 
Russia's absence, 205. 
Waste. . 

Industry, 77. 
Management, 456. 
Unemployment as waste, 436. 
Water-front workers, 859. 

Portraits by Hine, 851-858. 
Water polo, 507. 
Watertown, Wis., 633. 
Watson, A. E., Amer. Sociological 

Society, conference, 641. 
Weatherly, U. G., 816. 
Webster Groves, Mo., 619. 
Weekly Review, The, 101. 
Weindel, Henri, 390. 
Weiss, B. S., 471. 
Weld, L. D. H., letter on the packing 

industry, 604. 
Welfare federations, 591. 
Wellesley, Mass., 764. 
Welsh, William (portrait), 1028. 
West, G. P., Andrew Furuseth and 

the radicals, 207. 
West, J. E., Twelve years of boys. 

West Virginia. 

Black avalanche (coal mines), 1002. 
Breaking the miners, 887. 
Civil war in the coal fields, 177. 
Hearings in Washington on coal in- 
dustry, 202. 
Injunction against United Mint 

Workers, 39. 
Labor spy, 110. 
Miners in distress, 786. 
Senate committee report, 721. 
Senators' tour, 23. 
" Sonny " side, 630, 773. 
" Sonny " side of life — photographs 
by Hine, 628-629. 
Westchester Co., N. Y., 587. 
Child welfare, 791. 
Child Welfare Dept, 120. 
What Japan Thinks (Kawakami), 253. 
What Japan Wants (Kuno), 253. 
Wheat, bushel of, as standard of 

value, 715. 
Wheeler, Ruth, 60. 
White, W. A.. 215. 
White Cross, Irish, 326. 
White revolution (electricity), 1035. 
White-Williams Foundation, 56, 433, 

470, 729. 
Whitman, E. W., Some who left 

school, 892. 
Why not stop it altogether? (car- 
toon), 616. 
Wilhelmson, Carl, Migratory laborer 

in California (letter), 443. 
Williams, L. R., on nursing, 570. 
Williamstown, Mass., criticism of 

Survey's report (letter), 61. 
Wilson, Joseph Havelock, 610. 
Wilson, Woodrow. 
Policies, 659. 

Policies — article corrected, 741. 
Policies (letter), 803. 
Wind (cartoon), 420. 
Wing, D. L., 976. 

Economic aspects of the anthracite 
industry, 1016. 

Wings of Oppression, The (Hill), 966. 
Winnipeg, 44. 

Child welfare conference, 793. 
Winslow, C.-E. A., Brain workers of 

Vienna (letter), 902. 

Child labor laws, 245. 

Continuation schools, 895. 

Democratic participation, 236. 

Health church, 572. 

Huber bill, 5. 

Indians and tuberculosis, 218. 

Types of unemployed, 7. 
Wisconsin, Univ. of, women and so- 
cial service, 937. 
Wisehart, M. K., 142, 143. 

Boston Training School, 783. 

Citizenship manuals, 118. 

Egyptian, 913. 

Equal rights, 20. 

Hotel work, 947. 

International Conf., Geneva, 376. 

Legislation for, 357. 

Russia, 47. 

Suffrage, etc., in foreign lands, 60. 
Women in industry. 

Bryn Mawr Summer School, 372. 

Irish women and girls (ills.), 330, 

Workers in the 5 and 10, 244. 
Women's Educational and Industria' 

Union, 937. 
Women's International League fo 
Peace and Freedom, 811, 842. 

London home, 969. 
Wood, T. D., 573. 
Woodberry, L. G, Case work theme: 

(verse), 766. 
Woodcraft League, 632. 
Woods, E. A., Index prices and th 

cost of living (letter), 443. 
Woodsworth, J. S., Canada and th- 

A. F. of L., 44. 

Decorative panel in Brussels (ill.) 





Making it fascinating, 456. 
Work, Wealth and Wages 

lein), 800. 

Reeducating, 567. 
Share in production, 927. 
Unplaceable, 12. 
Workers' Defense Union, 453. 
Workers' High School, 37i 
Workers on railroads, 159. 
Working Out the Fisher Act (Y< 

lee), 26. 
Workmen's compensation. New Y 8 ' 

World, The, in Revolt (LeBon), r*.» 
World Tomorrow, 969. 
Worthington, G. E., 432 
Wright, H. C, Hospital 

0, 371. (|j 

ital plarfl 

the coming 

Yale University, 762. 

Yarros, V. S., Civic bodies and 

progress, 588. 
Yeats, J. B., drawings, 316. 

Personal, 289. 

Portrait, 34. 
Yeats, W. B. 

Portrait, 340. 

To Ireland in 

(verse), 304. 

Yeaxlee, B. A., 

ment, 562. 
Yokohama, 60. 

Yonkers, fellowship conferenc 
Young Girl's Diary, A, 638 
Y. M. C. A. 

Merchant seamen's branch in 
York, 601. 

New York working boys, 632 
Y. W. C. A. 

Grace Dodge Hotel, 266. 

St. Louis International Insi 
Youngstown, Ohio, 471. 

German movement, 487. 

German movement — biblioci 
Ypres, garden suburb, 118 
Ypsilanti players, 274. 







Zagreb, 70. 
Zdanovitch, Kizil, 483. 

Russian famine poster, 531. 
Zaalotry, 69. 
Zero, Mr., 15. 
Zilboorg, Gregory. 

On the drama, 274. 

Vacant seat (absence of Ru 
Washington conf.), 205. 
Zimand, Savel. 

Personal, 288, 975, 976. 

Robert Smillie of Larkhall, 103b »» a 

Romance of Templecrone, 327. 

What would the Irish do with \ 
land? — Those who gave answ, . 
289. I \ 

Zionists, 457. * tn * 

Zoning, 765. l,,« 

Zurich, 431. ^on- 

* wo Sections 


'&<&&& m 

($525 > 




SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., 112 East 19 Street, New York 

i • 10.0 
t- 10.01 
■ 10.0C 


> 10.00 

THE YEAR BEGUN: 1921-, 10.00 

? 10.0Q 



THE YEAR ENDED : 1920-21 



To Survey Associates, 
and all Survey Readers : 


TO adapt a phrase coined by a great newspaper, the 
Survey is more than a journal : it is a fellowship. 
This year — the fiscal and publishing year beginning 
October i, 1921 — is the tenth of Survey Associates 
as a cooperative undertaking. We come into it at the close 
of twelve months, the first six of which witnessed the highest 
printing and paper prices in modern publishing. They taxed 
the reserves of the best placed commercial periodicals and sent 
others into receiverships. The second six months have been 
marked by a general financial depression which has sorely 
pressed all social agencies and educational institutions depen- 
dent upon contributions for support. One set of circumstances 
after the other, and both in combination for the spring quarter, 
wrenched and tested Survey Associates as never before. 

We had thought that the war years put the Survey to 
every conceivable strain. None of them, however, had such 
a see-saw of hazards as the year we cleared on September 30 
last with a balance of $251.36 out of a budget of very nearly 
$150,000. We telescoped our weekly issues during the sum- 
mer into semi-monthlies, cut staff expenditures to the bone, 
and came through by the perennial miracle of what we call 
our living endowment — the faith and tenacity and often 
the personal sacrifice of the i,6oo men and women who make 
up our contributing membership. 

In the new year that fellowship confronts a further exact- 
ing and spirited test. We enter the year with paper costing 
half what it did last fall when it added a thousand dollars 
a month to our costs already swollen. But we enter it in 
the midst of hard times which depress circulation and adver- 
tising receipts. We enter the year with, roughly, three-fourths 
of a desired fund raised to promote the development of one 
issue each month as a graphic monthly, the most promising 
factor in our publishing scheme from the business standpoint 
and from' an educational standpoint the most far-reaching. 

But we enter a year in which we must make up a gap of 
almost one-third in our non-commercial income. Last year 
and the year before the Russell Sage Foundation gave us 
enhanced grants of $30,000 and $22,500— two steps in a 
constructive program of withdrawal entered upon in the mut- 
ual interest of the two organizations as explained on page 3. 
These grants kept the Survey from' caving in under the strain 
of the abnormal publishing situation. They ceased on Sep- 
tember 30 last. From now on we must stand or fall as a 
mutual enterprise. We refuse to put it that way — we must 
stand as such. 

\X7~HEN Survey Associates was launched nine years ago 
▼ » we called it an "adventure in cooperative journalism." 
We have clung to the characterization since, for it has a 
touch of the living spirit with which those who believed in 
^he enterprise threw themselves into it and which has kept 
it going during periods when by all the cautious gods of print- 
ing shops it should have died had it as many lives as a cat. 
There was something boldly experimental in the notion that 
people might come to regard a periodical, educational though 
it was, as an institution warranting their consecutive backing 
the same way that a library, a college or a laboratory war- 
rants it. In the history of philanthropy it has ever been the 

tangible object — the hospital bed, the brick walls of an 1 
phanage — which first engaged support. The maintenance' 
our newer social work of service, intangible, perishable, 

to be weighed or measured or looked at, has been of 
growth; later still the support of those organized moverr ', 5.00 
such as child labor and housing reform, which have had h 
lation or changes in public opinion as their goals. ' 

It is difficult for any organization which operates in a cin 
troversial field to win more than a minority backing. Nota 
is this true in the industrial field where economic interests i. 
at stake and where even the great foundations have been cha' 
to tread. The Survey in its very nature covers several si 
fields with prospect of alienating those who are forward lo< 
ing in one by its treatment of issues in some other. "Ye- 
manufacturer is like to be hot for housing reform, your r 
estate operator for clearing up the factories, your physician 
reforming the courts, your lawyer for revolutionizing 
practice of medicine and so on. The modern habit of loo!' 
to advertisers to pay half the expense of our current read; 
the tradition of a partisan press and the gene-fa 1 > '';"Oy.l 
of regarding a journal as a subject for support otltef Hi 
along propaganda lines have all entered in. 

WE undertook to cut these knots, not by abandoning t. 
principle of editorial freedom nor by closing our colurr. 
to the frankest discussion nor by trying to fit the pages of U 
Survey to the views of any one reader at all times, all read' 
at any time. Rather we have endeavored to build upon co 
mon elements of service in the same way again as college ■ 
library or laboratory and to develop a procedure of accur/^, 
gathered and tested findings whch would carry convictioi. 
to their fairness even in the midst of controversy. Confess . 
to ordinary human frailty along with quite inadequate ' r 
insecure funds to demonstrate our conception as we sh 
have liked, we none the less have made headway. Th^. 
upon which we have sought and secured memberships, ~ 
of time, money and writings, in what after all is unexam.e 
degree, has not then been the support of a group of opini; 
but the support of certain educational functions. And it :•' 
be well to repeat here our formula as it has been set o\ 
in many of these annual statements; namely, the employr. 
of the Survey to: 

Chronicle events and happenings in our fields. - e 

Pool social experience, experiment and practice. * 

Provide a forum for the discussion of issues within -"'> 
by those who come at them from various angl- *> B * 
Interpret various groups in the community to ea" f ivio> 
Investigate and exhibit the results of social resr>sep^ 
It has been upon this working basis that in nine 
vey Associates, without endowment or invested cap M 
grown . to perhaps the largest cooperative enterprise' 
publishing field. It is upon this basis that we must Y f 
a new and larger measure of support in this tenth yes> 
in the midst of financial depression we must make w t r 
gether on our own. We shall endeavor to bring com,, 
receipts to $75,000 in the new year; we shall need to' 
them with contributions of $50,000 to clear it. 

ON the individual goodwill and sense of responsibil 
every reader and every member of Survey Asso 
hangs the outcome, this year, of the years of struggle , 
have gone before. 






IERE is encouragement in a review 
hi the last three years. We had kept 
itact in the midst of the many cleavages 
Tine war period. None the less by the 
Tiraer of 1918 with publication costs mount- 
Ti and without adequate funds for promo- 
Ti our circulation was dwindling: our 
T 6s pared down to a shred of themselves; 
T staff depleted. 

TV'e had either to go forward, or to go 
ler and the call of the times was for an 
reased measure of service to interpret 
ar time needs and activities and after them 
e problems of reconstruction. In a very 
al sense we began reconstruction at home 
y raising funds to restore our weekly thirty- 
o-page units and bring staff operations to 
ir old estate. We were instrumental in 
ang a conference of national social agen- 
and public officials the month of the 
Tistice to take stock of the situation con- 
ing all alike, and through the individual 
of a member of our board thereafter 
~ght out a series of reconstruction num- 
s. We had carried forward this work 
rehabilitation for the better part of a year 
en we appealed to the Sage Foundation 
enhanced grants to enable us to increase 
v.- ordinary revenues of the Survey so as 
bring it nearer to a self-supporting basis. 
"> this appeal the Foundation responded 
th its grants of $30,000 in 1919-20; $22,500 
In these three years (1918-19, 1919-20, 
>.o-2i) Survey Associates raised over and 
)ve the scale of contributions, as it stood 
1917-18, a total of $78,038 for editorial 
k and development: compared with its 
uced war time grants the Foundation ap- 
oriated^in, the course of the same period 
^t' a ,' l flV)'.7oo to be applied to business 
dthotidn. What was the result of this 
: nt investment? On the one hand much of 
is new money was of course employed in 
Id work, enhanced editorial service, en- 
-ged issues and, unfortunately, in swollen 
blishing costs. On the other hand, raises 
our regular subscription rate enters in. 
t the effect of these fresh resources on 
nmercial receipts is a factor in the fol- 
ving table: 

1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 

£■ $35,788 $39,538 $47,446 $51,796 

10,848 10,668 14,987 15,820 


$46,636 $50,206 $62,433 


.ave .viiewtu ...~nj --«st year 

at $4. The trayfuls of tenacious stencils in 
our business office are the most convincing 
answers to any questions as to whether the 
Survey is wanted — wanted to the extent of 
going deeper into lean pockets in the midst 
of difficult times. And they have counted — 
these old readers turned subscribers at the 
new rate, in restoring the balance between 
the cost of the copies distributed and the 
price paid for them which had so nearly 
shattered our budget. 

Slender as our advertising is, the Survey 
was one of a handful of periodicals which 
showed a gain in the face of the adverse 
business conditions the past year. 

O As an organization Survey Associates 
^* has grown in the three years as shown 
in the following classification of member- 

1917-18 1920-21 Gain 

$100 Contributions 

50 Contributions 

25 Sustaining 

Subscriptions . . 
10 Cooperating 

Subscriptions ... 874 1,132 258 

T n business operations in the three years 

-» have lifted subscription receipts by 

le under 45 per cent, advertising by a 

over that percentage. With practically 

same number of subscriptions to fill, 

ss commercial receipts last year were well 

$20,000 more than they were three years 

or as much as the pre-war Sage Foun- 

:>n grants. How much and how real 

he permanent gain in revenue to be 

'pated from this gain in commercial re- 

, over and above manufacturing ex- 

s, depends on the cost of production. 

le last two years it has been more than 

Soifiiereby. All we know is that the 

W or per has come down to the 1917-18 

Unempugh it is still twice the pre-war 


Ccwithin the period we have had to 

regular subscription price of the 

^n order to strike a belated equilib- 

Mh costs. In raising from $4 to $5 

B twelve months and with $7,000 less 

U n . ■*"" circulation promotion than the 

Ijre, we have written 1,452 less regu- 

, T subscriptions. An increase in school 
ur ... , 

lege subscriptions from 2,443 to 3>°39 

ercome part of the shrinkage. 

year's showing was one of renewals: 

we have exceeded expectations. We 









A year ago, our roster of $10 cooperating 
subscriptions was 1,213. The general busi- 
ness situation halted their steady growth 
and led a number to drop — temporarily, we 
hope — from the $10 membership to the $5 
regular subscription. As offset, we have 
within the past year increased by 40 per 
cent our group of $25 sustaining subscribers 
— an enheartening development. 

The four classes of member-contributors 
listed above are basic to Survey Associates 
as a cooperative enterprise. In three years 
their gain in numbers was thus well toward 
500; the increase in annual contribution* 
from these three classes ak>ne was over 
$ro,ooo. If we include large contributions, 
whose sustained backing has counted as 
never before, the increase in total contribu- 
tions to all funds is twice that. 

Much of this has been devoted to the edu- 
cational service of the Survey; more should 
be, so soon as it is not absorbed by abnormal 
publishing costs. 

3 In editorial development, in the face of 
♦ difficulties already sufficiently recounted 
we have, in the course of the three years: 

(a) Recreated the framework of a de- 
partmental staff organization competent to 
handle subject matter in five major spheres 
of social concern— civics, health, family 
welfare, education and industry. Such work 
calls for at least half time of a responsible 
editor in each major sphere — a standard we 
must forego the coming year, as part of our 
general policy of retrenchment. 

(b) Organized this enhanced departmen- 
tal service through the managing editor's 
office and further developed the alert news 
gathering which had served as binder in 
holding the Survey together in the war per- 
iod of depleted staff and cramped issues. 

(c) Carried out pieces of swift field work 
— the results of which are illustrated by the 
series of articles published last spring on the 
federation movement in a score of cities. 

(d) Put our school and community 
department in the hands of an experienced 
educator and by means of a weekly social 
studies column developed the use of the Sur- 
vey as current text or collateral reading in 
134 institutions in 38 states — a healthy ex- 
pansion of this educational function of the 
Survey in both its meanings. 

(e) Welded our foreign service depart- 
ment into the permanent working scheme of 
the Survey at a time when American in- 
terest in overseas work and developments 
has been at its height. In 1920 a special 


gift from a member of the board enabled V 
to have a special representative interpret 
those phases of British reconstruction which 
antedated ours. Last summer again through a 
special gift, our foreign service editor spent 
four months in Holland, Belgium, Switzer- 
land, France, Germany and England estab- 
lishing fresh contacts and sources which 
should lift the Survey to an entirely new 
standard as an international exchange for 
social work and movements. 

(f) Developed, by means of special con- 
tributions and the inauguration of round 
tables in Los Angeles, San Diego and San 
Francisco, an experiment in the regional de- 
velopment of the Survey as an exchange of 
domestic experience. 

(g) Carried out special numbers of which 
three this last year may be cited: 

(1) November — Prohibition and Prosper- 
ity, an appraisal of their consequences in 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, as a typical Ameri- 
can city (a staff operation). 

(2) March— Three Shifts in Steel: the 
Long Day and the Way Out, an interpreta- 
tion of Cabot Fund investigations which we 
initiated; and 

(3) June— Prague: The American Spirit 
in the Heart of Europe, an interpretation of 
the Prague survey entered upon by the 
American Y. W. C. A. on invitation of the 
Czecho-Slovak Red Cross. This was an ap- 
plication of the American community survey 
to the needs of a medieval city now become 
the capital of the most promising of the 
new republics of Central Europe. 

(h) Carried out the series of reconstru- 
tion numbers, already referred to, interpre- 
ting post-war proposals and experience. 
Their success in illuminating economic and 
social questions and in reaching wider aud- 
iences prompted us to raise a four-year fund 
for the projection of one issue each month 
as an illustrated monthly. 


OUR plan is (1) to carry forward the 
service development of the weekly Sur- 
vey as a current synthesis of events, evi- 
dence, experience in our major fields, for the 
benefit of those consecutively interested. This 
function is not performed by the libraries, 
the schools of social work, the foundations, 
the national agencies nor the general peri- 
odicals. It has been a factor in the Sur- 
vey's general working scheme from the be- 
ginning. There are today 50 specialized 
monthlies and quarterlies attempting the 
function. What we are attempting in our 
weekly news columns and fortnightly de- 
partments is the synthetic task of keeping 
readers and workers in any one city and 
any one field abreast of major developments 
in all. 

(~)UR plan is (2) to parallel this service 
development of the weekly with the new 
monthly graphic as a flexible medium of 
social interpretation, to reach that wider circle 
of readers (outside the nucleus of practical 
workers), which in each city, each state, each 
profession, each church, make up the poten- 
tial clientele of social work and movements. 

(")UR plan is (3) to draw on staff opera- 
tions for both weekly and monthly. We 
shall hope to cooperate ck'Sely with other 
agencies of research so as to mint their find- 
ings in this our new currency; but staff field 
work will be depended upon to give the 
Graphic that quality which since the early 
days of McClure's has so largely been al- 
lowed to lapse in American journalism. 

For the first year at any rate the Graphic 
will appear as one issue each month in our 
weekly schedule — twelve Graphics and forty 
weeklies. At the same time our endeavor 
will be to build up for them a special cir- 
culation as an illustrated monthly periodical. 

- g --vUR plan is (i) to bring the weeklies, 
V^/by means of the new $5 subscription 
price, to the point where subscription 
and advertising receipts will carry their phy- 
sical oo*t and a reasonable amount of pub- 
lishing and editorial routine. 
QUR plan is (2) to bring Survey Graphic 
also to the point where advertising and 
subscription receipts will cover their phy- 
sical cost and routine publishing and edi- 
torial expenses. To this end and to provide 
a small revolving fund for promotion we 
need $40,000 a year for four years. To this 
end we have raised to date roughly $29,000 
a year for four years, enough to warrant us 
in making a modest start this fall. 

Pledges to the Graphic Fund 

1 of $10,000 a year for four years. 

2 of $5,000 a year for four years. 
1 of $5,000 a year for three years. 
4 of $1,000 a year for four years. 

(")UR plan is (3) to count on our growing 
body of members and contributors to car- 
ry the burden of staff operations serving both 
publications — close editing, field work, etc., 
of a calibre not warranted by commercial 
receipts but adjusted rather to the education- 
al opportunity before us. In ten years we 
have convinced a widening circle of people 
as to the educational warrant of such a jour- 
nal — a newer, fresher, more adventurous 
medium than college or laboratory or library, 
but, like them, compact of rare service to 
the new times. 


HERE then we have a fairly clear-cut 
division between the commercial and 
educational functions joined in the Sur- 
vey. We have, to be sure, only broken the 
ground of our opportunity along educational 

For example, the beginnings we are mak- 
ing this year in establishing organic con- 
tacts with European social agencies and 
movements should be followed by a similar 
out-reaching to the south of us so that the 
Survey may be one of the new links in 
making the New World more neighborly. 
North Americans are much more closely in 
touch with Western Europe than with the 
temperate zone of South America — or even 
with Canada. 

For example, again, we should build up 
alongside the more intensive development of 
the weekly and the general reach of the Gra- 
phic a new press service which could em- 
ploy some of the same materials. 

At the threshold then of this tenth year 
of Survey Associates, which step by step 
has been working toward self-dependence, 
it is well for us to take stock of the resources 
we may count upon in making the most of 
the changed publishing situation and in 
achieving the goal so long sought. 


TO the generosity of the Russell Sage 
Foundation throughout the entire period 
of our development to date, we of the 
Survey bear witness. 

When the Sage Foundation was founded, 
the Survey, then known as Charities and 
the Commons, was carried on under a na- 
tional committee appointed by the New York 
Charity Organization Society which acted as 
a sort of residuary legatee of various publi- 
cations in this field, none of which had paid 
expenses — the present magazine least of all. 
Rather, it was constantly expanding its work 
to promote fresh educational ends and it had 
developed a cooperative plan by which its 
readers were enlisted to help put up the 
money to carry out this purpose, over and 
above the limits of meager commercial re- 
ceipts. Of the many suggestions made to 

ing as publisher of books, periodicals anu 
pamphlets within the scope of its broad char- 
ter was most frequently made. 

The question naturally arose whether the 
Survey should not be taken over by the 
Foundation. After thoughtful and friendly 
discussion, the contrary course was adopted 
— for two reasons: First, because of the con- 
viction that for a periodical to become an 
organ tended to ossify it; second, because it 
was felt that in its cooperative support, the 
Survey had a nascent, living endowment 
which, like the National Conference of So- 
cial Work, might in the years to come offer 
a very human and healthy balance to the 
philanthropic trusts as these latter projected 
their activities. In other words we chose 
to "scratch gravel'' as an impecunious but 
independent enterprise. 

"DUT ^beginning the very first year of the 
Foundation's existence and continuing for 
eight years, it made annual grants of $20,000 
each to the Survey. This money was given 
specifically without restriction and to enable 
the Survey to carry on work which its in- 
come from other sources did not permit 
during this period of growth. These grants 
were not invested as such in the business pro- 
motion of the magazine, but rather con- 
tributed to it, to staff work and the cost 
of manufacturing and distributing the Sur- 
vey as an educational medium and to all 
that range of activities — investigations, chro- 
nical, exchange of experiences, discussion — 
which made the Survey a reenforcement of 
the great national social movements in those 
years, of the spread of organized charity, 
child labor and housing reform, and the 
like. Two important departments of the 
Foundation were themselves, in a sense, out- 
growths of work carried forward originally 
by the Survey — its Charity Organization De- 
partment — which took over our Field Depart- 
ment — and of which the National Association 
for Organizing Family Social Work was in 
turn an offshoot; and its Department of 
Surveys and Exhibits which built on our 
pioneering in the Pittsburgh Survey from 
which the magazine took its name. 

A T the same time, the Survey itself, or- 
ganically, was taking root, a process 
which the Foundation grants indirectly but 
very helpfully promoted ; and on November 
4, 1912, Survey Associates, Inc., was defi- 
nitely launched by the New York Charity 
Organization Society. Thereafter the so- 
ciety discontinued its annual appropriations. 
Its National Publication Committee (Char- 
ities Publication Committee) became the 
National Council of the new body and the 
$10 cooperating subscribers afforded a natu- 
ral membership base. As a mutual enter- 
prise in the field of philanthropy and public 
opinion this was striking out along original 
lines and in the succeeding two years we 
made consistent headway. 

The war halted this growth — affecting in 
turn contributions, subscriptions, grants and 
publishing costs; challenging the powers of 
coherence of Survey Associates as a coopera- 
tive organization. By the summer of 1918, 
as already indicated, we were at low ebb 
in staff, issues, circulation and funds. But 
by the summer of 1919, we had gone ahead 
on our own and proved that the Survey 
would respond to increased investment. 
Then it was that we approached the Foun- 
dation in the matter of plans for the future. 
There was from year to year, of course, 
no obligation for renewal on the part of the 
Foundation, but the enhanced gifts of in- 
dividual donors in this new period of de- 
velopment toward work which had long en- 
joyed the common backing of contributors 
and Foundation alike, naturally raised the 

reuuceu na grants to $13,400 in iy 
not at least return to its pre-wai; 
support ($20,000 annually). We* 
such a question called for a recoP 
of the entire fiscal relationship be' 
two bodies. While the continuii r J) 
had become a substantial drain oc, 
come of the Foundation, none the le 
the changed publishing costs, they 10.00 
nothing like the driving power in t'0.00 
period that they had ten years bef^'g^ 

the Survey was to 
portunity before it, 

measure up to ,0.00 
investment on ?\0D 

resourceful scale was needed to set it' - ?? 

feet. 90 

AT a meeting of the board of Surve 30 
sociates, July 24, 1919, we un- 
strongly recommending that, in lieu 00 
indefinite period of annual grants, i O0 
better for the Sage Foundation to qq 
genuine shove to the Survey and thf,'oo 
draw, leaving us to carry our owrO.OO 
as a cooperative enterprise on the i?*92 
mentum. We discussed this in ten ' 
three-year period on the practical 1 
that the experience of publishers v 
show that circulation investment in 
year reproduced itself as working 
in from three to four years. We su^ 
a materially enhanced grant the firs 
tapering off the two succeeding year 

The Foundation promptly respondt 
an appropriation of from $20,000 to 
for the first year (1919-20), depend 
our success in building up contributir 
business receipts. We qualified for th 
mum grant and could report at the 
the year an increase in business receif 
equivalent to the increase in the _ 
tion's grant over the year before.;; I 
while manufacturing coe*^ had ri' 
unprecedented a scale as to strip u-| 
advantage gained. 

At the peak of high costs, two perir 
the Red Cross Magazine and the Worl 
look, analagous somewhat to the S" 
with large organizations behind their 
snuffed out. The obligation and oppo 
before us was thereby rendered all th 
urgent while our position was by th- 
token exhibited in all its precariousr. 
help meet this emergency, we set abo 
more the excruciating process of i"' 
our subscription price in order to si | 
more the fair balance with the cost , 
duction with which we had started t'" 
We ventured to suggest to the Fo' 
as a modified plan, grants over a 
period reduced each year by one- 
the 1919-20 grant. To help us 
emergency the Foundation app. e 
$22,500, the sum asked for the secoi 
or $7,500 more than they original 
templated for the second and th : ' 
combined, but notified us that thi 
close the series. 

'"THE importance to the whole for 

Survey Associates of the enhance 

made in 1919-20 and 1920-21 by t 

sell Sage Foundation could scarcely 

aggerated. They kept the Survey 

ing to the wall in the midst of \\- ) 
,. . . . . . . 1VI01 

conditions in the printing and )sep (.( 

Because of their brief span, I 

the untoward conditions in t m y 

field which absorbed so much M 

the task of creating working 

business promotion falls to tht 

membership of Survey Associat^ 

On our ability to secure it ha t . 

tinuance of the weekly Survey 

mon medium of service. By rig 

mies, already entered upon, and I 

right backing of every reader a 

in this tenth year of the enterpris 

by these, combined, shall we tee 

v , M. W., Jr. 

v Equity Assocla- 

n Miss Henrietta 


.j" George B. 

..a Miss Maude 

Miss H. Jean 

'Jer, Miss Mary 


Charles Dexter 

'Mrs. Grosvenor N. 

I Miss Elizabeth C. 


hul, C. 

ihul, Miss Hilda 

irican Rolling Mill 


•s, Mrs. James Barr 

\gh. Miss Ophelia L. 

irson, Judge George 

=ws, Miss Elizabeth 

ws, Miss Lula O. 

*s, Mrs. W. H. 

. George M. 





iy. Professor Alfred 

jny, Miss Julia B. 
\r, Mrs. Joseph 
, Mrs. Rose Louis 
id, Mrs. B. W. 
1, Miss Sarah Louise 
ein, Leo 

iated Charities of 
. Monies, la. 
iated Charities of 
iphis, Tenn. 
Mrs. C. N. 

on, C. J. 

;r, Mrs. William C. 

L Mrs. Gertrude B. 

Louis W. 
n ___ j - 

- B 

n, Mrs. George M. 
wald, Mrs. Paul 
y, Edward P. 
r, Judge Harvey H. 

r, Ray Stannard 
— /in, Mrs. Harry A. 
win, Dr. Kate W. 
yin, Miss Rachel 
win, Roger N. 
i\n, Mis. Ruth 

*in, William H. 
-1, Edward L. 

er, Edgar S. 
, James 
veil, Mrs. Robert 
>-, C. W. Tillinghast 
Mrs. Ludlow 
Fred A. 
Mrs. Kate Waller 
Mrs. Carl 
George Gordon 
jrten, Mrs. Maud 

d, J. W. 
T. R. 
George R. 
Dr. Adelheid C. 
d, Miss Caroline 
ler, George Rust 
Mrs. George L. 
Mrs. Julius 
nd, Dr. Otto F. 
son, Miss Caroline 
nin, David 
nni, Edward B. 
in, Miss Fanny 
Miss Marion 
"■"•;. Cyrus 

s Bertha E. 
irs. Henry J. 
'nest P. 
iliam C. 

je Nathan 
rles Sumner 
Malone, The 

s. Emmons Jr. 
Miss Alice 

nry P. 
Warren S. 
.n, L. E. 
Mrs. Blanche F. 
, Mrs. D. S. 
thai, George 

Miss Harriet 
Miss M. A. 


Bono, Miss Elsie ivi. 

Bonham, Miss E. M. 

Boomsliter, Mrs. George P. 

Booth, Rev. E. S. 

Borden, Miss Fanny 

Boulton, Alfred J. 

Bourland, Mrs. O. P. 

Bowman, Le Roy E. 

Boynton, Rev. Nehemiah 

Bozarth, Miss Maude 

Brackett, George F. 

Brackett, Dr. Jeffrey R. 

Bradley, John (In Mem- 

Bradley, Richards M. 

Brandeis, Mrs. Alfred 

Brandt, Mrs. J. B. 

Braucher, H. S. 

Breckinridge, Mrs. John C. 

Breckinridge, Miss S. P. 

Bremer, Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry M. 

Brenner, Mrs. Victor D. 

Brewer, Mr. and Mrs. 

Brewington, Miss Julia R. 

Bronson, Miss Margaret 

Bronson, Rev. Oliver H. 

Brooks, John Graham 

Brown, Burl S. 

Brown, David A. 

Brown, Miss Dorothy F. 

Brown, James Crosby 

Brown, Lester D. 

Brown, Rev. Robert W. 

Brown, Thatcher M. 

Bruce, Miss Jessica 

Bruner, Earle D. 

Buchanan, Miss Etha 

Buck, William Bradford 

Buehler, Dr. John B. 

Bulkley, Robert J. 

Burdette, Mrs. Robert J. 

Burke's School, Miss 

Burleson, F. E. 

Burnham, Mrs. George, 

Burnham, Mrs. John A. 

Burritt, Bailey B. 

Burt, Henry F. 
*Bush, W. T. 

Buteau, S. H. 

Butler, Amos W. 

Butler, Mrs. E. B. 

Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 

Buttenheim, Harold S. 

Byington, Miss Margaret 


Cabot, Miss Mary R. 
Cabot, Philip 
ICadbury, Joel 
Callahan, P. H. 
Cammann, Miss I. M. 
Camp, Mrs. George R. 
Campbell, Miss Elizabeth 

Capen, Edward Warren 
Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Mrs. E. L. 
Carpenter, Mrs. F. W. 
Carr, W. Russell 
Carret, Mrs. J. R. 
Carstens, C. C. 
Carter, Philip W. 
Cary, John R. 
Case, Miss Fannie L. 
Case, Miss Lucy A. 
Castle, Miss H. E. A. 
Catlin, Mrs. D. K. 
Chace, Dr. Fenner A. 
Chamberlain, Miss Ellen 

Chapin, Miss Caroline B. 
Chapin, Miss Ellen F. 
Chapin, Mrs. R. C. 
Chase, John H. 
Cheever, Mrs. David 
Cheever, Miss Helen 
Cheseldine, Miss Martha 

Chew, Mrs. Samuel 
Cheyney, Miss Alice S. 
Chickering, Miss Myra S. 
Childs, R. S. 
Chubb, Percival 
Church, Miss Myra H. 
Church School 
Claghorn, Miss Kate 

Clark, Miss Anna B. 
Cleaver, Mrs. Albert N. 
Clouser, George L. 
Clowes, F. J. 
Cochran, Miss Fanny T. 
Cockerell, Theodore D. A. 
Codman, Miss Catherine 

Coffee, Mrs. Doris H. (In 

Coffee, Rabbi Rudolph I. 
Cole, Edward F. 
Colman Company, J. M. 
Colvin, Mrs. A. R. 
Compton, Mrs. Barnes 
Conkiln, Miss Viola 

♦Converse, Miss Mary E. 

Conyngton, Miss Mary 

Conyngton, Thomas 

Cook, Mrs. Alfred A. 

Cooley, Charles H. 

Coolidge, Mrs. Dane 

Coolidge, Miss E. W. 

Cooper, Charles C. 

Cooper, Miss Ruth 

Cope, Mrs. Walter 

Corbin, A. F. 

Cosgrave, John O'Hara 

Cosgrove, C. J. 

Council of Social Agen- 
cies of Cincinnati, O. 

Cram, Mrs. J. Sergeant 

Crane, Mrs. W. Murray 
illiCravath, Paul D. 

Crawford, Miss Anne L. 

Criley, Miss Martha L. 

Crocker, Rev. W. T. 

Cross, Whitman 

Cummings, Mrs. D. Mark 

Curtis, Mrs. G. S., Jr. 

Curtis, Miss Harriet S. 

Curtis, W. E. 

Cushing, Grafton D. 
*Cushman, Mrs. James S. 

Cutler, Prof. J. E. 


Dailey, Miss Dew 
Dale, J. A. 
Danforth, Mrs. H. G. 
Daniels, John 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, Miss Betsey B, 
Davis, Dr. Katharine 

Davis, Mr. and Mrs. 

Michael M., Jr. 
Davis, Otto W. 
Davis, W. M 
Dean, Mrs. Sherman W. 
Deardorff, Miss Neva R. 
DeHoratiis, Dr. Joseph 
Doll, Rev. Burnham North 
Dennison, Henry 
*Denny, Miss E. G. 
Denny, Dr. Francis P. 
Denton, Miss Frances 
de Schweinitz, Karl 
Devine, Edward T. 
Diack, Mr. and Mrs. A. W. 
Dickie, H. A. 
Dickinson, Mrs. C. P. 
Ditckmann, Miss 

Annetta M. 
Dilworth, R. J. 
Dinwiddie, C. 
Dobson, William 
Dodge, Percival 
Dole, Rev. Charles F. 
Dolph, John 
Donnelly, Thomas J. 
Dore, Miss C. J. 
Dorrance, Rev. Samuel 

Doud, Mrs. L. B. 
Dougherty, Miss Lucy T. 
Dow, Miss Caroline B. 
Downes, J. M. N. 
Dows, Rev. Henry A. 
Dows, Tracy 
Doyle, J. S. 

Dreier, Miss Dorothea A. 
Dreyfuss, Mrs. Ludwig 
Drury, Mrs. S. S. 
Dunlap, Miss Flora 
Durfee, Nathan 
Durham, Mrs. R. E. 
Dusenberry, Mrs. J. P. 
Dwight, Mrs. M. E. 
Dwight, Miss M. L. 
Dyckman, Miss Mary L. 

Eastman, Miss Lucy P. 
Eastman, Mr. and Mrs. 

L. R., Jr. 
Easton, William O. 
Eaton, Mrs. Horace A. 
Eaton, Miss Isabel 
Eavenson, Howard N. 
Eaves, Rev. George 
Eaves, Miss Lucile 
Edelsteiri, Eugene 
Edgerton, Charles E. 
Edson, John Joy 
Edwards, J. Howard 
Edwards, Miss L. M. 
Edwards, Mrs. Willard 

H., Jr. 
Ehler, George W. 
Ehmann, John 
Eisner, Monroe 
Eliot, Dr. Charles W. 
Elkinton, J. Passmore 
Ellet, Miss Minnie 
Elliott, Edward C. 
Elliott, Dr. John L. 
Eils, Mrs. Frederick 
Elsworth, Mrs. Edward 
Ely, Miss Augusta C. 
Ely, Miss Elizabeth B. . 
Ely, Miss Gertrude S. 
Ely, Miss Mary G. 

i..... elena 

cmlen, Johp T. 
Emmet, Miss L. F. 
English, H. D. W. 
Ennis, Mrs. Robert Berry 
Evans, Miss Anna Cape 
Evans, Charles 
Evans, Edward W. 
Evans, Mrs. Jonathan 


Falconer, Douglas P. 
Fanning, Mrs. A. L. 
Farrand, Dr. Livingston 
Farwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Farwell, Mrs. John O. 
Fassett, Mrs. J. S. 
Fay, William Rodman 
Fechheimer, Mrs. S. 

Feiss, Julius 
ttFeiss, Paul L. 
Fels, Mrs. Samuel S. 
Ferguson, Miss Mary 

Van E. 
Fer'gusson, Rev. E. M. 
Ferry, Mansfield 
Ficke, Mrs. C. A. 
Fisher, Galen M. 
Fisher, Prof. Irving 
Fisk, Miss M. L. 
Flaherty, Thomas F. 
Fleisher, Arthur A. 
Fleisher, Mrs. Florence 
Fleisher, Mrs. H. T. 
Flentye, Miss Mae Irene 
Fletcher, Mrs. J. F. 
Flower, Mrs. Anson 
Floyd, Dr. J. C. M. 
Foley, Miss Edna L. 
Folks, Homer 
Foote, Henry Wilder 
Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm 
Forstall, Mrs. Nell 

Foster, Miss Edith 
Fowler, Mrs. Margaret B. 
Fraley, Mrs. Joseph 
Frank, Henry L. 
Frankel, Dr. Lee K. 
Franklin, Moses 
Freeman, Harrison B. 
Freund, Prof. Ernst 
Freund, I. H. 
Friedman, Herbert J. 
Frothingham, John W. 
Fulford, Mrs. George T. 
Fuller, Mrs. A. G. 
Fullerton, Mrs. Kate 

Furness, Prof. Caroline E. 


Gage, Lyman J. 
Gale, Mrs. Charles W. 
Gamble, James N. 
Gannett, Frank E. 
Gardiner, Miss Elizabeth 

Gardner, Rathbone 
Garford, Mrs. A. L. 
Garnsey, Elmer E. 
Gates, Mrs. M. E. 
Gatzert, August 
Gavisk, Rev. Francis H. 
Gavit, John P. 
Geer, Robert C. 
Geller, Mrs. F. 
Gem be i ling, Miss Ed a I aide 
German, Frank F. 
Gilbert, Mrs. Clinton 
IlilGiles, Miss Anne H. 
Gillin, Dr. John Lewis 
Gilman, Miss Elizabeth 
Gilmore, Miss Marcia 
Gimbel, Mrs. Bernard 
Glaser, Julius 
Goldsmith, Miss Louise 

Goldstein, Mrs. Max 
Goodhart, Mrs. Albert 
Goodrich, Miss Annie W. 
Goodrich, Miss Katharine 

Goodsell, F. F. 
Goodman, Miss Mary A. 
Goulder, Miss Sybil M. 
Grace, Miss Virginia 

Graeser, Dr. H. R. A. 
Graham, J. S. 
Granger, Mrs. A. O. 
Granger, Miss A. P. 
Greene, Mrs. F. D. 
Greene, Miss Helen F. 
Greene, Mrs. Louise 

Greenough, Mrs. John 
Grinnell, Mrs. E. M. 
Gruening, Miss Rose 
Gucker, F. T. 
Guggenheimer, Miss 

Daisy I. 
Guibord, Dr. Alberta S. B. 
Guillou, Mrs. A. 
Guinzburg, Mrs. Harry A. 
Gulnzburg, Mrs. Victor 
Gulick, Mrs. Luther H. 
Guth, Mrs. Morris S. 

,-J-enabled <&. 



e mem 


lp s 


Hackett, J. D. 
Hagedorn, Joseph 
Hale, Miss Ellen 
Hale, House 
Hale, RoberJ L. 
Hall, James P. 
Hall, Mrs. Keppele 
Halleck, Mrs. R. P. 
Hallowell, Mrs. F. W. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice 
Harbison, Samuel P., 

Estate of 
Ha. Ljest, William 
Harmon, Dudley 
Harned, Miss Mary 
Harrington, Mrs. 

Francis B. 
Harris, George B. 
Harris, Dr. Isham G. 
Harrison, P. W. 
Harrison, Shelby M. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Hastings H. 
Hart, Hornell 
Hass, Miss Alma M. 
Havemeyer, J. C. 
Hayes, Prof. E. C. 
Hayward, J. B. 
Hazard, Mrs. F. R. 
Hazen, Miss Louise C. 
Healey, Mrs. A. A. 
Hebberd, Charles 
Hecht, George L. 
Heineman, Miss Ada J. 
Heinsheimer, A. M. 
Henshaw, J. M. 
Henshaw, Miss R. G. 
Herrick, Mrs. J. B. 
Herring, Hubert C. (In 

Hersey, Miss Ada H. 
Herz, Mrs. F. W. 
Hewins, Miss Katharine 

Hickin, Miss Eleanor 

Hill, C. D. 

Hill, Mrs. John Clark 
Hill, Dr. William P. 
Hillman, Sidney 

Hills, Mrs. James M. 
Hipke, Mrs. G. A. 

Hirsch, Mrs. Alcon 

Hitchcock, Mrs. G. L. 

Hodges, Miss V. 

Hodgman, Mrs. W. L. 

Hodgson, Mrs. F. G. 

Hoggson, W. J. 

Holiaday, Mrs. Charles B. 

Holland, Charles P. 

Holland, E. O. 

Hollander, Walter 

Hollingshead, Rev. 
George G. 

Hollister, Clay H. 

Hollister, Mrs. Clay H. 
*Holt, Mrs. L. E. 

Hooker, Mrs. E. H. 

Houghton, Miss E. G. 

Houghton, Miss May 

Howard, John R., Jr. 

Howe, Edward 

Howe, Mrs. F. J. 

Howe, Samuel 

Howell, Mrs. John White 

Howland, Miss Elizabeth 

Howland, Miss Isabel 

Howland, Murray Shipley 

Hulst, George D. 

Hunner, Dr. Guy L. 

Hunt, Dr. Matilda 

Hunter, Miss Anna F. 

Huston, Prof. C. A. 

hutchins, Mrs. John E. 

Hutchinson, Charles L. 

Huyck, Mrs. F. C. 

Hyde, Arthur E. 

Hyndman, Miss Helen W. 


Ickes, Harold L. 
Ihlder, John 

Ingham, Miss Mary H. 
Irving, Miss Bertha A. 
Isaacs, Lewis M. 
Isaacs, Stanley M. 


Jackson, James 
Jackson, James E. 
Jackson, Leroy F. 
Jackson, Mrs. Percy 
Jacobs, H. H. 
Jacobs, Philip P. 
Jacobstein, Dr. Meyer 
James, Mrs. Edward 

Janes, Miss Marcia Taft 

























Lee, r 
Lee, • 



Jr. - 


ir vey Associates 






Logan, James P. 
London Guarantee & Ac- 
cident Co., Ltd. 
Longley, Mrs. C. E. 
Loomis, Miss Alice M. 
♦Lord, Daniel M. 
Lord, Miss Isabel Ely 
Loring, Augustus P. 
Losey, Frederick D. 
Lovell, Deaconess A. W. 
Loving, Miss Katharine P. 
Lowe, Miss Rosa 
Lowenburg, Mrs. A. R. 
Lowenstein, Solomon 

Lowenthal, ivirs.HeleneE. 

Lowndes, Roy H. M. 
Lucas, Dr. William Palmer 
Ludington, Miss Katharine 

Lukens, Herman T. 

Luscomb, Miss Florence 

Lynde, Charles E. 

Lyon, Miss Bertha E. 

Lyon, Mrs. George A. 


i 'to 

phas itz 
of Ti b. 



Instil S. 
Of fie! • 




\\ UF 
[aia »t M 
l0 a, «6 rs 
A* Jo. 

In ***' 

say 1 ' 

McBride, Mrs. L. H. 
McClintock, Oliver 
McCorkle, Daniel S. 
** -McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus 

flflMcCormick, Elizabeth 
Memorial Fund 
McCormick, Henry B. 
McCormick, Rt. Rev. 
John N. 
*McCormick, Mrs. R. Hall 
McDowell, Miss Mary E. 
McHenry, Miss I. M. 
McHugh, Miss Rose J. 
McKelway, Mrs. A. J. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. A. 
McLean, Miss Fannie 
McLean, Francis H. 
McLennan, W. E. 
MacBride, Miss Betty 
MacDoweil, Mrs. E. C 
MacGregor, Mrs. G 
MacLeich, Mrs. A. 
MacNaughton, Miss 

Agnes B. 
Macomber, Miss Bertha 
Magee, Rev. John G. 
Magruder, Mrs. J. W. 
Mahnke, C. G. 
tMallery, Otto T. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Manges, Dr. M. 
Mannheimer, Rabbi 

Manny, Frank A. 
Marburg, Mrs. Louis C. 
Marburg, Theodore H. 
Marling, Alfred E. 
Mars, G. C. 

Marsh, Miss Marguerite E. 
JMarston, ueorge W. 
Martin, Mrs. A. W. 
Martin, Dr. Lillien J. 
Masaryk, Thomas G. 
Mather, S. T. 
Maule, Miss Margaret C. 
Mayer, Mrs. Levy 
Mayer, Louis 
Maynard, A. K. 
Mead, Mr. and 

George H. 
Mendenhall, Miss 

Menken, Mrs. M. 
Mero, E. B. 
Merriam, Miss Mary 
Merrill, Mrs. John 
Merrill, Rev. William 
Mertz, Mrs. Oscar 
Metcalf, Irving W. 
Meyer, Mrs. Charles 
Meyers, Mrs. Walter 
Milbank, Jeremiah 
Miles, William E. 
Miller, Miss Annie 
Miller, Miss Arabella 
Miller, Ernest L. 
Miller, Mrs. F. A. 
Miller, Dr. George N. 
Miller, Dr. James 

Miller, Rev. Lindley 
Milner, Mrs. Lucille B 
Mitchel., Wesley C. 
Montfort, J. M. 
Montgomery, Mrs. W. A. 
Moody, Prof. Herbert R. 
Moore, Miss Alice E. 
Moore, H. H. 
Moore, H. W. 
Moore, Mrs. Philip North 
Moore, Mrs. Paul 
Moore, Miss Sybil Jane 
MIMoors, Mrs. John F. 

■ ' Jr,. « 
Morgenthau, Mrs. Rita W. 
Morris, Mrs. Dave H. 
Morris, Mrs. Harrison S. 
Morse, Mrs. H. M. 
Morton, Mrs. Isaac W. 
Moses, R. W. 
Moxcey, Miss Mary E. 
Munford, Mrs. B. B. 
Murdock, Mrs. W. L. 
Murphy, J. Prentice 
Murray, Miss Helen G. 
Musgrove, J. T. 
Myers, Miss Jessie 


Nagel, Charles 

Nathan, Edgar J. 

National Window Glass 

Nealley, E. M. 

Neer, Miss Mary L. 

Neill, Charles P. 

Nesbitt, Miss Florence 
***Newbold, Miss Cather- 
ine A. 
Newton, A. J. 
New York School of 

Social Work 
Nichols, Mrs. Acosta 
Nichols, Dr. William H. 
Nicholson, Timothy 
Nicolay, Miss Helen 
Nicoll, Mrs. Benjamin 
Noonan, Thomas J. 
Norris, Miss J. Anna 
Norris, Dr. Maria W. 
Northrup, Mrs. William P. 

HflNorton, Miss Grace 
Norton, Miss Mary 
Noyes, Charles P. 
Noyes, Mrs. Charles P. 







Ochsner, Mrs. A. J. 
Odum, Howard W. 
Ogilvie, Miss Nellie 
Oleson, Mrs. O. M. 
Oliver, Sir Thomas 
Olmstead, Frederick Law 
Olyphant, Robert 
Openhym, Mrs. Adolphe 
Osborne, Miss Lucy A. 
Otis, Rowland 


Page, Dr. Calvin Gates 
Page, Dr. Dudley L. 
Paine, Miss Helen 
Palmer, Miss Kate A. 
Park, Rev. J. Edgar 
Parker, Mrs. Gordon 
Pass, Mrs. James 
Patrick, Miss Sara L. 
flUPatten, Dr. Simon N. 
llflPatterson, Mrs. E. L. 
Pattison, Miss Ernestine 
Peabody, Augustus S. 
flflPeabody, Rev. Endicott 
Peabody, Prof. Francis G. 
Pearce, Dr. R. M. 
Peart, Commissioner 

Peck, John A. 
Penton, Miss Louise E. 
***Perklns, Douglas 
Perkins, Miss Emily S. 
Perry, E. F. 
Perry, R. P. 
Peskind, Dr. A. 
Peterson, Dr. Frederick 
Philadelphia Society for 

Organizing Charity 
Phillips, Mrs. Jackson Cole 
Phillips, John H. B. 
Pierson, Mrs. Clara D. 
Pinchot, Gifford 
Pinchot, Mrs. Minturn 
Pino, Mr. and Mrs. J. 

Piton, Miss Annie J. 
Piatt, Philip S. 
Playter, Miss Charlottes. 
Polachek, Mrs. Victor 
Pollak, Mrs. J. A. 
Pollak, Mrs. Maurice E 
Pomeroy, Dr. Ralph H 
ffffPoole, Ernest 
ItflPope, G. D. 
Porter, A. J. 
Porter, Rev. L. C. 
Porter, Mrs. James F. 
Porterfleld, W. H. 
*Post, James H. 
Pound, Roscoe 
Pratt, C. H. 
flflPratt, George D., Jr. 
Prentiss, F. F. 
Prentiss, Mrs. S. R. 
tlliPrice, Mrs. O. J. 
Prizer, Edward 
Pryor, Miss Emily M. 
Purdy, Lawson 
Putnam, Harrington 

•Quan, Mrs. James E. 



Rafferty, Fred. 
Rantoul, Mrs. N. 
Raoul, Gaston C. 
Rapp, Miss Margaret E. 
Rath, James A. 
Rauh, Marcus 
Rawson, Mrs. E. B. 
Reed, Miss Elizabeth E. 
Reeder, Dr. R. R. 
Regensburg, Mrs. 

Reid, Miss Helen R. Y. 
Reilly, Mrs. Emma 
Renard, Miss Blanche 
Renard, Mrs. Wallace 
Renold, Charles G. 
Reuss, Mrs. Gustav A. 
Reynolds, James Bronson 
Reynolds, Paul R. 
Rhoads, Mrs. Charles J. 
Rice, Miss Anna V. 
Richmond, Miss Winifred 
Rickman, Mrs. John 
Rieber, Prof. Charles H. 
Rike, F. H. 

Rinehart, Miss Lora F. 
Rippin, Mrs. Jane Dee- 

Rissmann, Otto 
Roach, E. S. 
Robbins, P. A. 
Roberts, Rev. Richard 
Robertson, Miss Georgia 
Robbins, Mrs. Francis 

L., Jr. 
Roberts, John E. 
Robie, Miss Amelia H. 
Robins, Raymond 
Robinson, Mrs. George O. 
Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. 

Louis N. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. 
Robison, G. 
Rochester, Mrs. R. H. 

(In Memoriam) 
Rood, Miss Florence 
Rowell, Miss Olive B. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Ross, Prof. E. A. 
Rossbach, Mrs. Max 
Rowell, Miss Dorothy C. 
Rowell, Frank B. 
Rowell, Miss Olive B. 
Rumely, Mrs. E. A. 
Russell, Miss Marie 


Total $ 

Less Contributions Included in 1919-20, not realized 

I Surplus on September 30, 1921 $ 

Sage, Dean 
Sage. L. H. 
Sailer, Randolph C. 
Sailer, Dr. T. H. P. 
St. John, Capt. Arthur 
St. Paul Association 
Salmon, Miss Lucy M. 
Saltonstall, Mrs. Robert 
Samson, Harry G. 
Sanderson, Prof. Dwight 
Sanderson John P. Jr. 
Sandford, Miss Ruth 
Sargent, Dr. D. A. 
Sartori, Mrs. Joseph 

Saul. Charles R. 
Savage, Theodore F. 
Sayler, James L. 
Sayre, Miss Julia A. 
Sayre, J. N. 
Sayre, Mrs. William H. 
Schafer, Mrs. Edward 
Schieffelln, Dr. William 

Schiller, Mrs. W. B. 
Schlesinger, Mrs. B. 
Schloss, Mrs. Sam M. 
flffSchonblom, H. E. 
Schoettle, Marc A. 
Schroeder, Hyman 
Schroeder, Miss Mary G. 
Schuyler, Miss Louisa Lee 
HUScott, Mrs. H. B. 
Scovell, Wellington & Co. 
Scripture, Miss B. 
Scrymser, Mrs. J. 
Scudder, Miss Vida D. 
Seabrook, Mrs. H. H. 
Searle, Mr. and Mrs.R.A. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Theodore 
Seligman, Prof. Edwin 

R. A. 
Senior, Max 
Sessions, Mrs. A. L. 
Shapleigh, Miss Amelia 
Sharp, Mrs. A. B. 
Sharp, Mrs. W. B. 
Shaw, E. C. 
-Shaw, Dr. H. A. 
Shaw, Miss S. Adele 
Sheffield, Mrs. Adn F 
Shepard, Miss Harriet E 
Sherman, Charles A. 
Sherman, Dr. G. H. 
Shillady, John R. 
Shoenberg, Moses 
Shute Mrs. H. J. 
Sibley, F. Harper 
Sibley, Hiram W. 
Richer, Dudley D. 

251.36 C ° X ' F - A - 

Simkhovuch.iVirs.i.ic., . 
Simon, John 
Simpson, Mrs. David 
Sims, Mrs. F. L. 
Sinclair, Miss Mary Emily 
Sisson, Dr. Edward O. 
Skeel, Mrs. Roswell, Jr. 
Slade, Francis Louis 
Smith, Miss Elizabeth H. 
Smith, Frank B. 
Smith, Mrs. F. L. 
Smith, Mrs. H. K. 
Smith, Miss Hilda W. 
Smith, James A. 
Smith, Mrs. J. G. 
Smith, Jesse L. 
tSmlth & Kaufmann, Inc. 
Smith, Marshall D. 
Smith, Mrs. S. Lewis 
Smith, Theodore Clark 
Snedden, Dr. David 
Snow, Dr. William F. 
Soble, Mrs. John J. 
Social Workers' Club, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Solenberger, Edwin D. 
Solomons, Miss Clara B. 
Sommers, Benjamin 
Sonneborn, S. B. 
Spahr, Mrs. Charles B. 
Spalding, Miss Sarah G. 
Speer, Mrs. Robert E. 
Spencer, Mrs. Anna 

Spicer, R. Barclay 
Sprague, Miss Anne 
Sprague, Miss Florence 
Stacy, Thomas I. 
Stanley, Mrs. Phillip B. 
Stark, Miss Sadie L. 
Stein, Mrs. Fred M. 
Stella, Dr. Antonia 
Stephens, Capt. Roderick 
Stix, Mrs. A. L. 
Stoddard, Miss Melita 
Stokes, Miss Helen 

Stokes, J. G. Phelps 
Stone, Miss Annie 
Stone, Robert B. 
Straus, Mrs. Nathan 
Straus, Mrs. Nathan, Jr 
Straus, Mrs. Roger 
Strauss, Mrs. Berthold 
Street, Elwood 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Strong, Mrs. J. R- 
Sturgis, Miss L. C. 
Sturgis, Miss M. R. 
Sullivan, Daniel Richard 
Sullivan, Fred. M. 
Sullivan, Miss M. Louise 
Sullivan, Miss Mary 

Sullivan, Mrs. T. R. 
Swan, Mrs. Joseph R. 
Sweet, Mrs. Carroll Fuller 
Swift, Mrs. G. F. 


Tarbell, Miss Ida M. 
Taussig, Prof. F. W. 
Taylor, Miss Anna H. 
Taylor, Prof. Graham 
Taylor Graham R. 
Taylor, Rev. Livingston 
Taylor, S. F. 
Taylor, Rev. W. R. 
Teller, Mr. and Mrs. 

Sidney A. 
Teter, Lucius 
Thacher, Mrs. Archibald 

Thatcher, Miss Margaret 

Thaw, Benjamin 
Thaw, Mrs. William, Jr. 
Thayer, Mrs. Helen R. 
flfiThomas, Miss M. Carey 
Thompson, Mrs. William 

Thorne, Samuel, Jr. 
Thorsen, Mrs. W. R. 
Tillinghast, Joseph J. 
Tilton, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Tippy, Dr. Worth M. 
Titsworth, Charles G. 
Todd, Prof, A. J. 
Todd, Albert M. 
Todd, Walter L. 
Tomkins, Calvin 
Tompkins, Hamilton B 
Tower, Edward M. C. 
Tower, Mrs. Russell B. 
Towns, Charles B. 
*Townsend, J. Barton 
Traiser, Charles H. 
Trask, Miss Mary G. 
Troup, Miss Agnes G. 
Tudor, Mrs. W. W. 
Tweedy, R. B. 
Tyson, Francis 


Ueland, Mrs. Andreas 
Ufford, Mr. and Mrs. 

Walter S. 
Unterberg, Mrs. Israel 
Untermyer, Mrs. Samuel 

Van Dyke, Rev. Tt 
Van Horn, Miss Oh* 
Van Kleeck, Miss t> 
Vannler, Mrs. Cha 
Van Winkle, Mrs. Ni 
Vedder, Henry C. 
Villard, Oswald G. 
Vogel, Mrs. Frederick, 
Volger, B. G. 
Vose, Mrs. F. P. 
Vrooman, Carl 


Wagner, Rev. Clarence 
Wagner, Miss Elizabeth 

Waid, D. E. 
Walcott, Mrs. 



Walker, Mrs. A. C. 
Walker, Miss Grace T" 
Walker, Roberts _ 

Walnut, T. Henry " 

Walter, Mrs. C. R. n 
Walter, Mrs. Isaac N.» 
Walters, William C. " 
HHWard, Artemas » 

vVard, Rev. Harry F. uu 
Ward, Miss Kate M. 
Ware, Rev. Edward;"" 

Warren, George A. ■"« 
Warren, George C. °V 
Waters, Miss Ysabella w 
Watson, Frank D. 
Watson, Mrs. Kathann 

Watts, Charles H. 
Watts, Shelley D. 
Weatherly, Rev. Arthur 1 
Weber, A. F. 
Weber, Mrs. Edward 
Weed, Miss Mabel o 
Weihl, Miss Addie 
Weller, Charles F. 
Welt, Mrs. Melville 
Wendte, Rev. Charles 
Wescott, Ralph W. 
West, W. L. 
Westgate, Lewis G. 
Weston, Mrs. S. Bur 
Wetmore, E. D. 
Weyerhaeuser, Mrs. J 
Wheeler, Miss Mar- 

Wheeler, Dr. Theodv. 
White, Burton F. 
White, Harold F. 
White, Miss May W. 
White, Mrs. Olga H. 
White, Miss Rhoda M 
Whitney, Prof, and M 

A. W. 
Whitney, Miss Chariot 

Whitney, Mrs. Josephs. 
Whittemore, Carl T. 
Whittemore, Mrs. F. \ 
Wichelns, Herbert A. 
Wierman, Mis*s Sarah 
Wilbur, Walter B. 
Wilcox, Delos F. ' 

Wilcox, Miss Mabel I. 
Wilder, Miss Constar 

Wilkinson, Otis 
Will, H. S. 
Willcox, W. F. 
Williams, David W 
Williams, E. M. 
Williams, Mrs. George 
Williams, H. A. 
Williams, J. M. 
Williams, Mrs. Ralph 
Willis, Miss Lina 
Wilson, G. K. 
Wilson, Miss Mildrei 
Wilson, Dr. Walter 
Winston, Major T. 
Wittpenn, Mrs. H. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert 
Wolf, R. B. 
Wolfe, S. H. 
Wolff, Mrs. W. m. 
Wood, Mrs. Arnold 
Wood, Charles Mo' 
Wood, Mrs. Josepr 
Wood, Thomas 
Woods, Miss Amy 
Woods, A. F. 
Woods, Mrs. C. M. 
Woolley, Mrs. H 
Workum, Mrs. C 
Workum. Mrs. F 
Wright, Dr. Jona 
Wylie, Miss Lain 


Xerxes, Xantippe 


Young, B. L. 

Y. W. C. A., Pu' 

Committee of N 



Zabriskie. Miss i 

Zaremba, Miss Cla 
Zonne, A. E. 


is correct. 

New York, Nov. 1, 1921 


(Signed) HASK 

Certified Public 

30 Broad Street, 

New York City 



.-rn* _ . aw ..,^»~ u Index 

M. W., Jr. S on "' "" ISS Elsie |VI - *Converse, Miss 

Equity Assocla- f onham ' Miss E - M - Con " cttxtH' 

Ub luin i jM-DCP^isca "i cronivtK/ii^ FUND 



Mary e. tmlen^ .lohp T. 

ight, Mrs. Willard. $5,000.00 

jer, Prof. Henry R. 1,000.00 

ot, Dr. Richard C. 1,000.00 

mberlain, Joseph P. 1,000.00 

Forest, Robert W.. 1,000.00 

/visohn, Adolph .... 1,000.00 
att, Mrs. George Du- 

jont 1,000.00 

osenwald, Julius .... 1,000.00 

nonymous 500.00 

urnham, Miss M. A... 500.00 

asker, The Misses and 

Mrs. Rosensohn 500.00 


tMacy, V. Everit 

Pew, Miss Ethel 

Sibley, Miss Florence.. 

Warburg, Felix N 

Woodward, Dr. George 

Lamont, Mrs. T. W.... 

Lasker, Edward 250.00 

Lee, Joseph 250.00 

**Post, James H 250.00 

Emmons, Arthur B 200.00 

McGregor, Tracy W 200.00 

May, Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter A 

Norton, Charles D.. 



Anonymus $100.00 

Babbott, Miss Helen... 100.00 

3amberger, Louis 100.00 

Becker, A. G 100.00 

Bonnell, Henry H 100.00 

"Bush, W. T 100.00 

"astle, Mrs. George P.. 100.00 

olvin, Miss Catherine. 100.00 

Converse, Miss Mary E. 100.00 

irt.s, Frances G 100.00 

irtis, Mrs. G. S 100.00 

.ushman, Mrs. JamesS. 100.00 
e Silver, Mr. and Mrs. 

Albert 100.00 

du Pont, Mrs. Coleman 100.00 

Ford, Mrs. Henry 100.00 

Gardiner, Robert H 100.00 

Mack, Judge Julian W. 100.00 

Mason, Miss Ida M 100.00 

Merriam, Mrs. W. H... 100.00 

Meyer, Alfred C 100.00 



Gimbel, Jacob 

Goff, Frederick H 

joldsmith, Mrs. Alfred 
iatch, Mrs. Harold.... 
Hathaway, Miss 

Martha N 

lerter, Christian 100.00 

lull, Morton D 100.00 

ewett, Dr. Mary B.... 100.00 
ewis, Mrs. Theodore J. 100.00 
ewisohn, The Misses. 100.00 

ewisohn, Sam A 100.00 

cCready, Mrs. Caroline 

P 100.00 

;Murtrie, Miss Mary D. 100.00 
;Rae, Milton A 100.00 

<V $50 

w<ijamin, Dr. and Mrs. 

Julius E 

3ijur, Mrs. Abraham.. 
Blackstone, Mrs. T. B. 
Blodgett, Mrs. John W. 
Chamberlain, Mrs. 

"" Joseph P 

■ole, Mrs. Arthur H... 
->reier, Miss Mary E... 

Eidlitz, Otto M 

Ilkus, Abram I 

wans, Harold 

IcMath, F. C 

lack, J. W 

/lason, MJss Fanny P. 

"orse, Miss Frances R. 

i-vborg, Mrs. M 




Stein, Simon N 100.00 

Stevens, Henry G 100.00 

Stone, Miss Ellen J 100.00 

Storrow, James J 100.00 

Swift, Harold 100.00 

Volker, William... . 
Wales, Mrs. Edna 
Warburg, Paul M.... 
Willcox, William G., 
Wolff, Mrs. Lewis S 

Pollak, Mrs. Bernard.. 

Pope, Mrs. Willard.... 

Pulitzer, Joseph, Jr.... 

Reid, Mrs. Ogden Mills 

Robinson, Henry M.... 

Rosenbaum, Mrs. E. F. 

UllSapiro, Aaron L 

JScripps, Miss E. B 

Seager, Prof. Henry R. 

Severance, J. L 

Sherard, Mrs. Charlotte 




Brown, James W 

La Monte, Miss Caroline 


Lattimer, Gardner 

Rosenberg, Max L 


Noyes, Henry T 

Pratt, Frederic B 

Rubens, Mrs. Charles.. 
Schaffner, Joseph (In 


Sherwin, Miss Belle... 

Smith, Frederic L 

Stix, Mr. and Mrs. 

Ernest W 

Torsch, E. L 

**Townsend, J. Barton. 



Senter, Miss Augusta.. 

Weeks, Rufus W 

**Lord, Daniel M 

Rice, Mrs. William B.. 








snonymus $25.00 



dams, Miss Jane. . . . 
lis, Mrs. Arthur.. . . •. 
merican Rolling Mill 


iher, L. E 

aldwin, Arthur D 

.aldwin, Mrs. H. P.. . . 

arbey, Henry G 

rtol, Miss E. H 

'.ihrend, Dr. Otto F.. 
'knap, Mrs. M. B.. . . 
lamy, George A. . . . 
s ider, Mrs. Inez J.. . 
Jrd, Charles Sumner 
issell, Miss Eleanor., 
laney, Mrs. Charles D. 

->rg, Mrs. Sidney 

;wer, Franklin N... 
•oklyn Bureau of 


Iks, Miss Bertha G. 
ks, Mrs. Charles. . 
lerhood of Paint- 
Decorators and 


, Prof. William 






:, Robert W 


:aff, Mrs. Florence 


Miss Bertha G.. 


•r, George R 



nam, E. Lewis.. . . 


s, Allen T 



IV.ion, Miss Dorothy A. 


, ;r, Richard B 




;ney, Dr. H. W 


e, Dr. George A 


Council of Jewish Wo- 
men (Rochester Sec- 
tion) 25.00 

Crane, Richard T., III. 25.00 

**Cravath, Paul D 25.00 

Crocker, Mrs. Alvah... 25.00 

dishing, O. K 25.00 

Dakin, Mrs. Henry D.. 25.00 

Dale, Mrs. Joseph S. .. 25.00 

de Forest, Henry L 25.00 

Delano, Frederic A 25.00 

Dennis, Dr. L 25.00 

Doyle, Nicholas A 25.00 

Dreier, Mrs. H. E 25.00 

Du Bois, Mrs. Eugene. 25.00 

Ducharme, George A... 25.00 

Earle, Mrs. E. P 25.00 

Eddy, Sherwood 25.00 

Edwards, William 25.00 

Ehrich, Mrs. Adelaide 

Price 25.00 

Eisenman, Charles 25.00 

Farnsworth, Charles H. 25.00 

"F" 25.00 

Ferry, Dexter 25.00 

Fitzsimmons, ThomasG. 25.010 

Fleet, A. S 25.00 

Flelsher, Alexander 25.00 

Flexner, Bernard 25.00 

Ford, Mrs. Bruce 25.00 

Ford, Mrs. Edsel 25.00 

Ford. Mrs. John Battice 25.00 

Frank, Walter 25.00 

Friedlander, Mrs. Alfred 25.00 

Friedlander, Edgar 25.00 

Gannett, Dr. and Mrs. 

William C 25.00 

George, Miss Julia 25.00 

George, W. D 25.00 

Gifford, Dr. H 25.00 

**Giles, Miss Anne H... 25.0Q 

Gleason, Herbert P 25.00 

♦Goethe, C. M 25.00 

Graham, Arthur Butler 25.00 

Gray, Miss Evelyn 23.00 

Mary Em.c&n A-- ■ • • ' 25.00 

-Hathaway, Miss Martha 

N 25.00 

Hazard, Miss Caroline 25.00) 

Heard, Mrs. Dwight B. 25.00 

Heinz, Howard 25.00 

Higgins, Charles M 25.00 

Hilles, William T 25.00 

Hilton, George 25.00 

Hitch, Mrs. Frederic 

Delano 25.00 

Hoag, Mr. and Mrs. C. G. 25.00 

Holt, Miss Ellen 25.00 

Hoyt, Mrs. John 

Sherman 25.00 

Huyck, Mrs. Edmund N. 25.00 

Hyde, E. Francis 25.00 

Ide, Mrs. Francis P.... 25.00 

Ingraham. Mrs. H. C. M. 25.00 

Ittleson, Henry 25.00 

Ives, Mrs. D. 25.00 

Jackson, Miss Mary 

Louisa 25.00 

Jamison, Miss Margaret 

A 25.00 

Janeway, Chaplain, F. L. 25.00 

Jeffrey, Mrs. Joseph A. 25.00 

Jones, Mrs. Robert McK. 25.00 

Kellcgg, Miss Clara N. 25.00 

Kellogg, Paul U 25.CG 

Kennedy, Prof. F. I 25.00 

Kent, Hon. William... 25.00 

Kng, Clarence 25.00 

Kleinstuck, Mrs. C. G.. 25.00 

Knapp, Judge Martin A. 25.00 

Kuhn, Mrs. Simon 25.00 

Law, B. W 25.00 

Lewis, Theodore J 25.0)6 

Lillie, Frank R 25.00 

Lippincott, Miss Mary 

W 25.00 

Loomis, N. H 25.00 

Ludlow, H. S 25.00 

Lueders, Miss Emma B. 25.00 

**McCormick, Elizabeth 

Memorial Fund 25.00 

McCormick, Miss M. V. 25.00 

McCrea, Nelson G 25.00 

McDowell, G. H 25.00 

McGrath, James 25.00 

*McRae, Milton A 25.00 

Mack, Mrs. Clarence E. 25.00 

Madeira, Mrs. L. C 25.00 

Mason, Miss Mary T... 25.001 

Milbank, Albert G 25.00 

Miller, Nathan J 25.00 

Moore, Mrs. Mary Young 25.00 

**Moors, Mrs. John F... 25.00 

Morley, Frederick H.. . 25.00 

Morrow, Mrs. D. W.... 25.00 

Nash, W. K 25.CD 

Ninde, George 25.00 

Norris, George W 25.00 

**Norton, Miss Grace... 25.00 
Olesen, Dr. and Mrs. 

Robert 25.00 

Paine, Rev. George L.. 25.00 

Parsons, Miss Emma.. 25.00 

**Patten, Dr. Simon N. 25.00i 

**Patterson, Mrs. E. L. 25.00 

**Peabody, Rev. Endicott 25.001 

Peabody, George Foster 25.00 

Perkins, Roger 25.00 

Peters, Mrs. Theodore. 25.00 

**Poole, Ernest 25.00 

**Pope, G. D 25.00 

Pope, Willard 25.00 

Post, Mr. and Mrs. 

Louis F 25.00 

Potts, Thomas C 25.00 

Powlison, Charles F... 25.00 

**Pratt, George D., Jr.. 25.00 

Present, Philip 25.00 

**Price, Mrs. O. J 25.00 

Pyfer, Fred S 25.00 

Rauh, Mrs. A. S 25.00 

Righter, Miss HarrietT. 25.00 

Rogan, Ralph F 25.00 

Rogers, Francis 25.00 

Rosenbaum, Selig 25.00 

Rosenberg, Abraham.. 25.00 

Rosenberg, Edward.... 25.00 

Rosenfeld, Mrs. M. C... 25.00 

Rothermel, John J 25.00 

Rounds, R. S 25.00 

;d_enabled <&. 


Griffith, Miss Alice S. 

King, Henry C 

Marston, Miss Helen D. 

Storrow, Miss Elizabeth 

Bancroft, Mrs. William 

Bloomtield, Meyer 

Courtis, Dr. S. A 

Crosby, Miss Caroline 

Erbsloh, Miss Olga 
tGiese, H. W 

Heimann, Miss Rita... 

Hillard, Miss Mary R. 
**Holt, Mrs. L. E 

Howard, Mrs. C. McH. 

Hunter, Henry C 

Johnson, Arthur S 

McConnell, Rev. Francis 

Musgrove, W. J 

Phelps, Miss Edith M. 

Pinchot, Mrs. Gifford.. 

Routzahn, Mr. and Mrs. 
E. G 

Thompson, Thomas 

Woodman, Miss Mary.. 

Zabrlskie, Mrs. C 

**Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus.. 

**Blochman, L. E 

**Denny, Miss E. G 

**Jones, Miss Myrta L. 
**McCormick, Mrs. R. 


**Moot, Adelbert 


HflGoethe, C. M 


:; Sapiro, Aaron 
Saunders, B. H... 

**Schonblom, H. E 

tSchwarzenbach, Robert 

J. F 25.00 

**Scott, Mrs. H. B 25.00 

Seager, Mrs. Henry R.. 25.00 
Sears, Miss Annie L... 25. 00' 
Seligman, Mrs. Isaac N. 25.00 

Senior, Mrs. Max 25.00 

Sherman, Miss Corinne 


Sioussat, Mr. and Mrs. 

St. George L 25.00 

Sisson, Francis H 25.00 

Smith, Cecil H 25.00 

Smith, Miss Mary Rozet 25.00 

**Spahr, Mrs. Charles B. 25.00 

Spingarn, J. E 25.00 

Stern, Alfred W 25.00 

Stix, Mrs. S. L 25.00 

Stoltze, Mrs. F. H 25.00 

Straus, Mrs. H. Grant 25.00 

Swope, Gerard 25.00 

Thilo, Miss Frances.... 25.00 
Thomas, Mrs. Jerome B. 25.03 

**Thomas, Miss M. Carey 25.00 
Thornley, William H... 25.00 

Thum, William 25.00 

Tiffany, Mrs. Charles L. 25.00 . 

Titsworth, F. S 25.00 J 

Upson, Mrs. H. S 

Van Schalck, John, Jr. 
Villard, Mrs. Henry.... 

Vincent, George E 

Vonnegut, Franklin.... 

Wadsworth, Eliot 

Wald, Miss Lillian D.. 

**Ward, Artemas 

Watson, Miss Esther.. 
Watson, Miss Lucy C. 

Watt, Rolla V 

Weil, Mrs. Henry 25.00 L 

Weil, Mrs. S. M 25.00,*: 

White, Miss Edna May 25.00 K 

White, Kirby B 25.00 

Whitlock, Mrs. Herbert 
iP. (In Memoriam).. 25.00 

Wilcox, Ansley 25.00. 

Wile, Dr. Ira S 25.00 

Willcox, Miss M. A 25.00! 

Williams, Mrs. L. C... 25.00J 

Willock, Harry H 25.0C 

Wilson, Mrs. C. R 25.00' 

Wineman, Henry 25.00 

Wittmer, Henry 25.00( 








15.00 ; 

15.00 c 

15.00 ! 



10.00 f 

10.00 r 








Bing, Alexander M.... 

Fels, Samuel S 

♦Macy, V. Everit 

Burnham, George, Jr. 

*Lasker, Misses and 

Mrs. Rosensohn...:. 

Brandels, Judge Louis 
D. and Mrs 

Epstean, Edward 

Calder, John 

Evans, Mrs. Glendower 

Filene, A. Lincoln.... 

Filene, Edward A 

♦Lewisohn, Sam A 

**Mallery, Otto T. 




ISchwarzenbach, Robert 
J. F 100.00 

Pollak, Julian 100.00 


Blow, Mrs. G. P 

Crunden, Frank P 

Davis, J. Llonberger.. 

Farnam, Prof. Henry 


*Jones, Miss Myrta L. 

**Smith & Kaufmann, 


Weyl, Mrs. Walter E. 

Boyce, C. F....- 

Eddy, L. J... 

*Giese, H. W 

Kaufmann, Fritz 

♦Moot, Adelbert 

Merriman, Christina.. 




Woerishoffer, Mrs. 

Anna $1,000.00 

Lasker, Albert D 500.00 

Dodge, Cleveland H... 250.00 
Scattergood, Mrs. 

Thomas 200.00 

Scattergood, J. Henry 100.00 
Scattergood, Miss 

Margaret 100.00 

**Cadbury, Joel 15.00 

Buzby, Walter J 10.00 





Maier, Paul D. 1 


Morris, Mrs. Marriott 



Rhoads, Charles J 


Rhoades, George A.... 


Thomas, Arthur H.... 


Yarnall, D. Robert 



*de Forest, Robert W. $500.00 

**Feiss, Paul L 25.00 

Charity Organization 

Society, Buffalo 

Big Brother Movement, 


Boston Children's Aid 


Charity Organization 

Society, N. Y 



The Children's Bureau 
of Philadelphia 

Church Home Society 
of Boston 

Seybert Institution.... 

United Charities Asso- 
ciation of Champaign 
and Urbana, Illinois 

United Hebrew Chari 
ties, New York 








Baldwin, William D... $100.00 

Bruere, Hehry 100.00 

Jenkins, Mrs. Helen 

Hartley 100.00 

Post. James H 100.00 

Schiff, Mortimer I 100.00 

Bernhelmer, Charles L. 50.00 

Breed, William C 50.00 

Kohut, Mrs. Alexander 50.00 

Doremus, A. L 10.00 

Ernst, Morris L 10.00 

♦Scripps, Miss E. B $100 

Stern, Mrs. Sigmund.. 100 

**Marston, George W... 25 

Allen, Mrs. Ben S.... 10 

Allen, Mrs. R. C 10 

Ashley, R. I 10, 

Brookings, Mrs. Walter 

DuBois 10.00 

Brown, E. A 10.00 

Brown, Dr. Philip King 10.00 
California Branch, Na- 
tional League for 
Women's Service... 10.00 
California Dairy Coun- 
cil 10.00 

Chase, Miss Pearl 10.00 

Clayburgh, Mrs. H. E. 10.00 
Ehrman, Mrs. Albert 

L 10.00 



Ehrman, Mrs. Alexis 


Gibson, Mrs. Frank A. 
Goodcell, Mrs. Henry.. 

Harper, J. C 

Haslett, Mrs. S. M 

Heller, Mrs. E. S 

Hogue, Mrs. L. B 

Krehbiel, Prof. Edward 

Lewln, Charles L 

McDuffie, Mrs. Duncan 

Macneil, Sayre 

Peixotto, Dr. Jessica 

Plschel, Mrs. Kaspar. . 
Putnam, Mrs. Osgood 
Richardson, Miss Ethel 
Sackett, Miss Mary M. 

Sapiro, Milton D 

Workman, Miss Mary 
Wright, George H. B.. 

10. 0Q 



International Y. W. C. Czecho Slovak Embassy 
A $1,500.00 (for cover) 300.00 

* Gave also to General Fund 
** Paid also Cooperating Subscription 
*** Deceased 
Ml Gave also to Sustaining Membership 

% Gave also to California Fund 

II Gave also to Foreign Service Fund 
tt Gave also to Family and Child Welfare Fund 

t Gave also to Industry Fund 



Fiscal Year, 1920-1921 

As of September 30, 1921 
with Certificate of Audit 


Commercial receipts 

Subscriptions $51,796.82 

II dvertising 15,820.29 

O rofit from Jobbing 1,077.19 

liscounts Earned 731.60 

M liscellaneous 49.73 $69,475.63 



E eneral: 

u La.ger Contributions $30,943.00i 

m Cooperating Sub- 

_J scriptions 11,320.00 $42,263.00 



Industry $3,785.00 

pjFamily Welfare 
■i Foreign Service ... 

H ., 

*1/.icted Grants.. 



6,680.00 48,943.00 



•Manufacturing $37,760.29 

Jitorial Department: 

iditorial General $20,179.40 

[ndustry 3,779.44 

-oreign Service 3,104.76 

r amily Welfare 3,794.64 

Health 1,125.90 

Education 3,056.32 

'ivies 2,949.78 37,990.24 

Tfcscription Department: 

Tdxtension $15,972.95 

Routine 7,692.81 23.665.76 

/ertising Department 13,210.03 

Jmbership Department 5,558.63 

linistration Department 22,482.27 

[plus for the Year 1920-21. 



[Surplus on October 1, 1920 $ 193.66 

[Surplus shown by General Statement for Fiscal 

Year 1920-21 251.36 

Total $ 445.02 

Less Contributions Included in 1919-20, not realized 170.00 


Salaries $64 

Stationary and Office Printing 7 

Postage. Including Mailing of Magazine 6 

Composition, Presswork and Binding 25 

Paper 15. 

Storage and Insurance .' 

Engraving 1 



Addressing 1 

Annual Report 

Travel 2 

News-stand and Advertising 



Press Service 

Special Investigations 

Special Funds 


Telephone and Telegraph 1 

Rent 4 



Maintenance 1 



Sundry Expenses 1 




Total $140,667.27 


Deficit Oct. 1, 1920. 
Balance Oct. 1, 1920. 



From General Fund 

Disbursed 1920-21. 











$2-81 5. c 3 

Balance Sept. 30, 1921. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1920'. , 



From General Fund. 


Foreign Prague Unemploy- 
Travel Issue ment 

$1,800.00 $670.00 


170.53 165.85 

Total $..900.00 $1,970.53 $956.14 

Disbursed 1920-21 1,829.22 1,970.53 956.14 

Balance Sept. 30, 1921 , 


Surplus on September 30, 1921 $ 275.02 

We have audited the accounts of the Survey Associates, 
Inc., for the twelve months ended September 30, 1921, and 
certify that the above statement agrees with the books and 
is correct. 

New York, Nov. 1, 1921 Certified Public Accountants 

30 Broad Street, New York City 


OCT. I, 1921-SEPT. 30, 1922 




ITH the close of the Russell Sage Foundation grants 
which ceased September 30 last we must make up a 
gap of one-third in our non-commercial income. 

(Last year their appropriation was $22,500.) 

From now on Survey Associates must stand or fall as a 
cooperative undertaking. Let us not put it that way. 
We stand if our living endowment of convinced friends 
and well-wishers hold their ground by renewing member- 
ships and contributions of earlier years and if in the face 
of hard times we can make normal gains in growth as an 

If we bring our roster of $10 cooperating sub- 
scribers to 1,500 or $15,000 

(last year they numbered 1,132) 

If we bring our $25 sustaining subscribers to 

250 or $6,250 

(last year they numbered 218) 

If we bring our $50 contributors to 50 or. . . . $2,500 

(last year they numbered 24) 

If we bring our $100 contributors to 100 or. . $10,000 

(last year they numbered 54) 

If larger contributors and contributors to spe- 
cial departments bring the total to $50,000 

(last year the total was $48,943) 

We shall hope to match these contributions with 

commercial receipts of roughly $75,000 

(last year they amounted to $68,475) 

And thus clear our year. 

WE appeal for these contributions for the general budget 
of the SURVEY or for special activities incorporated in 
it as follows: 

Health $2,000 

Civics 2,000 

Education 2,500 

Foreign Service 3,500 

Family and Child Welfare. . 4,000 
Industry . ~ 5,000 

TO launch SURVEY GRAPHIC as an illustrated monthly 
and a medium of social interpretation we need a develop- 
ment fund of $40,000 a year for four years. We have 
pledges covering three-quarters of this sum. We appeal for 
$11,000 a year for four years in units of $1,000 to $5,000. 


I ("f, 1 "*^) dollars, as a contribution to the 

Educational Funds of Survey Associates for the present fiscal 


A gift of $10 or more to the editorial and field 

work of The Survey makes the contributor eligible 

for election as a member of Survey Associates and 

I O covers, also, the regular $5 weekly subscription. 

112 East 19 Street, New York City 


Publishers of 

Robert W. de Forest, President 

Vice Presidents 

Henry R. Seager V. Everit Macy 

Arthur P. Kellogg, Treasurer 

Ann Reed Brenner, Secretary 

Jane Addams Lillian D. Wald 

Robert W. de Forest Henry R. Seager 
Julian W. Mack Edward T. Devine 

Helen S. Pratt Alexander M. Bing 

Samuel McCune LindsayJohn M. Glenn 
Agnes B. Leach J. Henry Scattergood 


Jane Addams Chicago 

Ernest P. Bicknell Washington 

Alexander M. Bing New York 

Mary Burnham Philadelphia 

Richard C. Cabot Boston 

Frances G. Curtis Boston 

J. Lionberger Davis St. Louis 

Robert W. de Forest New York 

Edward T. Devine New York 

Livingston Farrand Ithaca 

Samuel S. Fels Philadelphia 

Lee K. Frankel New York 

John M. Glenn New York 

C. M. Goethe Sacramento 

William E. Harmon N e w York 

John Randolph Haynes Los Angeles 

Morris Knowles Pittsburgh 

Loula D. Lasker New York 

Agnes B. Leach New York 

Joseph Lee Bosto> 

Samuel McCune Lindsay New Yot 

Julian W. Mack New Yot 

V. Everit Macy ...New Yc£ 

Milton A. McRae Detr. 

Simon N. Patten Philadelpl,* 

Helen S. Pratt New Yc 1 * 

Julius Rosen wald Chicafl 

John A. Ryan Washingto, 

J. Henry Scattergood Philadelphfc 

Henry R. Seager New Yor 

Graham Taylor Chica< 

Lillian D. Wald New YoU 

William Templeton Johnson San Die. 


Bruno Lasker S. Adele Shaw aB 

Joseph K. Hart Paul L. Benjami 

Edward T. Devine Graham Taylor 
Jane Addams 
Graham R. Taylor 
Winthrop D. Lane 
William L. Chenery 

Florence Kelley 
John A. Fitch 
Michael M. Davis, 
Arthur Gleason 



Marion C. Calkins Mary Se 

Harold J. Laski, London Correspondent or 
Charles Cestre, Paris Correspondent 


Business Manager 917. 

John D. Kenderdine, Asst. Business Mg 
Mary R. Anderson, Advertising 
Hettie T. Amsdell, Subscriptions 
Martha Hohmann, Cashier 


Survey Associates, Inc., is a member™ 
corporation, chartered November 4, 
without shares or stockholders, under 
laws of the state of New York — «phy 

"to advance the cause of constructive phi 1 
anthropy by the publication and circulatio 
of books, pamphlets, and periodicals, an ji 
by conducting any investigation useful c I 
necessary for the preparation thereof. " t 1, 

Contributions to institutions orgaif 
like Survey Associates, for education! 
charitable purposes under the New * J6 < 
membership corporation law, are deductibi 
from state and national income taxes. 





ot l 


NA - 
A. ( 












■ atrai 

|\ PRC 

U ■ Mel ) 










Sai 1 


JWm R. Commons 


The Case of Korea .... 
Mexico Righting Herself 
The Senators Tour West Virginia 
Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel 
The Cardiff Meeting 

Herbert Adolphus Miller 

Henry Bruere 

Winthrop D. Lane 

Taraknath Das 

Harold J. Laski 


i Cents a Copy 

October 1, 1921 

$5.00 a Year 

THE SURVEY FO R ^ ^TOBER 1, 192 1 


ERS— Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Misa Ruth V. 
Ehaerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
ington. t>. C. Organization to promote development of social work 
In hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

Andrews, sec'y.; 131 E. 23rd St., New York. For adequate public 
employment service; Industrial safety and health laws; workmen's 
compensation; unemployment, old age and health Insurance; mater- 
nity protection: one dav*s rest In seven; efficient law enforcement. 
Publishes quarterly, "The American Labor Legislation Review." 

National Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, 
director, 130 East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of 
professional social workers devoted to raising social work stand- 
ards and requirements. Membership opened to qualified social 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knlpp, sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. 
Urges prenatal, obstetrical and Infant care; birth registration; ma- 
ternal nursing; Infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre- 
school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU — An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession of 
community leadership. Address our nearest office — 

Trihune Building, New York. 

183 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 

T16 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field, pres.; C. J. Galpin, ex. sec; E. C. Llndeman, Greensboro, N. C, 
field secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 

Cooper, sec'y.; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, 
$8.00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call. Secretary and Editor, 612-614 
Colorado Building. Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION — Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Next Con- 
gress Jacksonville, Florida, October 28 — November 3, 1921. O. F. 
Lewis, General Secretary, 135 East 16 street, New York city. 

J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues. $5. 

Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of 
sound sex educalon. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
request. Annual membership dues, $2. Membership Includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

New Yerk. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Chairman: Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector. To arouse public Interest In the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children In the forming of health habits; 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public healtn 
workers and health literature for children; to advise In organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to Im- 
prove standards a/id methods In the different fields of work with 
children and to make available In any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
with any agency, with a view to assisting It in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 22nd 
St., New York. 

York. Organized In February. 1919, to nelp people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps In 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will, If desired, serve In an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher. sec'y. 

New York. Miss Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, 
ex. sec'y. Promotes Social Betterment through Religion, Social 
Welfare, Education and Civic Co-operation in U. S„ Canada and 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, 
sec'y. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
hereditary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

ICA— Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev Chas S 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St New York! 
Commission on the Church and Social Service— Rev. Worth M 
Tippy, exec sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y.; Agnei 
H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE-J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 
pres.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton. Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
school. Free Illustrated literature. 

Culbert Fanes, dir., 101 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free In- 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means tor rehabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other special agenci t in plans to put 
the disabled man "back on the payroll." () 


fnt°Ju £ ry ; , 70 t FI «h Avenue, New York City. O.>ct-to promote an 
intelligent interest in Socialism among college men and women. An- 
nual membership,- $3, .;, and $25; includes monthly, "The Socialist 
Review." Special rates for students. ouwauai 

OR , ED „ PEO f LE — Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec y.; 70 Fifth Aye., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000. with 36* 
branches. Membership, $1 upward. 

Rush Taggart, pres.; Mrs. Robert L. Dikcinson, treas.; Virgil V 
Johnson, sec'y.; 26 West 43rd St., New York. Composed of non-com- 
mercial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance phy- 1 
eical, social. Intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- ; 
men. Student, city, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding house 7 " 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment- BU 0lt 
.study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. ['fi 

nnZ^frl- r C f l K THO k IC WELFARE COUNCIL-Official Nation^* 

Body of the Catholic Organization's of the country. 
National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N ^3 

Washington, D. C. J'ai 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. J 

Department of Education— Rev. James H. Ryan. Exec Sec'vw- 
Bureau of Education— A, C. Monahan, Director. ' 

Department of Laws and Legislation— William J. Cochran 
Department of Social Action— Directors, John A. Ryan and J 
A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity— Director, Justin McGrai 
Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 5n n 

National Council of Catholic Men— President, Richmond De- 
Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. " > h . 

National Council of Catholic Women— President, Mrs. Michael I 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 1 l. n . 

National Training School for Women, Washington, D C — Di 
Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. ] [,« 

Bureau of Immigration— National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. I 

tttw 01 ^ £ H ,1 LD .t LAB x 0R , COMMITTEE-Owen R. Lovejoy, J }?* 

105 East 22nd St., New York. Industrial, agricultural investl-cat 
\Vorks for improved laws and administration; children's codes 
dies health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency etc' 

American Ch ? kV" * 2 ' * 5 ' $1 °' * 25, &nd $1 °° ; lncludes Quarterly; 

Powhson gen. sec y ; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and! 017 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditl 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Coo' 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child wel r 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exh 
child welfare campaigns, etc. 

a) J! er , :E k- Jarnes ' pr , es - : Dr - Th omas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Assc 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Ai 

Pamnh/it^r,^ B + ee , r l' 8 ? c ' y; 37 ° Sevent « Avenue, New York 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, fa 
mindedness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminology, war neuroses an] 
education psychiatric social service, backward children, sui 
state societiea "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

pr t?'^?? st0 > n; T^-, H - Park er, gen. sec'y.. 23 East 9th S{«f^» " 
nati, Ohio. General organization to discuss principles of hun.?^' 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes procef" ■*.. fc 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Inform*., "-' 
bureau Membership, $3. 49th annual meeting. Providence, R. 
June 1922. Main Divisions and chairmen: | »*» 

Children— J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. | 

Delinquents and Correction— Louis Robinson. M. D. PhiladelpH 

Health— Donald B. Armstrong, M. D. New York. 

Public Agencies and Institutions— George S. Wilson, Washlngtc 

The Family— Frank J. Bruno, Minneapolis. 

Industrial and Economic Problems— John Shillady. New York. 70, 
The Local Community— George C. Bellamy, Cleveland. 
Mental Hygiene— George A. Hastings, New York. > *h. 

organization of Social Forces— C. M. Bookman, Cincinnati. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America— (Temporal 

I nior 






NESS— Edward 1VI. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 

■ field sec'y; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22nd bt., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures publish literature of movement— samples tree, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l. sec'y.; John R. Shillady, exec, director. 
Fromotes legislation for enlightened standards for women and 
minors in industry and for honest products; minimum wage commis- 
sions, eight hours' day, no night work, federal regulation food 
and packing industries; -'honest cloth" legislation. Publications 

•ec'y 20 Union Park, Boston. Derelops broad forms of comparative 
mudy and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seek* the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
«lne "National Municipal Review," containing articles and reports on 
politics, administration and city planning. The League is a clearing 
house for information on short baUot, city, country and state govern- 
ments. Henry M. Waite. pres.; H. W. Dodds, sec'y; 261 (A) Broad- 
way, New York. Dues, ?5.00 a year. 


Ella Phillips Crandall. R. N. exec, sec'y; 370 Seventh Are.. New To*. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing, to 
develop standards of technique; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse " subscription 
Included in membership. Dues, J3.00 and upward. Subscription $3.00 
~- per year. 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education. Institutions, nursing problems and other 
Dhases of tuberculosis work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoor Life." "American Review 
of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 

„ Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 

127 E 23 St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 

people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, 
Illinois To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, Americanization, and other allied fields of endeavor. 
Official publication, "The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government In the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor," 


— H. S. Braucher, sec'y.; 1 Madison Ave., New York Cly. Play- 
ground, neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence, the Eugenics Registry, and leeture courses and various allied 
ctivities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver. sec'y. 

'SSELL SAGE FOUNDATION — For the Improvment of Living 
Vlitions— John M. Glenn, dlr.; 130 E, 22nd St., New York. Depart- 
u x v Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education. Statistics, 
K«. \\tion. Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
died Mbra»y, Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Rui Sa& 3 Foundation offer to the public In practical and lnex- 

EenV fo :' i some of the most Important results of its work. Cata- 
>gue dent lpon request. 

TUSKEGEi INSTITUTE— An institution for the training of Negro 

Youth; aw xperiment in race adjustment In the Black Belt of the 

**~-«th; fur; shes information on all phases of the race problem and 

. the Tu/ sgee Idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 

L,ogan, tr« .; A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y., Tuskegee, Ala. 

SURVEY iSOCIATES, INC. — A non-commercial cooperative organ- 
ization wl out shares or stockholders incorporated under the mem- 
bership la of the State of New York. Robert W. deForest, pres.; 
John M. I »nn, Henry R. Seager, V. Everit Macy, vice-presidents; 
Arthur Pi vellogg. sec'y-treas. Publishers of The Survey, weekly. 
The Surd I s work is conducted under the following editorial staff: 

Editor,/ 1 .ul U. Kellogg 

Civics, foreign Service, Bruno Lasker 

Social Forces, Edward T. Devine 

Industry, William L. Chenery 

/ School and Community, Joseph K. Hart 
/ Family Welfare, Child Welfare, Paul L. Benjamin. 

Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw 
Cooperating Subscription (membership) $10. Regular subscription 
IS yearly. 112 East 19 Street. New York Citv. 

Vol. XL VII, No. 1 


October 1, 1921 


Unemployment .... 

The Case of Korea - 

The Pool of Bethseda - 

Mr. Zero 

Mexico Righting Herself 

Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel 

The Senators Tour West Virginia 

The Cardiff Meeting 

John R. Commons 

Herbert Adolphus Miller 

Marion Clinch Calkins 

William L. Chenery 

Henry Bruere 

Taraknath Das 

Winthrop D. Lane 

Harold J. Laski 









Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 

Contributing Editors 




Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W . deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 25 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; Canadian, 
65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in advance. 
When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 
Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y ., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1907, 
authorized on June 26, 1918. 

national council 

Jane Addams Chicago 

Ernest P. Bicknell Washington 

Alexander M. Bing New York 

Mary Burnham Philadelphia 

Richard C. Cabot Boston 

Frances G. Curtis Boston 

J. Lionberger Davis St. Louis 

Edward T. Devine New York 

Livingston Farrand Washington 

Samuel S. Fels Philadelphia 

Lee K. Frankel New York 

John M. Glenn New York 

C. M. Goethe Sacramento 

William E. Harmon New York 

John Randolph Haynes..Los Angeles 
Morris Knowles Pittsbtirsh 

Loula D. Lasker New York 

Agnes B. Leach New York 

Joseph Lee Boston 

Samuel McCune Lindsay. . .New York 

Julian W. Mack New York 

V. Everit Macy New York 

Milton A. McRae Detreit 

Simon N. Patten Philadelphia 

Helen S. Pratt New York 

Julius Rosenwald Chicago 

John A. Ryan Washington 

J. Henry Scattergood .... Philadelphia 

Henry R. Seager New York 

Graham Taylor Chicago 

Lillian D. Wald New York 

Wm. Templeton Johnson ... San Diegs 

The GIST of IT 

JOHN R. COMMONS, of the department of economics 
of the University of Wisconsin, drafted the Huber Un- 
employment Prevention bill which was before the Wisconsin 
legislature last winter and which will be introduced in the 
coming session. 

Taraknath Das is an Indian by bir* 4 *., but an American 
citizen. He is executive secretary o* e Friends of Freedom 
for India. He received his M. P a Political Science and 
a fellowship in the same subjf from the University of 
Washington, and has lived in .id intimately studied Asian 
countries. He is author of a oook on Asian politics and has 
lectured in Williams College and Harvard University. 

Winthrop D. Lane, contributing editor of the Survey, last 
winter spent six weeks in the West Virginia coal fields for 
the New York Evening Post. His report, Civil War in 
West Virginia, has since been published with an introduction 
by John R. Commons. He is now spending three weeks in 
West Virginia preparing a series of articles for the Survey. 

Harold J. Laski, of the School of Economics of London, is 
London correspondent of the Survey. 

Herbert Adolphus Miller is professor of sociology in Ober- 
lin College. 

Henry Bruere, vice-president of the American Metal Com- 
pany, is director of the National Railways of Mexico. He 
returned to this country in August after two months in 

The Survey> Vol. XLVII, No. 1. Published weekly by the Survey Associates, Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-class 
■utter, March 25, 1909, at 't oost-office. New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided 
^V for in Section 1103, Act %t October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 



Conducted by 


A new school year is beginning. What should school mean ? 

All about us are world problems, national problems, local 
community problems, personal problems; not fewer problems 
but more face us than a year ago. How shall we deal with 
them? Must they be faced? Or may they be ignored, denied, 
escaped ? 

In this Study Column, last year, certain ways of meeting 
the problems of the world were examined. Those who fol- 
lowed the development'/ of the year will recall the results that 
emerged. There are i number of distinctive attitudes which 
the varied members or a community assume in their dealings 
with problems. 

1 Drift: 
♦ Any problem will settle itself, somehow, sooner or later, 
in the long run. To be sure, it will settle itself back into the 
old ruts of habit, and "just hang 'round" until it gets a chance 
to emerge again in more extreme form. Problems can't be safely 
ignored forever. 

2 Let the Gbvernment do it! 
♦ Individual abdication of responsibility and the growing feel- 
ing that all our problems should be handled by the government 
are evidence of weakness, of some sort, in our social structure. 
Is that weakness inherent in human nature? Is it the result of 
our education? Is it admission of the failure of democracy? Must 
we eventually turn over all social directing to our "best minds"? 

3 Reorganize society on the basis of some fixed pro- 
♦ gram of distributed responsibilities. Give every in- 
dividual, group, community a fixed amount of defined 

That will get every one into the world's work, and it will assure 
the doing of the world's work. That it will make most people 
mere cogs in a big mechanism seems to be no fundamental criticism 
of it in the minds of many. 

4 Revert again and again to the principle of individ- 
♦ ual responsibility, and the social task of educating 
all individuals for a full acceptance of their share of the 
social load as well as the social reward. 

But individual responsibility in a democracy is a very difficult 
attitude to distinguish and to achieve. What should it mean? 
What has it meant to many who have called themselves democrats? 
What are some of the things it might mean? 

a. It might mean the assertion by all sorts of individuals of 
their own dominant prejudices, preferences, inertias, belated 
attitudes of mind- Must a democratic social order submit to 
the demands of minds that are still lost in the most primitive 
mazes of prejudice? 

b. It might mean the combining of strong individuals for the 
purpose of controlling or "putting over" some private program 
on the community, the nation, the world. Must democracy be 
at the mercy of ruthless men who hold that they have the right 
to use their strength to the limit for their own private gain? 

c. It may some time come to mean the development of 
thoughtfulness about all aspects of living on the part of the 
members of the community. 

In the midst of such problems as these, is there any place 
for study? 

Does any one know the ultimate answers to these problems ? 
Where may those answers be found? Who is able to assure 
us that the answers are final ? Which is the more important 
in education, getting the answers, or getting the problems? 

Social Work Visualized 

Propaganda, in the form of motion pictures, used 
separately or in conjunction with the printed word, 
will make your financial appeal successful. The film 
makes the necessary effective and vivid impression on 
the minds of the persons you wish to reach. 

E. G. ROUTZAHN says: 

"If we wish to teach a vital lesson to a group of un- 
informed, lethargic and, perhaps, antagonistic men and 
women, we must do more than show them a number 
of reels of mediocre film. A good many films have 
been produced from poorly-prepared scenarios by 
people who lacked experience in the handling of the 

Because of my ten years' experience in Social Work, 
coupled with several years intensive work in the pro- 
duction and distribution of motion pictures, makes me 
eminently qualified to put your ideas over with the 

No matter what your problem is, I know I can 
help you solve it. Write me fully and I will work 
out a plan, without placing you under any obliga- 
tion to me. 


Church and School Film Service 
121 East 125th St New York, N. Y. 

Producer of Peerless Publicity Pictures. 


at moderate rates, on social topics. Suitable for forums, 
chambers of commerce, clubs, schools, etc. 

Homer Folks says: "I cannot think of any man in the 
United States whom I would rather have talk to the Amer- 
ican people on social work than FREDERIC ALMY," and 
Bishop Brent, George E. Vincent, Raymond Robins, Thomas 
Mott Osborne and Edward T. Devine give similar 

For terms and subjects, address 


396 Delaware Are., Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Quaker Challenge to a World of Force 

An Address by 


To be had FREE by addressing 


140 No. 15th St., Phila., Pa. 

well done, with good materials, and gold lettering. 
Survey — Natl. Geographic Magazine and other period- 
icals. $1.65. Ecceung Book-Bindery, 114 East 13th 
St., New York City. 


We assist in preparing special articles, papers, speeches, de- 

bates. Expert, scholarly 
Bureau, 500 Fifth Avenue 

service. Author's Researci 
New York. 


Compensation and Prevention 

By John R. Commons 

THE credit problem is our biggest labor problem, 
because it lies at the bottom of the question of un- 
employment and that question is the point of bit- 
terest contact between capital and labor today. 
One might even say that socialism and trade unionism are 
both founded on the fear of unemployment. 

It is with this conviction that leaders of opinion in Wiscon- 
sin, the state which so often has been the pioneer in industrial 
legislation, have devoted much thought to the problem of un- 
employment prevention. The result of this, in tangible form, 
has been the so-called Huber Unemployment Prevention bill, 
which was before the legislature last winter and the enactment 
. of which will again be urged during the coming session. 

The three main causes of unemployment are the labor turn- 
over, the seasons, and the credit system. The labor turnover as 
a cause of unemployment is not a serious matter. Rather is it a 
good feature of modern liberty. Liberty means labor turnover ; 
it means that the worker can quit one job and go to another ; it 
means that the employer who is dissatisfied with the inefficiency 
or misconduct of the employe can dismiss him and he can look 
for a job for which he is better fitted. Consequently in the 
Huber bill for the insurance and prevention of unemploy- 
ment before the recent Wisconsin Legislature, it is provided 
that the first three days of unemployment shall not be con- 
sidered unemployment. The bill places the date of the 
beginning of unemployment compensation the fourth day 
after the workman is laid off. Labor turnover can be ac- 
commodated on about three days' time for hunting a job if 
employment is steady. 

The question of labor turnover may not be considered a 
serious feature of the unemployment problem. It has other 
evils, however. It is expensive to the employer. Better for 
him is a steady force of good and willing workers, who feel 

»that his industry is a place where they want to stay for life. 
Yet there are establishments that go on the other basis. They 
consider it is better for them to have a procession of floaters 
than it is to have steady workers. This is a matter of choice, 
largely, with the management. 

tThe summer and winter seasons are not the most serious 

problem of unemployment.' They are a cycle which comes 
regularly every year. Certain industries have a busy period 
in the summer, others in the winter. Consequently with 
a regularly recurring cycle, both the firms and the work- 
men learn to adjust themselves. In some cases the adjust- 
ment is made by hiring men by the year on a salary basis; 
in other cases by dovetailing industries, such as the coal and 
ice business. If that is not accomplished, then there remains 
the alternative: Pay the worker higher wages during the 
busy season, so that he can tide himself over until the follow- 
ing busy season which can be calculated upon. The leading 
example is in the building trades in northern sections. The 
building workmen receive high wages, say a dollar an hour, 
but as they work only about eight months a year, that dollar 
an hour is equivalent to only about sixty-five cents an hour 
through the year. The building trade mechanic ordinarily 
does not have any other occupation that he can dovetail, so 
that in the busy season we pay him a dollar an hour, sixty- 
five cents of which is wages, and thirty-five cents of which 
is a kind of insurance in order that he may be on hand the 
next season when we want to open up business. Yet there 
are large building contractors who are learning how to spread 
their work over the year. 

Where the industry does not equalize itself, the employer 
must make some special arrangement in order to keep labor 
steadily employed throughout the year. One of the illustrious 
examples in this country is the Dennison Manufacturing 
Company of Framingham, Mass. This company started as 
manufacturers of Christmas trinkets. Their busy season be- 
gan in September, when the retailers ordered their goods, 
and ended with about three or four months of intense crowd- 
ing and overwork. Then they adopted a definite purpose of 
stabilizing their business. They did it by various devices, 
well known to manufacturers at the present time. They co- 
ordinated their sales department with their production depart- 
ment and it became the business of their salesmen to induce 
the retailers to order in advance so that the manufacturing 
could come along throughout the year instead of being con- 
centrated in one season. Now they begin manufacturing 





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1810 1820 1830 

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Christmas cards fifteen months before they are actually sold 
to the ultimate consumer. They introduced many other 
products to which their employes could be transferred, and 
they trained their workers so that they might change from 
one occupation to another or something nearly like it. New 
they manufacture several thousand different articles, and for 
several years they have had no unemployment. They have 
stabilized their industry by dovetailing and spreading out. 
It has required ingenuity, good management, and good sales- 
manship, but it has been accomplished. 

Modern business can stabilize seasonal employment if it 
is deemed worth while, and can even stabilize the credit 
cycle. Mr. Redfield, former secretary of commerce, has cited 
his own case, in the metal industries, where since the year 
1890 they had not laid off a man on account of lack of work. 
In the hard times of 1893 to 1897 it was skating on thin ice, 
and they had great difficulties but they succeeded. It was 
accomplished through division of labor on the part of the 
management. It was the business of the sales department to 
adapt itself to the work of the production department. 

This idea is well recognized. The sales department must 
be subject to the production department, so that rush orders 
are not taken on that cannot be delivered except by an over- 
expansion of the business with a certainty that men must be 
laid off after the rush orders have been finished. The cycle 
of unemployment is the cycle of rush orders. When credit 
is good and prosperity is around, people will not wait. The 
business man thinks then that he must expand his factory; 
he must take on more laborers, he must get out his orders 
quickly or somebody else is going to get those orders. A 
great firm in Wisconsin pulled in laborers from the farms 
and Negroes from the South, then suddenly laid them off, 
to be supported and policed by a little city. 

But more important than the employer is the banker as 
the stabilizer of employment. During the recent over- 
expansion a certain manufacturer applied for a loan of 
$250,000 in order to enlarge the plant. The banker turned 
the application over to the bank's industrial engineer, recently 
added to the staff, and he showed the manufacturer how, by 
better economy and better labor management, he could get 
along without that loan of $250,000. The banker put the 
screws on the manufacturer. Six or eight months afterward, 
when the collapse came, the manufacturer was profuse with 
thanks to the banker. The service of refusing him credit 

in order to prevent expansion was much greater than would 
have been the service of furnishing him credit. 

The banking system, w T hich is the center of the credit 
system, more than the business man who is the actual em- 
ployer, can stabilize industry, and, in stabilizing industry, 
stabilizes employment. The difficulty is that no one individual 
can do it alone ; no bank can do it by itself ; no one business 
man can do it by himself ; it is a collective responsibility and 
collective action is necessary. If one person is trying to 
stabilize his industry by not over-expanding and not taking 
too many rush orders, he simply knows that his competitors 
will get his business. But if all the business men, who are 
competing with each other, know that the banks are treating 
the others in the same way, then stabilization might be ex- 
pected to work. So that the inducement to stabilize employ- 
ment in order that it may be really effective must not only 
take the example of those manufacturers who have pioneered 
the way themselves, but must interest the entire banking sys- 
tem of the state or nation in the plan. 

Now the Huber bill proposes that when an employer lays 
off a man, if the man has had six months' work in the state 
during the year, the employer shall pay him a dollar a day for 
a period of thirteen weeks, and pay the state ten cents a day 
additional toward expenses of administration. This creates 
a possible liability of about $90, added to every man taken 
on in case he is laid off through no fault of his own, but 
simply through fault of the management. It means an added 
liability which the employer assumes when he hires a work- 
man, so that, under such circumstances, it should be expected 
that when an employer wants to expand, and he ordinarily 
cannot expand except by getting credit, he will go to the 
bank for additional credit and the banker will necessarily 
inquire as to what security he has that, at the end of these 
rush orders, he will be able to continue the employment or 
pay that possible $90. In other words, the business man 
and the banker together are the controllers of credit, and it 
is the control of credit which can stabilize business. Th: 
over-expansion of credit is the cause of unemployment, and 
to prevent the over-expansion of credit you place an insurance 
liability on the business man against the day when he lays 
off the workmen. 

As to the practicability of a proposition of this kind, un- 
employment insurance is already in existence in seven or eight 
countries, with a somewhat different system. It was started 
some twenty-five years ago in Switzerland, with a system 
which broke down because wrongly conceived. It then spread 
to Belgium where it has been in operation for some twenty 
years; then to Denmark some fifteen years ago; then Eng- 
land took it up on the grandest scale yet known. It applied 
in England, some ten years ago, to two million workmen, but 
since the war the number has been increased until the law 
applies to twelve million workmen. Italy followed the 
example of England. Norway has established the system. 
It appears that the industrial unrest in England and Den- 
mark would before now have brought revolution had it not 
been for this unemployment insurance. By taking note of 
the experience of these countries, it is possible for America 
to improve upon their systems. In the Huber bill most of 
the rules and regulations, the interpretations of the law and 
the procedure, are taken from the British system. The British 
system was established in 1912. It was revised in 1920 and 
these particular rules and regulations were not materially 
changed. They had been working satisfactorily for eight or 
nine years and are now continued. 


Types served by the public employment offices of Wisconsin 

In the first place, a worker under the British rules is not 
entitled to compensation benefits if he leaves his work of his 
own accord or if he is discharged because of inefficiency or 
misconduct. He is not entitled to compensation if the un- 
employment is caused by strikes of lockouts either in his own 
shop or in related shops. No strike or lockout entitles a 
person to the unemployment benefit. He is required to ac- 
cept a job which is offered to him through the public employ- 
ment offices, a job which must be substantially equivalent in 
compensation and conditions to the one which he has, and 
not too remote from his home. Yet if travelling expenses 
are paid by the employer he can be required to take a remote 
job. Of course he cannot literally be compelled to take the 
job, but if he does not take it his unemployment compensation 
ceases and the employer's liability is discontinued. 

The workman must apply to these public employment 
offices for vacant jobs. There is at every employment office a 
board of arbitration to settle disputes. If the workman claims 
compensation and the employer denies it, the claim can be 
taken up by a board appointed by the government, consisting 
of one employer, one employe, and a third party. The em- 
ployment officer in the first case makes a record as to what 
the job is and he then notifies the employer whether the man 
is entitled to compensation or not. If the employer objects, 
he can appeal to this board which meets every Saturday in 
an informal way at the employment office. If the workman 
objects he can appeal to the board of three, and finally, if 
that does not settle the claim, he can appeal to an umpire. 
In England they have one umpire to settle all of these cases 
on appeal, and during the first four or five years there were 
only fifteen hundred cases appealed to this umpire. Any 
person, reading the decisions of that umpire, can easily 
ascertain how the law worked, for there are interpreted all 
the points as to whether the person is entitled to the un- 
employment benefit or not. 

The evils of the European systems are two- fold: In the 
first place the state goes into the insurance business and 
operates an insurance fund, and in the second place the find- 
ing of jobs is left largely to the trade unions. 

The system which was started in St. Gall, Switzerland, 
twenty-five years ago, broke down in two years. It provided 
for compulsory insurance on every workman. The workman 

was to insure himself. The state did not contribute and the 
employer did not contribute, but the workman was assessed 
and he had to pay into a state fund for his own benefit in 
case of unemployment. The result was that workmen began 
to leave the canton. The system broke down. 

It was next taken up about fifteen years ago in the city 
of Ghent, Belgium. A different feature was added. It pro- 
vided that if any association of workmen of a voluntary 
character should be organized for the relief of unemployment 
and the accumulation of a fund, the city of Ghent would add 
one-half of the amount that the association paid out. In 
other words the city of Ghent subsidized the trade unions, 
which were the only organizations that could take advantage 
of the law. They have already their out-of-work funds; 
they already have their employment offices, their business 
agent to find jobs, and the city of Ghent comes to their aid, 
subsidizes them by paying practically one half the amount 
that the union itself had paid. Apparently the only reason 
why that system has worked in Ghent and has spread over 
Belgium is because certain individuals have given very great 
and careful attention to it. 

When the same system, applied in Denmark, had resulted 
in great abuses, and the law was revised in 1920, it was pn> 
vided that the unions should no longer decide whether a man 
was entitled to compensation benefit or not. A state officer 
was appointed whose business is that of an umpire to decide 
as between the union and the state. The practice of sub- 
sidizing the unions was continued, but the provision took 
out of the hands of the unions the decision as to whether 
the union is entitled to the state subsidy or not. 

When England took it up, ten to fifteen years after these 
other countries, she adopted an entirely new idea: that the 
three parties were to contribute. The workman was to con- 
tribute something like five cents a week, the employer five 
cents a week, and the state two and a half cents a week. 
This money was to be put into a state fund, operated by the 
government. But England retained the feature that if a 
trade union was paying out-of-work benefits it could present 
a bill to the government showing the amount of money it had 
paid out and the government would refund to the union the 
amount called for by the insurance scheme. 




These theories and practices in Europe have been based 
upon the idea, first, that unemployment is something that 
cannot be prevented, that it is something inevitable, and that, 
this being the case, a philanthropic system to aid working 
people when out of work should be established; second, that 
the state should both contribute to the fund and operate the 
insurance business. 

The Huber bill, introduced in Wisconsin, abandons the 
idea that the state can operate the system successfully or that 
the trade unions can operate it. It starts on the idea that the 
modern business man is the only person who is in the strategic 
position and has the managerial ability capable of preventing 
unemployment. In other words the system proposed is exactly 
like that of the workman's accident compensation law of this 
state. A mutual insurance company is created, operated and 
managed solely by the employers. That company is created 
upon the same principle as the state's accident compensation 
law. The employers establish their own premiums, super- 
vised by the state insurance board ; they pay out the benefits 
to the workmen exactly as they pay out the benefits under the 
accident corripensation law. The only difference is that in- 
stead of the doctor who cures the man of accidents, the bill 
provides an employment officer who finds the man a job. The 
system avoids what might be called the socialistic and paternal- 
istic schemes of Europe. It is a capitalistic scheme. It avoids 
the socialistic scheme, in that the state does not go into the 
insurance business; it avoids the paternalistic scheme in not 
paying out relief for an inevitable accident. It induces the 
business man to make a profit or avoid a loss by efficient labor 
management. It places the compensation so low that the 
workman has no expectation of more than enough to pay his 

The Case in Accident Compensation 

If we may judge from what employers have done in the 
case of the accident compensation law we may predict what 
they will do under an unemployment compensation law of this 
kind. When the state of Wisconsin enacted its accident com- 
pensation law, it tied it up with an accident prevention law 
and placed both laws under the administration of the state 
Industrial Commission. 

The Industrial Commission then made a search throughout 
the country to find the best man for the prevention of acci- 
dents. They found C. W. Price of the International Har- 
vester Company and succeeded in inducing him to come into 
the state and take up the work of accident prevention. This 
was done even before the compensation law went into effect. 
Mr. Price organized the accident prevention work; he started 
the safety movement. He started organizations in the shops 
and in communities. He established safety committees by 
which the employers themselves, along with their engineers 
and their workmen, drew up the safety rules. The Industrial 
Commission law provides a place for these advisory commit- 

If one examines the three hundred pages of the labor 
law of the state he will find that the legislature enacted only 
one hundred pages and these advisory committees of employ- 
ers and employes drafted two hundred pages. These~ were 
then issued as "orders" by the Industrial Commission. Two- 
thirds of the labor laws of the state are actually made by the 
men in the industries, who must obey the laws and who 
therefore frame them. The legislature simply has given to 
the Industrial Commission the power to make these rules and 

orders and has authorized the commission to bring in the 
employes and safety experts to assist in making them. 

The Unemployment Compensation bill follows along the 
same line. We can safely predict how it will work. At the 
time when the Accident Compensation law went into effect 
one of the large firms of the state came to the Industrial Com- 
mission with the alarm that the law would increase their 
premium for employers' liability from $5,000 a year to $22,- 
000 a year. The insurance company had put up their pre- 
mium to that figure under the new law, and the claim agent 
had figured it out the same. The commission asked them 
why they did not adopt the safety first movement; why they 
did not convert their claim agent into a safety expert; why 
they did not equip their plant with safeguards and teach their 
workers safety first. They took the idea and equipped their 
establishment "fool proof." The first year, instead of paying 
$5,000 on account of increased cost of premiums, they paid 
only $2,500 on account of industrial accidents. They made 
money by the new law. 

It is amazing what business can accomplish when it 
has a sufficient inducement. If there is enough money in it 
it can accomplish more than any other agency. At the pres- 
ent time the business men of this country have formed their 
great National Safety Council. They have taken Mr. Price 
away from Wisconsin, and have taken three or four other 
employes of the Industrial Commission who have made 
names as safety experts. They have put them in charge of 
this National Safety movement, and they are carrying on 
throughout the nation, not only in the factories, but on the 
streets and in the schools, a great safety campaign. They 
have taken these people away from the state because the state 
will not pay high enough salaries. Public business will al- 
ways be more inefficient than private business, because, as a 
man becomes efficient in public business, he either gets fired on 
account of politics or the business man hires him and pays 
him a bigger salary. These former employes of the Indus- 
tial Commission are now paid three to five times the salary 
paid by the state. The manufacturers of the nation, with 
their help, are now doing more for safety than all of the 
legislatures, all of the labor organizations, all of the philan- 
thropic associations, ever thought possible, simply because they 
make money by doing it and the others do not. They even 
operate safety campaigns on the streets and in the schools, 
indirectly reducing accidents in the shops. The employer was 
probably never legally liable for more than a third of the 
accidents in the shops. The hazard of the industry and the 
carelessness of workers and fellow workers caused the other 
two-thirds. Yet the employer was made responsible for all 
the accidents. He knows how to "sell" safety to the public 
and to his own employes, and to turn safety into profit. He 
can reduce accidents 75 per cent, says Mr. Price. 

The Employers' Gain 
Likewise, in Wisconsin, the State Employer's Mutual Lia- 
bility Insurance Company has taken over actuaries and safety 
experts from the Industrial Commission, at higher salaries. 
At the hearings on the Huber bill, a leading employer, while 
opposing the bill, showed how it would work. He figured 
that the proposed law would cost his firm $50,000 a year. 
If it should go into effect he would not trust the state em- 
ployment offices — he would hire his own employment manager 
to find jobs for his men when he laid them off. 


This is the business way of looking at it. The state will 
pay low salaries to men responsible for spending $20,000,000 
a year, because the people cannot measure inefficiency, and 
the legislature can save the state from bankruptcy out of the 
pockets of the taxpayers. But the business man, who must 
measure inefficiency by bankruptcy in dollars and cents, will 
pay an employment manager two to five times the state salary 
in order to save $50,000 a year. 

Incidentally, efficient employment management, as it has 
come to be known during the past ten years, may be expected 
to make money for employers under an unemployment com- 
pensation law if organized like their safety work. The labor 
turnover, the dovetailing of jobs, the training of employes 
for different jobs, the selection, promotion and transfer of 
employes, the spreading out of the overhead expense, the culti- 
vation of willingness, the improved morale of steady workers, 
all belong to this new profession of the "industrial engineer." 
The saving effected by the new efficiency of this new profes- 
sion may be expected to exceed the cost of the unemployment 
compensation which both makes it necessary and opens up a 
wider field for it. 

Consider, too, how much employers get by having a steady 
of workmen who can feel that it is practicable for them 
to buy their homes. Under our present system it would 
usually be a mistake for workmen to buy homes. Home 
ownership ties the workman down to the job. It ties him to 
the locality and he loses his power of movement when un- 
employed. Under a system of stabilizing employment the 
workman can afford to engage in home building, his main 
inducement to thrift. 

This increased efficiency and thrift and spreading out of 
overhead expense is the answer also, in part, to the objection 
that one state cannot pioneer the way, on account of inter- 
state competition. Such objections did not hold back accident 
compensation laws. The increased efficiency in avoiding ac- 
cidents may be repeated in avoiding unemployment. But 
this objection has validity and can be met in full only by 
introducing the system gradually. Certain transitional meas- 
ures are required. A preventive measure cannot prevent a 
condition already existing. Hence a revision of the Huber 
bill provided that the law should not go into effect until a 
finding should be made by the Industrial Commission that 
business conditions are improving and workmen are being 
reemployed in reasonable numbers. That is the time when 
companies begin to set aside their reserve funds for investors 
and they set them aside for unemployment also. Then, too, 
they begin to pay their premiums to the mutual insurance 


Actuarial Experience 

Further than this, there is no actuarial experience on which 
base premium rates. The best statistics are from Massa- 
chusetts. They show that in the factories of that state, over 
a period of twenty-five years, the amount of unemployment 
averaged about five weeks a year. It went as high as 30 per 
cent in the years 1893 to 1897 and as low as 2 per cent in 
the best years. The average was about 10 per cent. That 
is almost the only existing basis for calculating premium rates. 
Consequently, an initial period of three years is provided in 
1 Huber bill, during which the maximum period of 
compensation is fixed at six instead of thirteen weeks. And 
er, if, during this initial period, the reserves of the in- 

surance company run low and menace the solvency of the com- 
pany, the Industrial Commission is authorized to shorten the 
period to even less than six weeks, in order to protect the 
solvency of the company. This feature is taken from the 
insurance plan of the Dutchess Bleachery. 

With these provisions it is necessary to create a single Em- 
ployers' Mutual Employment Insurance Company, for at 
least the initial period, to which all employers are eligible, 
rather than leave the field open to competition. The company 
is both a prevention and an insurance company, managed by 
the employers. During the initial period, the premium rates 
can be worked out, under the approval of the state insurance 
commissioner, and the rules and regulations can be worked 
out under the approval of the Industrial Commission. 

For the purpose of working out the rules and regulations a 
State Advisory Board of employers and employes is provided. 
This has been the method by which, as already mentioned, the 
safety- and sanitation orders, the minimum wage orders, the 
apprenticeship rules and other orders of the Industrial Com- 
mission were made. So the unemployment compensation bill 
provides a framework, and leaves the details to the employers' 
insurance company and the advisory committee of employers, 
employes and employment managers, under supervision of the 
existing state authorities. 

The duty of the latter is simply to see that the la- 
carried into effect and to decide disputes. The employers 
themselves make the rules and the state acts as umpire. The 
twelve state free employment offices are already managed in 
some cases by these joint committees, cooperating with the 
State Commission, and no material change is needed in their 
administration. They become mainly recording offices for the 
unemployment compensation law, since the employers do the 
job-finding themselves through their employment managers 
and their state-wide insurance companies. 

Desirability and Practicability 

In any proposition of this kind there are two questions. 
Is it practicable? Is it desirable? The foregoing has in- 
dicated its practicability. It is based on the knowledge gained 
from the experience of various European countries and upon 
the of the Industrial Commission with the accident 
compensation law. 

If we recognize that this question of capital and labor ac- 
quires its bitterness from this failure of capitalism to protect 
the security of labor, then we shall conclude that unemploy- 
ment compensation and prevention is of first importance. We 
have already removed from the struggle between capital and 
labor the bitterness over the responsibility for accidents. 
Labor agitators formerly could stir up hatred of the em- 
ployer on the ground that the employer gets his profits out 
of the flesh and blood of his workmen. No longer do we 
hear that language; but we do hear them say that capital 
gets its profits out of the poverty and misery of labor and the 
reserve army of the unemployed. That is the big remaining 
obstacle which embitters the relations between capital and 
labor. While individuals may think it is undesirable, yet 
from the standpoint of the states and of the nation, we 
must submit somewhat our individual preferences to what 
may help to prevent a serious menace in the future, and 
must impose upon capital that same duty of establishing 
security of the job which it has long since assumed in estab- 
lishing security of investment. 

The Case of Korea 

By Herbert Adolphus Miller 

IN the early spring of 1919 I happened to be in Phila- 
delphia and saw in the paper that Koreans from all over 
America were to have a three-day conference there, to 
be concluded by a Declaration of Independence in In- 
dependence Hall. I was able to go only to the first meeting, 
but there were so few Americans present that they were con- 
spicuous, and so I established connections and friendships that 
have persisted. This conference was composed largely of stu- 
dents, with a scattering of older persons. Their Christian 
attitude and singleness of purpose were amazing. No one 
could have questioned the willingness of every Korean present 
to die for the freedom of Korea. 

The spirit shown in this meeting was part and parcel of 
the events which were taking place in Korea, where a few 
weeks previously the Independence Movement had been spec- 
tacularly launched. That demonstration was remarkable for 
the thoroughness of its organization and for the success with 
which Japanese surveillance was evaded. Thirty-three men 
from all parts of Korea, representing widely different religious 
and social points of view, met. in a restaurant and signed a 
declaration which concludes with a pledge of three items of 
agreement : 

1. This work of ours is in behalf of truth, justice, and life, 
undertaken at the request of our people, in order to make known 
their desire for liberty. Let no violence be done to. anyone. 

2. Let those who follow us show every hour with gladness 
this same spirit. 

3. Let all things be done with singleness of purpose, so that 
our behavior to the very end may be honorable and upright. 

The 4252^ Year of the Kingdom of Korea, id Month 1st Day. 

After the signing they telephoned the police what they had 
done and awaited arrest. Thirty of them are still held in jail 
without trial. Previous to the signing, copies of the declara- 
tion had been distributed throughout the country, so that one 
hour after the signing in 322 districts all over Korea it was 
read to crowds of Koreans, and immediately there was the 
shouting of "Mansei," and the display of Korean flags, both 
of which were serious offences before the Japanese law. 

Then began reprisals and repressions that could scarcely 
be believed were they not so well authenticated. Instead of 
repeating them let me refer to the report on Korea, of the Fed- 
eral Council of the Churches; the report to the Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions; the Congressional Record for 
July 15, 17, 18 and August 18, 1919; and to the excellent 
book by Henry Chung, The Case of Korea. To be sure all 
that was done by the Japanese was merely the logical conse- 
quence of previous methods of control, and of the political 
philosophy which justifies coercive control of another people; 
whether ostensibly for their own good, or for the imperial- 
istic aggrandisement of the ruling Power. 

Most nations are still living in glass houses when they 
criticize the imperialistic and oppressive actions of Japan. 
But, as a man long familiar with Japan has said, she had 
the misfortune to become a predatory nation when elsewhere 
the question was beginning to be raised as to both the moral- 
ity and practicability of such a system. 

Leaving aside the immoral aspect of it, one wonders how 
a nation which is such an apt pupil of modern life as Japan 
can have been so blind to the horrible and inevitable conse- 
quences, of which Ireland and the fallen monarchies of Cen- 
tral Europe are such glaring examples. 

Defense, aggrandisement, exploitation, and benevolence of 

the feudalistic sort are the reasons for imperialistic aggression, 
though the first and last are the only ones alleged. Benevo- 
lence justifies the others when it rests its case on the basis 
of superior culture whether in Ireland, Haiti, or Korea. 
Pragmatically the logic is bad. In Korea, the Independence 
Movement is the refutation. 

On the side of defense more can be said. A glance at the 
map shows a striking geographical similarity of the Irish and 
Korean locations. England and Japan both are islands and 
vulnerable; to the west at about the same distance England 
has Ireland, and Japan, Korea. If either of these near neigh- 
bors were in alliance with, or under the control of a hostile 
power, there would be a real danger to the island empires. 
What is less generally seen is that with this whole neighbor- 
ing population hostile, there is already an actual and menacing 
danger increasing daily. 

England can at least claim that Ireland has been a part of 
the empire for centuries. Japan cannot find a single his- 
torical or legal justification for her recent annexation of 
Korea. She secured the signing of the Protectorate Treaty 
by coercion and through a trick in 1905, when the king and 
his ministers were protesting against it. In 19 10 without 
provocation Korea was annexed as an integral part of the 
Japanese Empire. It was an egregious act of bad faith in 
view of the treaty between Korea and Japan of February 23, 
1904, in which "the Imperial Government of Japan definitely 
guarantees the independence and territorial integrity of the 
Korean Empire." 

For more than four thousand two hundred years Korea 
had been an independent and integral state. Here institu- 
tions, language, and culture were distinctive and significant. 
For many years the Japanese had been unpopular in Korea 
because of their aggressiveness, but in the Russian war, Korea 
had sympathized with Japan and permitted the passage of 
troops across her territory with distinct provision that they 
were to be withdrawn at the close of the war. Military occu- 
pation, however, has continued from that date. 

America's interest in Korea is twofold: first, because of 
the treaty which was made in 1882 shortly after "The Hermit 
Kingdom," as Korea was called, was opened to the outside 
world ; second, because of the profound influence of American 
missionaries in the island. The treaty with the United States 
was the first one negotiated by the little country and was fol- 
lowed by similar ones with the other important Powers. In 
this treaty it was provided : 

If other Powers deal unjustly or oppressively with either 
government, the other will exert their good offices, on being 
informed of the case, to bring about an amicable arrangement, 
thus showing their friendly feelings. 
Unfortunately the method by which Japan had secured the 
"Protectorate Treaty" was not known until after President 
Roosevelt had accepted it as technically valid, so the "good 
offices" of the United States have never yet been rendered. 

The first missionaries went to Korea in 1884 and some of 
them are still in active service. Nowhere else have Christian 
missions put such a stamp on a whole people, and while ever 
now the missionaries take no part in the political movements 
Protestant Christianity is almost as symbolic of the Indepen 
dence Movement as Roman Catholicism has been of the Iris! 
and Polish movements. The boys and girls of the missioi 
schools have seen that the teachings of Christianity are reall; 
teachings of democracy, and have acted accordingly. Thes 




missionaries have been the one broad contact the Koreans 
have had with western civilization, and America looms large 
on their horizon. 

The emergence of Korea from the old to the new has been 
as remarkable as was that of Japan, though the time has been 
shorter and the course somewhat different. The dominant 
Christian influence has made it less materialistic, and it is 
less outwardly efficient, but no higher moral tone than the 
following from their Declaration of Independence can be 
found. It recurs frequently in the document. 

A new era awakes before our eyes, the old world of force 
is gone, and the new world of righte'ousness and truth is here. 
Out of the experience and travail of the old world arises this 
light on the affairs of life. 

The Japanese use the universal argument of a dominant 
people: that the Koreans whom they are ruling are not fit for 
self-government, that the Independence Movement is the 
product of agitators, and that the leaders are broken up into 
factions. A Japan- 
ese scholar, talking 
about Korea in my 
presence, in order 
to show its lack 
of unity, said that 
there were three 
and cabinets of the 
republic, one being 
i n Philadelphia. 
The fact that the 
only organization 
in Philadelphia to 
which he could 
have referred was 
Friends of Korea, 
of which the Rev. 
Floyd Tompkins 
was president and 
I was vice-presi- 
dent, and with japan's neighbor 
which the only 

Korean connected was an American citizen, shows how mis- 
leading the statement was. 

Leaders of movements are always called agitators by their 
opponents, but the Korean movement has become too general 
to be laid on individuals. 

A backward people may need help, but the kind of as- 
sistance given the Koreans by the Japanese helps only in 
stirring the people to national consciousness. There is no 
more difficult and delicate task than giving the right kind of 
help, and there can never be an excuse for ruthlessness. 

The Koreans have established a de facto republic the status 
of which is as valid as that of the Irish Republic, and as that of 
the Czecho-Slovak Republic just before the close of the war. 
The president, Dr. Syngman Rhee, who with the cabinet was 
elected unanimously by representatives from the thirteen 
provinces of Korea, like President Masaryk is a scholar and 
an idealist. He has his doctorate from Princeton in political 
science, and, until the call to his present task, was in charge 
of a Korean school of important influence in Honolulu, which 
was as near Korea as the political situation permitted him to 
go. He is now in Washington, having recently returned from 

Shanghai where the provisional government has its head- 

Since the rise of the Independence Movement, probably 
because of the difficulties of administration and foreign pub- 
lic opinion, the Japanese have instituted some reforms. Swords 
have been taken from the uniforms of school teachers; sol- 
diers have been given the uniforms of police, and a civil gov- 
ernor substituted for a military, but there has been no yield- 
ing of the control of Korea by Japan. Even though the 
reforms were ten times as extensive as they are, they would 
be too late — too late in the history of the world, for there is 
abroad a new idea about self-determination which never will 
subside; too late because the Koreans have become self-con- 
scious in their purpose for freedom. 

There are about twenty million Koreans in Korea and 
three million more in Manchuria where also the Japanese 
have carried their activities. There are tens of thousands in 
jail as political prisoners and many have been killed by the 

Japanese soldiers. 
Many families are 
in great distress. 
Considerable aid 
from friends in 
America has been 
secretly distribut- 
ed. Now there has 
been established in 
this country the 
Korean Relief So- 
ciety with William 
Jennings Bryan as 
honorary presi- 
dent, and the scope 
of the relief will 
be enlarged. 

The importance 
of settling the Ko- 
rean question hu- 
manely in conside- 
ration of the Kore- 
ans alone is enough 
to call for unstint- 
ed effort. But the issue is much greater. Korea is in a key 
position. Japan cannot disarm if Korea can be used against 
her, and the defensive friendship which might have been es- 
tablished between the neighbors has been rendered impossible 
for generations by recent events. The exaggerated talk about 
war between the United States and Japan could well make 
Japan suspect us of selfish designs. And there is 
China, and England, and France, and some day Russia. Japan 
has a case on the side of defense, and somehow the integrity 
and inviolability of Korea must be established by something 
more than a "scrap of paper." There can be no peace in the 
Pacific without settling justly the question of the independence 
of Korea and the protection of Japan. 

The "good offices" which we may now render must be 
through an insistent public opinion which will bring the 
Korean question to full discussion before the coming con- 
ference in Washington. Failure to settle this one case justly 
will block the purpose of that conference to which all the 
world is looking, as one of the rays of light in the dawn of the 
New Era, of which the Koreans speak so confidently in their 
Declaration of Independence. 



The Pool of Bethesda 

By Marion Clinch Calkins 

WE read that by the sheep market there was a pool, 
which was in the Hebrew tongue called Bethesda. 
In its five porches lay a great multitude of im- 
potent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for 
the angel to make the healing movement of the water. It is 
the joyless fashion of Sunday school teachers to point out every 
possible significance of a verse, the meanings of the "at's" and 
"this's." But is it absurd for even the literal to wonder if 
the impotent did not look as longingly toward the sheep market 
as for the angel? To be up and busy in the marts of men — 
that is a wish for impotent. Most of us who learn to labor, 
then to wait, see no sorrow in the reversal of the order. We 
are principally engaged in waiting for five o'clock. 

But now the wind of the angel's wings has to sound above 
the loom and the jigsaw. For they who waited in the five 
porches are willing their way into the market with the patient 
homespuns of the unsighted and the sand-papered lambs of the 
neurotic, and (to be done with sheep) with everything else 
from jam to monograms. The handicapped worker has gained 
confidence with capability. He no longer wants the stall of 
special privilege. He has something to sell, and the question 
is, can he sell with anything that approaches profit in the open 
market? The modern pool of Bethesda has many porches, and 
in them the people wait in incredible numbers. 

There are, according to the census of 1910, over 57,000 
blind in the country. Those who are permanently injured 
in industry annually number 250,000, and these, according to 
the United States Compensation Commission, are usually men 
between thirty and thirty-three years of age who under fair 
conditions might have continued to be wage-earners for twenty 
years more. Two hundred and fifty thousand men of the 
United States army were wounded in the war. Of course the 
greatest number of these men will not be within the range of 
organizations in New York city which are considered here. 
The rehabilitation of many of them will be along industrial 
lines. For the handicrafts will not content them; they will 
reenter industry, through another door. Indeed the re- 
habilitation of many of them will never be accomplished. But 
add to their numbers the deaf, the tuberculous, the crippled 
from birth, the paralyzed, the thousands of environmentally 
handicapped, and you have a slight understanding of the ex- 
tent of the problem of the unplaceable worker. Only a small 
corner of this problem confronts the New York social organi- 

There are organizations to take care of the crippled, both 
the home-bound and those who can gather together for train- 
ing and work. There is an association which trains and em- 
ploys the blind. There is a league for the hard-of-hearing 
which encourages handicrafts among the deaf. On Blackwells 
Island vocational therapy teachers teach the mentally and 
nervously disabled to make a variety of things. There is a 
toy shop where old men and women make wooden toys and 
children's garments. The Institute for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men teaches subjects ranging from watch-making to 
embroidery. There are many other organizations for teach- 
ing the physically handicapped, and also centers of work for 
the environmentally handicapped, such as the settlement 
classes for the needlework of foreign women. 

For employment is found to be a spiritual and physical 

therapy; an alleviation by self-respect. Its forms of applica- 
tion are only as surprising as the variety of people who need it. 
"Handicapped" means to the thoughtless an actual physical 
incapacity, perhaps complete paralysis of the working faculties. 
To the social worker it means any differentiation from the 
normal that makes its possessor an unequal competitor in the 
contest for living. The blind, the deaf-mute, the hard-of- 
hearing, the crippled, the feeble-minded, the insane, the 
neurotic, the convalescent, the aged are physically at a dis- 
advantage. But those who are handicapped by environment 
— the foreigner, the woman at the head of an unsupported 
household, the inexperienced gentlewoman suddenly forced to 
self-reliance — these are equally in need of a head-start. Work 
in encouraging handicrafts among these people has progressed 
relatively far and to an interesting point. Indeed, the 
problem of marketing the products is now looming large 
in the minds of those who have voluntarily made themselves 
responsible for these groups. 

Three factors have entered into this situation. The first, 
the trend of social service toward social therapy, is noticeable 
in every social organization that is working with the physically 
handicapped. ' Much of the labor that once went into the 
extension of material relief is now expended in finding ways 
of making material relief unnecessary, or at least in extendng 
it in such a way that the beneficiary is unaware of it. This 
carries with it the tendency to increase the number of market- 
able products. 

The second factor that enters into the development of an 
open market is an increasing dislike of making capital out of 
pathos. If the products are not inferior those who make 
them should not be dependent upon pathos for their sale. 

Taken collectively the output of handicapped production is 
large and varied. Embroideries, basketry, weaving, knitting, 
wood-carving, lace-making, sewing, beading, rug-making, toy- 
making and their variants occupy part or all of the time of 
many thousands of people. Most of the work is done under 
the guidance of trained teachers engaged by the boards of 
directors or committees responsible for the various groups. It 
is premised in many cases that the work of these teachers is 
done for the sake of the work ; especially is this true of the 
work for the convalescents, the shut-ins, and of the occupa- 
tional therapy in the hospitals. Nevertheless the product 
stacks up, a supply without a demand. There are several ways 
of getting rid of it. A member of the committee claps her 
hands and says, "We'll have a sale." The furniture is moved 
from a drawing room and cards are sent out. The goods of 
the handicapped are collected and set out like wedding pre- 
sents. No one, not even the maker of the goods, knows what 
price to set upon his wares. There is no competition, no over- 
head to compute, no standard of workmanship other than that 
insisted upon by the teacher, who being socially therapeutic 
first, gages the trade secondarily. It is pathos that barks the 
sale. The waste and futility of the performance are appalling. 
Twenty chairmen of twenty committees disarranging twenty 
drawing rooms every Christmas and Easter and netting the 
cost of the efforts of one of these persons, intelligently directed, 
is a thriftless proceeding. For as a matter of fact these same 
women are likely to be of superior ability. They are chosen 



to serve as committeemen either because of their own proved 
capacity or because of their affiliation with the ablest families 
of the city. 

A slight improvement upon the drawing room method is the 
table in a department store. One woman is chosen by the rest 
of her committee to beg of the manager of Lacy's a good loca- 
tion near the door. Past this table go purchasers who, either 
knowing or not knowing what they want, are looking for it 
and who are suddenly confronted by their duty. They buy 
an article conscientiously and the proceeds go toward the 
deficits of chanty. This is no indictment of the wares offered, 
but of the extravagance of effort in their marketing. Here is 
a sentimental conception of the duties of an entrepreneur. 

Another manner of marketing common to many organiza- 
tions is the show-case method. Usually the drawing room sale 
or the department store table is supplementary to this. The 
latter are attempted only seasonally while the former goes 
forward all of the time. In the reception room of the organi- 
zation headquarters or as frequently in the workroom itself 
there are on display for sale the finished products of the work- 
room. These are in cases or in cupboards or in similar con- 
venient show places. Visitors to the organization are usually 
much interested in the work as a project and feel some com- 
punction to buy. It is not fair to say that they buy always out 
of compunction. When the wares are attractive, as often 
they are, the visitors buy eagerly and leave orders for more. 

Nevertheless, it is the complaint of many organizations that 
their buying public is limited to their patrons, their friends, 
supporters and visitors. The weaving and basketry of the 
blind, often very beautiful, is bought, not necessarily by those 
who are interested in the weaving and basketry, but by those 
who are interested in the blind. The handsome embroideries 
of the foreign women working under class tutelage are more 
apt to be seen and bought by the promoters of the work and 
their friends than by women in the market for handsome 
embroideries. It is the friends of the deaf, often deaf them- 
selves, who drop in at the headquarters of the League of the 
Hard-of-Hearing and buy the needlework and novelties made 
and sent in by lonely deaf women from all over the country. 
This is true of practically every organization of the handi- 
capped ; of all perhaps, except those who have strongly en- 
trenched themselves in a specific field, as the cripples have in 
trousseau embroidery, or as the old men and women have in 
wooden toys, the Jewish tuberculous in the making of hospital 
garments, and. the blind in the making of brooms. In the 
development of these industries, the eye has been on the 
market, the workers and the organizations being such that 
production could be fairly uniform. 

For the most part, however, production by handicapped 
workers is irregular in quantity and in kind. Indeed, in many 
cases the extremely limited clientele of friends is all that such 
production can supply. The rugs in the occupational therapy 
classes of Bellevue Hospital, it is said, are bought by th; 
nurses and doctors before they are of the loom. Here the 
output is incidental only. It is the cure that is sought. Some- 
times many patients have a hand in the making of one object, 
and if the resultant workmanship is uneven the teacher, as 
physician, can be none the less glad that its construction sped 
many patients along the road of recovery. 

As so far described, it would seem that no successful effort 
had been made to put the production and distribution of these 
wares upon a sound commercial basis. This is quite wrong. The 
Committee for the Care of Jewish Tuberculosis, for instance, 
in addition to having worked out an extremely modern and ef- 

ficient factory on as businesslike a basis as any factory manned 
by invalids working part-time under constant medical super- 
vision could approach, is building up a mail-order business 
among hospitals as a method of distribution. The Guild of 
Needle and Bobbin Crafts, composed of organizations which 
direct the work of foreign needlewomen, is about to launch a 
selling and educational campaign throughout the country, for 
it has in mind that its products, bought under American prices 
for labor, must go to a clientele well educated to their value. 
It will provide exhibits of needlework at museums and schools 
throughout the country. Its eye is most certainly on its 
market, or rather its foresight is on its market, for it must 
create its own. 

The Association for the Improvement of the Condition of 
the Poor maintains the Crawford Shops in which old men 
and women make toys, children's dresses and like things. It ex- 
pects a twenty-thousand dollar business this year. The Y. W. 
C. A. needlework shop has had a flourishing business for some 
years in a good business district, where it sells on a commission 
basis the supervised work of its many women consignors: 
women's apparel (dresses, blouses, lingerie, sweaters and milli- 
nery) and the stock in trade of gift-shops (lamp-shades, favors, 
desk-sets and toilet articles) the making and marketing of 
which has supported a small army of ingenious women through- 
out the country in recent years. It is indeed the advent of the 
gift-shop, or at least its rapid development to meet the sophisti- 
cated needs of the modern shopper, that is the third factor in 
this marketing problem. As a matter of fact, the gift-shop is 
one of the bright spots in the outlook for establishment of an 
open market for the products of handicapped workers. Such a 
shop, which sells an object because of its individuality, is the 
normal outlet for the wares of a worker who can never aspire 
to quantity production but who has to rely for profit on the 
rarity of the object which he creates. 

There has been a growing feeling among those in New 
York who are interested in the handicapped that there would 
be great profit in time, energy, and money if the products of 
the handicapped might be marketed in one place, under one 
management. The consolidated market, no matter where 
located, would automatically increase the custom for the pro- 
ducts of any one group. Those interested in the blind are un- 
interested (if they are uninterested) in the cripples only be- 
cause they have never been confronted by the problem of 
cripples. The friends of the blind, the deaf, the halt, the 
convalescent would come together in a consolidated market. 
Under such a plan, expenses could be pooled, overhead be de- 
creased and the marketplace located in a good shopping dis- 
trict. The patronage would then be no longer limited to friends 
and friends of friends of the work, but would include its 
fair share of the shopping public, compelled not by social 
conscience, but by window displays. Selling would not be a 
function of the visitors' guide, but of trained saleswomen. 
Buying could be done economically. The virtues of the scheme 
multiply as one thinks them over. Many of them have been 
demonstrated already in the Woman's Exchange and the 
Y. W. C. A. gift-shop. These highly successful shops perhaps 
cannot be said to deal with handicapped workers although 
their original purpose was to help only handicapped women. 
Usually if the consignor is not at present handicapped, it is 
because of her success in steering out of her handicap through 
this narrow but navigable business channel. 

The New York Exchange for Woman's Work paid out 
to consignors in its last fiscal year $179,649.14, net. From its 
inception in May, 1878, to March, 1921, it paid to consignors 



$285,863.24. Within the last year, or rather during seven 
months of last year, its business amounted to $285,863.24. 
For five months of the year it occupied small quarters pending 
the completion of its own building, and therefore was cut off 
from the best source of income, its restaurant and cake-shop. 
These figures are given as indication of the volume of business 
that could accrue to a consolidation under strategic manage- 

Of course the success of a consolidated market will rest 
in its management and organization. It may work out that 
each organization entering the consolidation will be repre- 
sented by a delegate to the market board, despite the fact 
that most workers prefer small boards. The point is stressed 
by many workers that the market should be consolidated 
rather than cooperative, if the difference is clear — a primary 
organization rather than a secondary one subject to the perils 
of cooperation. It may work out — and this scheme seems in 
the minds of some directors to be preferable — that the market 
will arise as a totally new organization, responsible to none 
other, separately financed and separately run. Its sole relation 
to the producer will be that of a buyer; that is, it will stand 
in relationship to the buyer as the needlework shops and the 
women's exchanges stand to their consignors. If this program 
should work out, the suggestion which has been made in 
various quarters that the work-room should be in the same 
building as the market would not follow. Those who suggest 
this feel that the interest of the public might in this way be 
legitimately stimulated to aid the enterprise. Their argument 
is countered, however, by those who say that work-space would 
be prohibitively expensive in a location desirable for a market, 
and also by those who speak for the home-bound. 

The requisites of the manager, upon whose shoulders the 
success of the enterprise would rest, are twofold. It is 
usually agreed upon that this person must be first a business 
man or woman, and secondarily a social worker. In a big 
concern the relationship with the workers would be carried 
by the teachers and social workers of the organization, but if 
the social point of view were missing in the director he might 
easily flounder in discouragements. On the other hand the 
missionary spirit alone will never see him through difficult 
financial problems. Since the aim is to make the maximum 

amount of money for the consigning organization, the manage- 
ment will have to take heavier liabilities than its purely com- 
mercial rival finds it necessary to take. The business manager 
will have to be a well paid executive with business imaginatbn 
who can turn into capital the peculiar abilities of his workmen. 
Where most managers find the people to make a marketable 
product, he will have to seek and create a marketable product 
which, with training, his already chosen employe is able to 
make. He will have to accept certain wage losses as inevitable, 
and carry some profitable certainties to offset them: a food 
market, a restaurant, a department of children's clothing. He 
will probably stabilize his market income as the Woman's 
Exchange has done, by office rents from the extra space in his 
building. But having entered the field he can no longer sell 
wares at a price which ignores the general market. If rugs 
made by the blind have a much higher labor cost than rugs 
made by the sighted, that will have to be taken into consider- 
ation. In those articles in which, because of the nature of his 
supply of labor quantitative production is profitable, he will 
have to work toward a decrease in variety. In the other 
division of his produce, the gift-shop wares, eligible for sale 
because of their distinction, he will have to present first of all 
a marketable product, the superior worth of which, not an 
undercut price, is inducement to the buyer. 

One has to visit the work rooms of these workers to know 
how important a thing is their labor. It is the divorce of 
work who discovers her sweet and companionable virtues. It is 
said that there was on Blackwells Island a cellist from the 
Manhattan Opera House, who after the thrilling, full life of 
the orchestra, spent four years sitting by his hospital bed, doing 
nothing, until he was found by the occupational teacher of the 
State Charities Aid Association. The instances are endless. 
Such a consolidation of organizations cannot be considered for 
purely sentimental reasons. The project is a piece of thrift in 
organization. Nevertheless there are several near-sentimental 
thoughts than adorn the idea. If you scorn the figure of the 
pool of Bethesda, you may nevertheless rejoice that the desolate 
no longer sits down by the waters of Babylon, if that be the 
utmost in desolation. Nor is he encouraged to sell pencils in 
a subway station. To a public that is being educated to 
recognize the distinction, he is no longer disabled, but handi- 


Stung by a spiteful wasp, 
I let him go life free ; 

That proved the difference 
In him and me. 

For, had I killed my foe, 
It had proved me at once 

The stronger wasp, and no 
More difference. 

William Henry Davies. 

-From The Captive Lion and Other Poems, 
Published by the Yale University Press. 




Mr. Zero 

The Man Who Feeds the Hungry 

By William L. Chenery 

URBAIN LEDOUX is unconventional. The un- 
known man who attained a flash of fame by 
using a trick from the bag of devices made 
historic in anti-slavery agitation of three quarters 
of a century ago cannot be measured by the familiar 
standards of social reform or of statesmanship. Social workers 
are concerned about types 
and statesmen are interest- 
ed in policies. To both of 
these "Mr. Zero" of the 
Boston Commons is an 
Ishmaelite. He came from 
the desert land they do not 
understand. He seems to 
care only about human 
need. To men who are 
hungry and homeless and 
desperate he has appeared 
as a Samaritan. He 
actually feeds hundreds 
and thousands in the early 
hours of the morning 
while others who know 
more about unemployment 
are sleeping. His works 
entitle him to under- 

When Mr. Zero moved 
onward to New York 
and, despite the silly op- 
position of the municipal 
authorities, last week en- 
deavored to repeat the im- 
promptu pageant of Boston 
Commons, he seemed to 
be a new agitator, a 
leader of the unemployed 
competing perhaps with 
the chieftains of the ho- 
boe's unions or with the 
I. W. W. Conservative 

labor leaders saw in him a lrbain ledoux as drawn for 

dangerous character and 

immediately they were as alarmed as were those other pillars 
of society who rejoiced when on a memorable night the New 
York police harried and drove the masses of unfed men who 
sought to share Mr. Zero's bounty near the Public Library. 
The appearance of the man also gave countenance to suspicion 
of sophistication. A bulky figure and the orator's emotional 
face are his. The flannel shirt, the worn gray suit, and most 
of all the tauny umbrella rudely embroidered with red hearts 
and the legend "Lift Up Your Heart," repeated on every rib 
of cloth, seemed to be the parts of a studied picture . 

I sought accordingly to satisfy myself about his sincerity, 
and so I asked : "How did you acquire the name, 'Mr. Zero' ?" 
He laughed. "That," he said, "was the trick of a smart 
Irishman. I was feeding the men in the park one day and 
some of the boys wanted to know my name. I tild them it did 
not matter. 'What do you care about my name ?' I said. 'I am 
just a man who is feeding you. I am nothing. Don't think 
of me.' The Irishman said: 'I have got your number. I 
know who you are. If you are nothing, your number is zero. 
You are Mr. Zero.' That joke stuck and I became Mr. 

The explanation is explicable when one learns that Mr. 

Ledoux is a Bahaist, a member of a Buddhist sect, the end 
of whose religion is a pursuit of nothingness by merging indi- 
viduality with the infinite. 

I had, then, a token of his sincerity, but that made the 
man himself more difficult to understand. For his early 
life composed the story of a typically successful Amer- 
ican. By the time he at- 
tained his majority he was 
made an American consul. 
He was rapidly advanced 
and while still in the early 
twenties he had devised 
for keeping governmental 
records a system which 
had brought him -fame. 
Elihu Root as secretary of 
state had sought to stay 
his resignation. He had 
lectured at Harvard Uni- 
versity and earned the ap- 
proval of the authorities. 
He had turned to private 
business and been awarded 
a large income. The ma- 
terial details of his record 
only added to the mystery 
of the man. How did it 
happen that a Yankee con- 
sul had turned Buddhist? 
I asked him this ques- 
tion in the restful quiet of 
a friend's library. Some of 
what he said to me there 
is understandable only to 
those who are mystics in 
religion ; but every reli- 
gion has its mystics. In 
a sense men caught by a 
vision of spiritual life 
seem slightly mad to those 
who are firmly bound in 
the toil of circumstance. 
Tolstoy even to his wife 
seemed mad. Jean d'Arc, who heard voices from God and 
changed the course of French history, was burned as a witch. 
Such things must be remembered as one listens to Urbain 

"I was consecrated to loving service five years ago," said 
Mr. Zero simply. 

"How did it happen ?" I asked. 

"It was a case of expanding consciousness, of a French 
Canadian boy moving on to other things. The climax came 
one night in Brussels. A dinner was given in my honor by a 
group of internationalists and I made a supreme effort to 
picture the goal for which we were striving. I made a good 
speech and the company applauded. 

"Prince Roland Bonaparte sat by me. When the applause 
died away he turned to me and said quietly 'It is very beauti- 
ful but it is impossible until you transform human nature.' 
His words shocked and chilled me as a stream of cold water 
paralyzes an athlete just completing the effort of his life. 
Peace, internationalism, were impossible until I transformed 
human nature! 

"I went back to my hotel and threw open the window of 
my room. The moon was full and the white light made the 
city beautiful. 'It is impossible until you transform human 





nature,' sounded through my being like a sentence of doom. 
I looked out the window and exclaimed: 'Good God, is it 
so?' The beauty of the night possessed me and the message 
came — 'Who wills can.' A great peace came over me, a 
Brahmic peace. I threw myself upon the bed and slept quietly 
for hours. I was another man." 

That episode did not end Urbain Ledoux' preaching of 
peace. He continued to work in this country until the war 
came and he understood that active pacifism meant confine- 
ment in jail. It seemed to be useless to try to breast that 
great stream of opinion and feeling and so the man who had 
evolved from a follower of Mark Hanna to worship in the 
school of neo-Buddhism decided to escape the world. He 

felt impotent and renunciation alone seemed to be a refuge 
"I started for the West," he said. "I had a friend in Yum,. 
and I thought I would lose myself there. The sky above/ 
Yuma is cloudless. Nowhere do the stars seem nearer. Ir/'- 
such a place I could identify myself with the infinite, jl 
passed through New York on my way and again the vision 
came to me. I was in a hotel and as I lay awake suddenly 
I knew my duty. I got up at three o'clock and walked out 
in the street. I went to the Bowery. The wretched men 
there needed me. Not under the cloudless sky of Yuma 
but in the midst of men was my call to service. That is 
where I became interested in the unemployed." 
Such is Urbain Ledoux. 

Mexico Righting Herself 

By Henry Bruere 

IN the Lloyd-George manner of speaking, there is a 
formula for the settlement of unrest in and regarding 
Mexico. The formula involves the complete friendly 
adjustment of the relations between the United States 
and Mexico. That adjustment seems mutually desired. It 
is now under discussion. There are obstacles in the way 
of procedure. The Washington government wishes certain 
assurances. They will tell you in Mexico that it is politi- 
cally impossible for a Mexican government to promise a 
course of future behavior, as a condition of international 
settlement. But, it is implied, there are other ways of ac- 
cepting the substance of some such program without hurting 
national pride. This is the talk of private citizens. Obre- 
gon seems to be in the way of substituting performance for 

"What sort of man is Obregon?" "Will he last?" These 
are sure to be among the questions of inquiring Americans 
when you tell them that you have recently returned from 
Mexico. They are, perhaps, the questions that leap quickest 
to the heart of the Mexican situation. For Mexico is in 
that time in the childhood of nations when leadership is the 
crucial factor in national progress. And the ability of a 
leader to keep long enough at work to achieve results is the 
requisite of success, 

I cannot give an intimate analysis of President Obregon. 
I have twice talked with him, and have heard many opinions 
of him based on more intimate knowledge. I would say that 
he is solid. That he is self-confident and not too imagina- 
tive. He does not seem to have illusions about the possibility 
of quick social-political changes in his country. He knows 
enough about the habits of thought and life of the rest of 
the world to be able to analyze his problems in the light of 
reality. He is not obsessed with the idea that Mexico can 
live in isolation, if need be, which distorted the judgment 
of some of his transitory predecessors. He has definite ob- 
jectives in mind and he moves steadily toward them. 

Obregon wants peace and progress for his country, built, 
however, on familiar foundations, and, if necessary, reached 
through compromise and adjustment. Obviously, he is more 
interested in getting started than in "starting something." 
You do not read flamboyant proclamations of what Obregon 
is going to do, such as used to be the chief reward of patience 
with the Mexican government in its trials. You read, in- 
stead, of things begun in the way of national settlement. 
There is, of course, a lot of official talk of intentions, such 

as office holders everywhere emit. But Obregon does not 
devote much time to cheer leading. 

Obregon is lasting. There is no other possible answer to 
the second o ( my questions. He has no rivals, except in his 
official family, and they will wait. He is not kept uneasy 
by revolutionary captains, threatening his prestige with a 
possible military success now and then. He has back of him 
the best fighting men in his country, the Yaqui Indians. They 
have come down, in substantial numbers, from his native 
state Sonora, in the north, to keep him at his ease in the 
capital city. He has a classical reputation as a military gen- 
ius, not of the heroic type but sufficiently respect-compelling. 
His people wish him to succeed because they are through 
with fighting and disillusioned with miracle promisers. 

If hobgoblins perch on the stately bed-posts of the presi- 
dential couch at Chapultepec, I imagine that one of them 
answers to the name of Article 27 — the article in the Car- 
ranza Constitution that vests in the nation title to subsoil 
deposits of mineral oil. It is true that another article of 
the constitution, Article 14, declares that the provisions of 
the constitution shall not have retroactive effect. The owners 
of oil lands acquired prior to the taking effect of the consti- 
tution were not much comforted by the assurances of Article 
14. The danger of possible confiscation worried them. 

In Mexico the Supreme Court by a decision cannot give 
finality to a construction of a constitutional question. It 
can apply the constitution to a particular case, but it may 
make a differing application to a later case. Precedent is 
not binding. The construction of the constitution is the pre- 
rogative of Congress. It must do so by legislative enact- 
ment which controls until amended or rescinded. Congress 
was forever considering the question but without final reso- 
lution. The government, past and present, repeatedly de- 
clared that there would be no confiscation, but confiscation 
still remained possible. Because of the uncertainty of the 
precise effect of its provisions, Article 27 became the chief 
obstacle to the settlement of Mexico's international rela- 
tions, especially with the United States. 

And so it came to pass that there was much fevered dis- 
cussion of the famous article on both sides of the border. 
The orators and the scribes zealously ventilated their senti- 
ments, real and dissembled, regarding it. There are a dozen 
volumes on the subject from eve'ry viewpoint. The subject 
reaches back into the ancient prerogatives of the Spanish 
crown in Mexico. It goes deep into the hearts of many 



patriotic Mexicans, who feel that a great national resource 
was wrongfully given over into private hands. But it is in 
private hands under titles that were lawfully acquired. In 
their hands at has become a great source of immediate na- 
tional revenue. The question of ownership seems less urgent 
than the question of national benefit. There is no intention 
apparent to nationalize the industry. 

In June there was talk in the United States of a tariff 
against oil, including, of course, and especially aimed at Mexi- 
can oil. A little later it seemed expedient to the Mexican 
government to increase the export duties on oil. They were 
substantially increased. There was a hue and cry raised by 
the oil companies. They could not, would not, go on. The 
price of oil, scuttling back to pre-war levels, could not bear 
the added tax. The business of exporting oil would stop! 
It did stop, to a considerable extent. 

Up to July of this year, the oil exports were yielding a 
revenue at the rate of from sixty to seventy million pesos a 
year, out of a total government income of two hundred and 
twenty million pesos. The government especially needed the 
oil revenue at this time because of the stagnation of the 
mining and other tax yielding industry. After the new ex- 
port tax went into effect there was less talk of the need of 
an American tariff on oil, but there was a conference in 
Mexico City between President Obregon and the heads of 
the interested American oil companies having wells an Mex- 
ico. There was, it is reported, a full discussion, followed 
by a friendly settlement of the tax question. Perhaps Ar- 
ticle 27 was referred to. The production of oil was resumed. 

During the period of the controversy over taxes the Presi- 
dent called the supreme court judges into consultation to 
learn their views on the effect of the constitutional provisions 
affecting the oil question. A little later the Supreme Court 
in deciding a case involving Article 27 held that it had no 
retroactive effect, that is to say did not upset titles acquired 
before May 1, 191 7, when the new constitution became law. 

It is now up to Congress to lay down the general rule of 
construction for administrative guidance. It is altogether 
likely that the will of Obregon will prevail there. The 
Mexican Congress is not, as many suppose, putty in the hands 
of the president. It has its own views, and its own indi- 
vidual political fences to look after. Some of these fences 
have been built of promises to pour the wealth of Mexico's 
natural resources into the lap of the people. Oil is the out- 
standing, dramatic token of this wealth. There will be dis- 
cussion, doubtless, delay. Yet the nation needs revenue and 
international goodwill. These considerations will have their 
influence. I do not imply that the president will have smooth 
sailing, but I believe that with time the Mexican government 
will definitely close the door to confiscation. 

Internationally the most talked of problem is administra- 
tive "moralization." That is the Spanish phrase. It means 
official integrity. Mexico is self-conscious over the ease with 
which certain public officials have got rich in office. There 
is a growing disapproval of official venality. In the railways, 
for example, which are operated by the government, Obregon 
has appointed a managing committee with special instructions 
to put an end to purchased favors. The Treasury Depart- 
ment is making good use of the controllership established dur- 
ing the Carranza regime by American accountants to keep 
government funds for public uses. It will take a good deal 
of determined energy to weed out immorality in public ad- 
ministration. There are reputations to be won in Mexico 
for distinguished and disinterested public service in the face 
of abundant opportunities for self-enrichment. 

The agrarian and educational problems are, of course, the 
outstanding social problems of Mexico. In the oities an im- 
petus has been given to education and there are plans for a 
national school system. Something is being done with re- 
gard to breaking up the latifundias, the large estates. Subdi- 
visions have been enforced and attempts made to colonize 
ex-soldiers on them. Progress is slow because the peon does 
not yearn for proprietorship, although, according to our way 
of thinking he should do so. The reason is that the native 
Mexican is not, in matters of property, an individualist. He 
is a communist not as the result of recent Bolshevist agita- 
tion, but from centuries of habit. He lives with his fellows 
in a village and finds nothing to envy in the lot of the Kansas 
farmer who surveys his broad fields in happy isolation. The 
Mexican is a mixer, and to mix, not having a Ford and often 
not even a burro, he must live close by. He uses his fields, 
not for wealth, but for subsistence. There is no sense in 
raising more than you need. If some one will give him what 
he needs and wishes him to work on a big plantation where 
fruit or cotton is raised for sale, he is willing. The small 
farmer is not unknown but he is not the backbone of the 
nation. Only a floating rib, perhaps. Because the govern- 
ment has no funds to pay for lands and its bonds are not 
acceptable the acquisition of the big estates for subdivision 
is slow for the government and painful to the present owners. 
Eventually there will doubtless be a general system of small 
proprietorships in Mexico. For the present, progress will 
take the form of substituting a benevolent government as 
landlord for the former feudalistic hacendado. I have not 
visited any of the experimental settlements recently estab- 
lished by the government but what I have heard leads me 
to believe that the peon is not as eager for his little farm as 
his well wishers would like him to be. The land question 
is none the less the great challenge to Mexican statesmanship. 
The peon will remain a peon until through his farm he con- 
nects with the enterprise and progress of the rest of civili- 
zation. Some disinterested help in the working out of the 
land question will ultimately be welcome in Mexico. 

The government of Mexico will be great that deals con- 
structively with health, education and agriculture. But no 
government can deal with them until its foreign relations 
are ordered. All these undertakings require funds, beyond 
the ability of the current resources of the nation to meet. 
No internal development is possible without improved trans- 
portation. That requires a settlement with the owners of 
the railways who have not had control of their properties 
for six years and who are creditors to the government in 
great sums. The foreign debt of Mexico, trifling as com- 
pared with after war national debts of other countries, is 
yet in default and thus an obstacle to further credit. There 
are numerous damage claims to be settled, for destruction 
caused by belligerents during the civil wars. Obregon is 
preparing to deal with all of these problems. The most hope- 
ful indication of progress to date is the announced intention 
of Thomas W. Lamont, representing the International Bank- 
ers' Committee on Mexico, to visit Mexico for the purpose 
of discussing the debt problem with President Obregon and 
his advisers. Mr. Lamont will be given the most cordial 
reception by the government if the hospitality extended to 
another recent distinguished visitor, William G. McAdoo, is 
typical. His practical judgment in finance will be respected 
and sought. Good will result from his visit irrespective of 
the possible working-out of a financial program for the coun- 
try. It will, I believe, prove a step of the greatest moment 
in the immediate progress of Mexican affairs. 




I have tried to summarize a situation which, since it re- 
lates to a great nation of infinite political, economic and social 
complexities is necessarily incomplete. There are still grounds 
for anxiety, regarding the ultimate outcome. The habit of 
impatience in arriving at a juster social relation in Mexico 
is still unsettling. The new order when it is achieved will 
not be the promised land pictured by revolutionary leaders. 
But the old oppressions will not return. They will not be 
tolerated by the Mexican folk, nor are they likely to be re- 
vived by those in power, whether that power be political or 

economic, or a combination of them. The revolution has- 
taught the people many things tangible and imponderable as 
well. The new order might be prophetically characterized 
by a mot attributed to Obregon. Some one had compared 
him in strength with the earlier strong man of Mexico, 
Porfirio Diaz. He confessed to some likeness, it is said. 
"Diaz and I have something in common," he remarked. '"Diaz 
ruled wielding a rod of iron with his right arm and holding 
aloft the scales of Justice with his left. But I have lost my 
right arm in the Revolution." 

Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel 

A Sympathizer's View of the Indian Revolution 

By Taraknath Das 

THE spinning wheel is deciding India's destiny to- 
day. It is a new agent of revolution through which 
British occupation will be made less profitable. The 
spinning wheel is the national emblem of the "re- 
public of India" yet unborn. Indeed, in southern India six 
districts have set up an independent state which does not 
recognize colonial control, and the national flag with the 
spinning wheel upon it is waving there. 

The program of boycott of British cloth from the Indian 
market has become so successful that foreign goods are lying 
piled up on Indian wharfs undelivered and Lancashire mer- 
chants and employes have already made representations to the 
British Parliament. British government officials in India are 
employing agents to counteract the movement. A confidential 
circular of the British government throws some light on the 
situation : 

v All officials subordinate to collector and district magistrate, 
are desired to take steps to make known among the people that 
inasmuch as India produces less than her population requires, 
a boycott of foreign cloth and its destrucion or export must 
inevitably lead to a serious rise in prices which may lead to 
disorder and looting and that these consequences will be the 
result, not of any action on the part of government, but of 
Mr. Gandhi's campaign. 

But the great leader of the Indian revolution is not unaware 
of the fact that there might be serious shortage of cloth supply 
in India if there were not a constructive program for produc- 
tion of Indian cloth. For this reason, and in order to build 
up the Indian cotton industry, he, with the approval of the 
Indian National Congress, has distributed broadcast spinning 
wheels to Indian homes so that men, women, and children in 
every family will spin thread and with the handlooms will 
make cloth to clothe the population. Moreover, to meet the 
problem of rise of price of piece-goods he has made contracts 
with the Indian producers and merchants against profiteering 
at the cost of the Indian people. India is in revolution. 

And a strange sort of revolution it is that is being staged 
on the other side of the world. The strangeness is due to 
Mahatma Gandhi. Last December he appeared before 
the All-India Congress, then in session at Nagpur, with his 
program of non-violent opposition to the English govern- 
ment, and non-cooperation with it, a program looking toward 
complete self-government for the people of his country. He 
presented his resolution, which read: 

The object of the Indian National Congress is the attainment 
of Swaraj [self-government] by the people of India by all 
peaceful, and legitimate means. 

After debate and amendments, all of which were later 

withdrawn, the resolution was put to vote, province by prov- 
ince, and carried unanimously — only two persons out of 
thirty thousand dissenting. For the first time in history, a 
people had set out to achieve national independence not by 
the sword but by the spirit. After the passage of the resolu- 
tion, there were speeches, one of which, by Mohamed Ali, a 
Mohamedan who with his brother Saukat is today aiding 
Gandhi by every means in his power, reads as follows: 

This is the last Congress that will meet in India. The next 
meeting will be a Parliament of a free nation. India must be 
ready to undergo the greatest suffering so that she may be free, 
and by peaceful means. 

It is a strange trio that is leading the strange revolution: 
the little frail ascetic, Gandhi, worn by much fasting, with 
his gentle manner and soft voice but iron will; and the big 
bluff hearty Mohamedans — fire-eaters both, if we are to be- 
lieve some accounts of them — but pledged to uphold the 
program of absolute non-violence. But it is Gandhi — 
called by courtesy Saint — who is the one to whom all eyes 
turn. An Idea, some one has described him, clothed for a 
time in a broken body. He is a typical Hindu, who wants 
none of the Western methods, neither for war nor for peace 
— a holy man "in the guise of a politician," as he has ex- 
pressed it, who in a world of fear disintegrated by hate says 
to his followers: "Love your enemies, do good to those who 
hate you and pray for those who despitefully use you and 
persecute you." 

In the introduction to his little book Hind Swaraj (Indian 
Self-government) Gandhi says of his policy: 

It teaches the gospel of love in place of that of hate. It 
replaces violence with self-sacrifice. It pits soul-force against 
brute-force. . . . My booklet is a severe condemnation of 
modern civilization. It was written in 1908. My conviction is 
deeper today than ever. I feel that if India would discard 
modern civilization, she would only gain by so doing. 

And what is Swaraj? 

According to Gandhi, it is the right of a people to manage 

its own affairs. To the assertion that India is not fit to 

govern itself, he replies: 

He who has no right to err can never be forward. The his- 
tory of the Commons is a history of blunders. Sivaraj can only 
be built upon the assumption that most of what is national is 
on the whole sound. 

This means that back of and above Swaraj must be Swadeshi 
(one's own -country) spirit, the spirit that is symbolized more 
particularly by the wearing of the national dress made of 
Indian materials, but which means the cherishing of what- 
ever is inherent in the development of the national life. 



Gandhi is leading his people in a notable struggle for free- 
dom. He says: 

We must have no bloodshed — or if it must be shed, let it be 
ours- We will not harm our oppressors. We will not even hate 
In thus pleading for non-violence, this great leader says: 
I do not plead for India to practice non-violence because she 
is weak. I want her to practice it, being conscious of her 
strength and power! ... I believe she has a mission for the 
world — to teach mankind the power of non-violence — the power 
of Right holding no sword or bayonet in her hand. Non- 
violence in its dynamic condition means conscious suffering. 
It does not mean submission to the will of the evil doer, but 
it means putting one's whole soul against the will of the evil 

Gandhi would have his people purchase their freedom with 
the coin of suffering. To those who know Indian history, 
his "passive resistance program" has no element of the un- 
usual. For many years the Indian people have made use of 
this weapon when they have wished to gain a certain end. It 
has not been unusual for hundreds of them literally to sit 
down, fold their hands, and wait until concessions were 
granted. This weapon of conscious suffering is backed by a 
program of non-cooperation directed against the alien govern- 
ment. They propose to gain their independence by refusing 
to cooperate with this government. 

In the spirit of constructive goodwill [Gandhi says to his 
people] refuse to help England to make you dependent, to make 
you a conquered nation. Then after you are free, open your 
arms to the English — but only in the manner of men equal in 
every way to the English. 

His program may be said to be one that advocates at the same 
time both the rejection of slavery and the achievement of 
Szuaraj. The rejection side of it is seen to be a sort of glori- 
fied boycott. 

Refuse to do business with the English. Refuse to wear 
English clothing, go not to the English courts, take your chil- 
dren out of the English schools, give up all titles and honors, 
which have been bestowed on you by the English government. 
Pay no taxes. Give up drinking and drug-taking. 

In short it spells India for the Indians. 

The rejection side of the program is not all. It has a 
positive as well as a negative side, and the positive side of it 
provides for the building up of a virile, independent India. 
/ It promises a better life, new life, and more life for the down- 
/ trodden masses of India. It means the building of the ancient 
illage organization system, the reviving of Indian industries, 
the creation of Indian arbitration courts, the starting of new 
schools — the opportunity to live as a free nation. It means 
the restoration of all that makes for a human freedom and 
dignity of three hundred and nineteen millions of people. It 
is a call for the Indians, not to cooperate with the present gov- 
ernment, but to build a new one. Like all weapons, non- 
coopera.ion is to be laid aside as soon as it shall have served 
its purpose. Cooperation with all nations must come after 
India has proved her worth and taken her rightful place in 
the family of nations. 

This political movement of non-cooperation has a distinctly 

religious side. It puts into practical application the teachings 

£j of Jesus of Nazareth that the Western people have thought 

'Vge-oo impractical to be used in business and national affairs. 

\^0r. M. A. Ansari, general secretary of the Indian National 

. ,n - Congress, says of the success of the movement : 

i 'an 


Tolstoi, the Russian and Thoreau, the American have very 
lucidly enunciated the principle of passive resistance, but it is 
Gandhi, the Indian patriot who has given to these principles 
concrete definitive application on a nation-wide scale, and has 
built on them a movement that has united all classes, races, and 
sects in India into a new spiritual faith and made it the guid- 
ing principle of an entire nation. . . . Actions speak louder 
than words. It is difficult for those not in India to realize the 
great revolution that has taken place during the last six months 
in the mentality of the people. Take the rejection of government 

honors. No precise figures are available, but twenty-five thou- 
sand to twenty-six thousand titles have been formally renounced. 
In this connection, it is an interesting fact that Dr. Rabin- 
dranath Tagore was one of the first to 'make such renunciation. 
After the massacre of Amritsar, he wrote the viceroy: 

"The time has come when badges of honor make our shame 
glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation, and I for 
my part wished to stand shorn of all special distictions, by 
the side of those of my countrymen who, for their so-called 
insignificance, are liable to suffer a degradation not fit for 
human beings." 

Mr. Ansari reports that hundreds of thousands who have 
formerly lived in luxury have sacrificed all to the non- 
cooperation movement; that eminent lawyers have given up 
their large incomes to go about the country preaching the 
gospel of national freedom. Most interesting to the Westerner 
will be his testimony to the effect that violent mobs have been 
controlled because of the appeal made to their higher nature. 
At Delhi station [he writes] I saw a menacing crowd of some 
80,000 quietly disperse at the bidding of a sivami after up- 
wards of two hundred of their comrades had been wounded 
and some killed by soldiers sent to break up the procession. 
Instances of this sort are occurring every day due to the strength 
and authority of the non-cooperation ideal and the love and 
respect in which their leaders are held. 

That the revolution in India has entered upon a new phase 
is shown by recent dispatches to the effect that Gandhi is 
carrying out his promise of direct action by lighting an 
immense bonfire of foreign goods recently arrived in that 
country. This is in line with the policy of non-cooperation, 
and is an organized refusal to make use of materials, the 
acceptance of which implies assistance of the government that 
has become unacceptable. It recalls to the mind of Americans 
the Boston Tea Party. To check the progress of the move- 
ment in India, the British authorities have adopted repressive 
measures and Gandhi writes in his magazine Young India: 
The responsibility for anarchy, if it does overtake, will re3t 
with the Indian government and with those who support it in 
spite of its wrongs, not upon those who refuse to perform its 
wrongs, not upon those who refuse to perform the impossible 
task of making people forget vital wrongs and try to direct 
their anger in a proper channel. . . . We are not going to 
tamper with the masses. They are indeed our sheet anchor. 
We shall continue patiently to educate them politically, till 
they are ready for safe action. There need be no mistake about 
our goal. As soon as we feel reasonably sure of non-violence 
continuing among them in spite of provoking executions, we 
shall certainly call upon the sepoy [Indian soldier] to lay down 
his arms and the peasantry to suspend payment of taxes. We 
are hoping that the time may never have to come. We shall 
leave no stone unturned to avoid such a serious step. But we 
shall not flinch when the moment comes and the need has 

That moment may be nearer than many of us now con- 
ceive. At the forthcoming session of the All-India National 
Congress to be held in Amadabad, the home town of Mahatma 
Gandhi, in December, we may hear of the ceremony of the 
signing of a Declaration of Independence which shall formally 
inaugurate the Congress of the United States of India. The 
spinning wheel shall have won. 

It is being recognized that a free India is essential, if 
world peace is to be guaranteed. Imperialism is the mother 
of Militarism and Landlordism is the mother of Imperialism. 
Destruction of British militarism and other militarism will 
not only help the great mass of the English people, and enable 
India to make her peculiar contribution to world politics 
and world culture; but it will be perhaps the most vital 
factor in the question of world disarmament. Gandhi, who 
up to the present time has been able to sweep everything 
before him, is neither anti-English nor anti-European. He is 
simply pro-Indian. He stands for peace and goodwill among 
nations. He frankly declares : 

We are at war with nothing that is good in the world. In 
protecting Islam we are protecting all religions. In protecting 
the honor of India we are protecting the honor of humanity. 


Vol. xlvh 



No. 1 


LAST year the Survey published an interesting para- 
graph on the success Patrick Geddes had had in inspir- 
ing the government of Palestine with a sense of its re- 
sponsibility for reconstructing Jerusalem. Incidentally the 
paragraph noted the report then current that the British 
city planner had been made a knight. At this late date comes 
a London correspondent who writes chortlingly: "Who told 
you Patrick Geddes was insulted with a knighthood ? He has 
been much amused by the yarn, and by its acceptance among 
so many of his friends." 


THE fight of women to achieve equality before the law 
was actively resumed this week when the National Wo- 
men's Party sent out a draft of a blanket law to its var- 
ious branches. The purpose of the model bill is to remove all 
of the remaining discriminations against women inherited 
from the common law and from the statute law of the period 
prior to the granting of equal suffrage. 
The draft is as follows: 

Section i. — Women shall have the same rights, privileges and 
immunities under the law as men, with respect to the exercise of 
suffrage; holding of office or any position under the govern- 
ment, either state or local ; eligibility to examination for any 
position affected by civil service regulations; freedom of con- 
tract; choice of domicile, residence and name; jury service; ac- 
quiring, controlling, holding and conveying property; ownership 
and control of labor and earnings; care and custody of children, 
whether legitimate or illegitimate, and control of earnings and 
services of such children; acting as executors or administrators 
of estates of decedents; grounds for divorce; becoming parties 
litigant; immunities or penalties for sex offenses; quarantine, 
examination and treatment of diseases, and in all other respects. 
Section 2. — This article shall be construed as abrogating in 
every respect the common law disabilities of women. 

Section 3. — The courts, executive and administrative officers 
shall make necessary rules and provisions to carry out the intent 
and purposes of this statute. 

Section 4. — All acts and parts of acts in conflict with any of 
the provisions of this statute are hereby repealed. 

The Wisconsin legislature has already enacted legislation 
designed to accomplish the purposes sought in the Woman's 
Party bill. It also announced from Washington that an 
equal rights amendment to the federal constitution would be 
introduced in Congress by Senator Curtis, the Republican 
whip, and by Representative Fess. The proposed amend- 
ment will seek to safeguard such protective legislation as 
that embodied in minimum wage laws and at the same time 
to eradicate discrimination against women. 


A COMMITTEE against Veteran Preference has been 
formed in New York this week. It will conduct a 
state-wide campaign for the defeat, at its referendum 
in November, of the proposed amendment to the state con- 
stitution by which war veterans would be given an absolute 
preference over all other citizens in appointment and pro- 
motion in the civil service. 

The amendment, which passed the last session of the legis- 
lature, would scrap the system by which since 1883 appoint- 
ments to the great majority of public places in the state, and 
promotions in the service have been made according to merit. 
The arguments upon which the new committee plans to 
carry forward its campaign are: 

It would set up a privileged class — a military office-holding 
class, whose chief qualification for place on the public payroll 


would be military service, with no distinction made between 
volunteer and drafted men, between wounded veterans and those 
who served only in the Student Army Training Corps. 

Women would not be eligible for this preference, therefore 
women applicants for civil service places would be severely 
handicapped, regardless of their fitness and regardless of their 
own war service at home or abroad. 

Men who were babies when this country entered the war 
would be shut out of public places twenty-five years from now by 
veterans enjoying this preference, because under court decisions 
there is no age limit for veterans in civil service examination. 

The committee further points out that the amendment is 
unjust to policemen and firemen who were ordered to remain 
at their posts during the war. They would lose all chance of 
promotion, to veterans, now in those departments, who would 
jump into the higher grade through this preference. 

Among the organizations represented in the committee are 
the State Charities Aid Association, the Public Education 
Association, the City Club of New York, the Civil Service 
Reform Association, the Citizens' Union of New York, the 
Civil Service Reform Association of Buffalo, the Women's 
Municipal League of New York, the Federation of Women's 
Clubs in New York, the Women's Civil Service League, the 
New York State Civil Service Association, the Federation 
of Women's Civil Service Organizations, the New York 
and New Jersey Section of the Women's Department of the 
National Civic Federation, the Uniformed Firemen's Asso- 
ciation, the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, the Fire- 
men's Mutual Benevolent Association, the Union of Techni- 
cal Men, and the Civil Service Forum of New York. 


THE unique relation of the Mexican government to the 
labor movement has been pointed out by Roberto Haber- 
man, a prominent Mexican student and leader now 
visiting in this country, who gives the three following il- 
lustrations: The Mexican Labor Party, because of the il- 
literacy of the rank and file, is a movement of leaders. A 
bill to introduce a department of labor into the Cabinet is 
pending, yet meanwhile labor is getting a hearing before the 
government by having as its leaders government officials. 
Luis .N. Morones, head of the Army and Navy Supply De- 
partment, and Salsados, of the Government Printing Office, 
are among the labor leaders who are also government officials. 

There are now eighteen cooperative colonies of the so- 
called bandits who have been returned to the land. These 
men, who were peons under the old regime, after ten years 
of continual fighting, are now working the land set aside 
for them partially through the efforts of Samuelo Yudico, 
formerly of the Casa del Obrero Mundial or House of War 
Workers. On September 13 President Obregon approved 
the plan for a colony of workers at Texcoco, twenty-five 
miles outside of Mexico City, designed to house 10,000 
workmen, with an acre and a half of land for individual use 
to each house. This is the most recent chapter in the gov- 
ernment's efforts to encourage agricultural enterprise. An- 
other is the practice of giving land and granting special con- 
cessions in credit and implements to potential farmers, main- 
taining the policy, incidentally, of importing implements man- 
ufactured only by firms "fair to organized labor." 

The constitution of the Confederacion Regional Obrera 
Mexicana — the Mexican Federation of Labor, which repre- 
sents 350,000 union workers and which has formulated a 
decidedly radical program — is being printed in the Govern- 
ment Printing Office — now a branch of the Department of 

i^l a 




Education. The whole workers' education movement in 
Mexico is under the wing of this department and a govern- 
ment commission is being sent to Europe to study labor col- 
leges abroad. There are already a thousand children in the 
workers' school in Mexico City and accommodations for 
more are being contemplated as well as the opening of local 


WITH the announced intention of testing in the courts 
the Lusk Committee law requiring private schools 
in New York city to secure a license from the State 
Board of Regents, the Socialist Rand School began work on 
September 26 without having made 
application and without having re- 
ceived a license. Since at was the 
general understanding that the main 
purpose of the licensing law was to 
close the Rand School, the future 
course of events will be watched with 

It was announced on Monday that 
there would be no interference with 
the school at least for a few days un- 
til the question of who is responsible 
for enforcing the law could be posi- 
tively determined. Chester S. Lord, 
chancellor of the Board of Regents, 
was quoted as saying that there is 
some doubt as to whether the initia- 
tive should be taken by his depart- 
ment or by the attorney general's of- 
fice. In announcing its prospective 
opening last week, spokesmen for the 
Rand School declared that any at- 
tempt to force them to close their 
doors under the terms of the Lusk 
Committee law will be fought in the 
courts. It is the contention of coun- 
sel for the Rand School that the 
licensing law is unconstitutional. 

In this connection, a resolution 
adopted last week by the American 
Socialist Society, the corporation 
which conducts the Rand School and 
allied activities, is interesting. It de- 
clared that the school is not a non- 
partisan institution but an auxiliary 
to the organized socialist and labor 
movement, and that its dominant aims 
should be to promote "a correct 
knowledge and understanding of the 
principles, purposes, and policies of the 
socialist and labor movement, and to 
serve the Socialist Party and the la- 
bor unions by training propagandists, 
organizers, and other party and union 
workers." Because of this relation 
of the school to the socialist and la- 
bor movement, the resolution declar- 
ed that teachers of history, economics, 
political science, and related subjects 

ought to be "in the main either members of or avowed sym- 
pathizers with the Socialist Party." 

"This does not exclude," the resolution continues, "the 
occasional employment of non-socialists to teach or lecture on 
special subjects which they are particularly qualified to treat 
in a scientific manner; nor does it exclude the occasional en- 
gagement of lecturers who are openly opposed to the theories 
and tactics of the Socialist Party, for the specific purpose of 
presenting the opposed views to the students in an authori- 


Opposite the heroic Bismarck monument of 
Frankfort, small in size but impressive by its 
simple and quiet dignity, is this war memorial, 
one of the verv few so far erected in Ger- 
many. The inscription reads, To the Victims, 
and leaves it to the beholder to imagine "of 
what" .or "whose." To artists this sculpture 
by Benno Elkan is interesting because it re- 
duces forms to their most primitive elements — 
cube, ball and cone — thereby, as one critic says, 
approaching the beauty .of Greek gravestones 

tative manner; it being understood that in all such cases the 
party's position must also be adequately set forth." 

The resolution instructed the directors and officers of the 
American Socialist Society and the teaching staff of the Rand 
School to be guided by this expression and concluded with 
the statement that it would be inconsistent for anyone to act 
as an officer of the society or the school "whose views of ac- 
tivities are hostile to those of the Socialist Party or who can- 
not heartily accept the foregoing instruction." Following this 
action, Alexander Trachtenberg and Benjamin Glassberg, 
both teachers in the Rand School and directors of the Ameri- 
can Socialist Society, withdrew from 1 their connection with 
the society. This action followed their withdrawal the week 
before from the Socialist Party and their affiliation with a 
committee whose purpose is to hold a 
conference in November in order to 
effect an organization to be affiliated 
with the Third Internationale. 


THE national conference on un- 
employment which is meeting at 
Washington this week under the 
leadership of Secretary of Commerce 
Hoover was opened with an address 
by President Harding. In this the 
President indicated that the Adminis- 
tration would accept no suggestions 
for radical reform in dealing with 
unemployment. As to this he said: 

There is always unemployment. 
Under most fortunate conditions, I 
am told, there are a million and a 
half in the United States who are 
not at work. The figures are 
astounding only because we are a 
hundred million and this parasite 
percentage is always with us. 

But there is excessive unemployment 
today, and we are concerned not 
alone about its diminution, but we 
are frankly anxious, under the in- 
volved conditions, lest, it grow worse, 
with hardships of the winter season 
soon to be met. 

It is fair to say that you are not 
asked to solve the long controverted 
problems of our social system. We 
have builded the America of today 
on the fundamentals of economic, in- 
dustrial and political life which 
made us what we are, and the tem- 
ple requires no re-making now. We 
are inoontestably sound. We are con- 
stitutionally strong. We are merely 
depressed after the fever, and we 
want to know the way to speediest 
and dependable convalescence. When 
we know the way, everybody in 
America, capital and labor, employer 
and employe, captains of industry 
and the privates in the trenches, will 
go over the top in the advance drive 
of peace. Frankly, it is difficult to 
know whether we have reached that 
bedrock to which reaction runs be- 
fore the upward course begins, but 
here are representatives of the forces 

which make for all we are or ever 
can be, and your soundings ought to be reliable. 

I would have little enthusiasm for any proposed relief which 
seeks either palliation or tonic from the public treasury. The 
excess of stimulation from that source is to be reckoned a cause 
of trouble rather than a source of cure. We should achieve 
but little in a remedial way if we continued to excite a con- 
tributing cause. 

From this it is fairly apparent that unemployment insurance 
which is so largely relied upon by Great Britain and by other 
European nations will not be among the devices used in the 
United States during the present depression. 




MAJOR LEONARD DARWIN, son of the author 
of the Origin of Species, argued before the interna- 
tional Congress of Eugenics in session in New York 
city last week, that measures should be taken to encourage 
parenthood among the "better classes" and to prevent the 
multiplication of the unfit. Major Darwin proposed that 
patriotism should be invoked in order to prevent family limi- 
tation among the "fit" while he suggested that segregation 
and even sterilization through the use of the X-ray be util- 
ized to stop the breeding of feeble-minded and of habitual 

Racial deterioration among the highly civilized races seems 
apparent to the son of Charles Darwin. He observed that 
"in comparison with the ill endowed, the naturally well en- 
dowed will, as time goes on, take a smaller and smaller part 
in production of the coming generations with a tendency to 
racial deterioration as an inevitable consequence. Statistical 
inquiries, at all events, prove that where good incomes are 
being earned, there families are on the average small." His- 
tory has taught Major Darwin that races in the past have 
fallen from high estate because of the progressive elimination 
of their best types. "What is necessary," he urged, "is to 
make it deeply and widely felt that it is both immoral and 
unpatriotic for couples sound in mind and body to unduly 
limit the size of their families." He said that on the other 
hand he would encourage family limitation among those 
people who are in such circumstances that their children would 
not have a fair opportunity for healthy growth and for 


RETURNED this week from his third midsummer visit 
to the Levant, Charles V. Vickrey, general secretary 
of the Near East Relief, tells of conditions which he saw 
in Russia and Armenia which were unprecedented by any- 
thing he had ever seen at the same season in previous years. 
The wholesale death harvest, result of starvation, exposure 
and disease, usually begun in late winter or early spring, has 
this year been accelerated by several months, and already in 
August, when Mr. Vickrey was in Alexandropol, "the death 
wagon had begun its daily rounds to pick up the dead lying 
in the streets." 

The Near East Relief now has more than fifty American 
relief workers in this area, who in the vicinity of Alexandro- 
pol alone are caring for 20,000 orphan children. The presi- 
dent of the local government of the Alexandropol district 
is quoted by Mr. Vickrey as saying that there are 20,000 
more children in his district that will perish during the com- 
ing winter if they are not added to the orphanage popula- 
tion. The total number of orphans in the Near East Relief 
territory exceeds 100,000. 

In what I had once known as the busy and comparatively 
well-stocked market places of Erivan, the capital of Armenia, 
[says Mr. Vickrey] I found nothing in the way of new and de- 
sirable merchandise but only hopeless women and children wan- 
dering about, trying to exchange a second-hand garment or other 
personal property for food with which to satisfy hunger. This 
was in the warm month of August, when fresh vegetables and 
other perishable articles of food were to some extent available. 
One's imagination recoils before the picture of what conditions 
will be in February and March when the snow will lie deep on 
these high plateaus. 

The government officials of Georgia and Armenia have 
made what Mr. Vickrey considers to be a low estimate of the 
amount of food necessary to sustain life in their countrymen. 
Plus the indigenous products, the minimum amount of food 
necessary to obtain from the outside world is 6,000,000 poods 
or 100,000 tons. The director general is already in consulta- 
tion with the local governments on a plan for establishing 
soup kitchens in villages lying out from the cities in order to 

prevent the stampede of refugees from the country places into 
the large centers. Mr. Vickrey emphasizes the importance of 
avoiding in this way the unsanitary congestion of populations 
in cities and keeping the farmers and villagers on or near their 
lands, prepared for planting in the spring. The inadequacy 
of private contributions to take care of the problem is pointed 
out by Mr. Vickrey. 
He says: 

I was again impressed this year with the natural resources of 
the country as well as with the remarkable thrift, industry and 
enterprise of the people. They are at present undernourished 
and becoming discouraged, but I have never met a people who 
recuperated more quickly. Speaking especially for Russian Ar- 
menia, I would say that if they can have but a single twelve- 
months of peace, exemption from foreign military invasion and 
an opportunity to harvest and keep for themselves one crop, they 
will from that time forward ask no further favors of the out- 
side world, except assurance of continued peace. 


WORK of the American Relief Administration has 
actually begun in Russia. A dispatch to the New 
York Times from Walter Duranty, dated Kazan, Sep- 
tember 19, says: "Three hundred and sixty children of the 
Tartar Republic, the region of Russia worst stricken by the 
famine, received their first American meal today in a large 
children's home in the center of this city." Mr. Duranty 
further reports that the .administration this week expects to 
open a kitchen to feed upward of 2,000 children now almost 
entirely without food. 

Vernon Kellogg, who accompanied the first administration 
train to the famine area, and with whom Mr. Duranty re- 
ports an interview, tells of the immediate needs in Russia 
and of the difficulties of relief administration. He compares 
the situation there with the situation in Belgium, saying that 
while a certain amount of suspicion exists in Russia, just as 
in Belgium, there is "no tendency to regard us as actual po- 
tential opponents." 

Mr. Kellogg as reported as saying: 

There are, however, two points of similarity with Belgium: 
First obstruction — not deliberate, but due to red tape, routine 
and lack of coordination — and, secondly, the difficulty in getting 
at someone ready to take responsibility rather than to pass on 
the solution of problems to superiors. This is particularly the 
case in Moscow, but it is strikingly less so here in Kazan, where 
we are directly in touch with the authorities, with most encour- 
aging results, and I hear similar good reports from Petrograd. 
In Belgium the difficulty was largely overcome after a year's 
work by the formation of a special German intermediary bureau 
with considerable powers, through which the Amerioan Relief 
Administration worked exclusively. I think it probable that 
something of the kind will be created in Moscow, and I should 
like to see it done as soon as possible. 

Another point we have got to face soon is the question of 
piling up stocks in Soviet Russia in view of the reduction of 
transport facilities in winter. I have confidence in the good faith 
of the Soviet Government and believe we can have big stocks 
on Russian soil without fear of interference. . . . 

There will arise, too, later, the question of aid for adults in 
the villages, where it is obviously little good to keep the children 
alive if their natural protectors die of starvation. That is a 
bridge to be crossed when we come to it; but I would suggest 
that a beginning might be made with mothers of young children 
and parents of large families, which would possibly release 
enough food to enable the remainder to survive. 

There is hope, too, that the government will be able to aid in 
this respect. They seem to have been remarkably successful in 
distributing seed grain in the Tartar Republic, although the 
amount is much less than the total requirements; and if the 
weather is not too bad the next six weeks they may be able to 
put out enough to avoid the Complete starvation on a big scale 
that now seems inevitable. 

On the whole, although I feel that the situation in Russia in- 
volves a bigger job than the American Relief Administration 
has ever tackled before, I am fairly optimistic. The position 
here is certainly most promising, and we may be able to get the 
stuff to the villages all right, if only it comes fast enough from 



The Senators Tour 
West Virginia 

ACCOMPANIED by • a rapid stenographer and a 
sergeant-at-arms who bought their railroad tickets, 
intimidated hotel clerks and engaged innumerable 
automobiles for side trips, Senator William F. 
Kenyon, of Iowa, and Senator S. M. Shortridge, of Cali- 
fornia, last week visited West Virginia and inhaled 
local atmosphere at the rate of about a cubic yard 
a second. The senators did not hold formal hearings. 
No one was compelled to testify against his will. No one 
was placed under oath. The senators merely went about the 
field, asking questions of many people, seeking out a few 
whose names had been given to them, visiting scenes made 
familiar by stories of the struggle, and getting down as much 
of all this as they could in the cryptographic notebooks of 
their Mr. Rose. They might, indeed, have been modeling 
their procedure upon that of the dozen or so newspaper and 
magazine writers who accompanied them. 

The senators were making an inquiry for a sub-committee 
of the Committee on Education and Labor of the United 
States Senate. This committee was directed some months 
ago to investigate the "causes and incidents" of the West 
Virginia trouble. It has already held formal hearings in 
Washington, and before Senators Kenyon and Shortridge 
left West Virginia they declared that the full sub-committee 
would decide whether or not it would hold further formal 
hearings. If such hearings are held, they may take place with- 
in West Virginia, possibly at Huntington, easily accessible to 
several of the districts most interested. 

Time was of the essence of the senators' trip. They spent 
exactly seventy-eight hours in the state. During approximately 
twenty-four of these they slept. (Senator Shortridge stole a 
march on his colleague one morning and delayed matters by 
snatching two extra hours in bed.) With the seven hours 
devoted to meals, seventeen spent on railway trains (nearly 
one whole morning was wasted because a string of coal cars 
inconsiderately jumped the track just ahead of the senators' 
train) and the necessary "lost motion," they had about thirty 
hours for the actual task of investigation. Now, West Vir- 
ginia is a large state. The fight over unionism does not ex- 
tend throughout it, of course, but it is acute in a 
number of counties and a knowledge of the "causes and in- 
cidents" requires familiarity with conditions in many places. 
The senators did not go into Mercer or McDowell counties, 
where the union, the United Mine Workers of America, 
charges that Baldwin-Felts' armed guards are used by the 
operators in great strength to keep the union out. They did 
rj t gather any information in regard to the injunctions in 
t ose counties restraining organizers from appealing to the 
miners, nor in regard to the "yellow dog" contracts com- 
pelling men to agree to have nothing to do with the union. 
They did not see the worst conditions under which miners 
live. They did not visit the scene of the recent "armed 
march" of union miners through Boone county toward 
Logan, though they heard some testimony concerning it in 
Logan. They did visit Mingo and Logan counties. They 
also talked with state officials in Charleston, the capital, as 
well as with several other people whom both the operators 
and the union selected. And they saw a good deal of mining 
country from the windows of their railroad trains,. 

By way of background, let it be said that the West Vir- 
ginia struggle dates back thirty years. It is no mushroom 
growth. That long the miners have been seeking organiza- 
tion and that long the operators have been bitterly opposing 
them. Such scenes as Stanniford in 1902, when miners lost 
their lives in a battle with armed guards, as Cabin Creek 

and Paint Creek in 1912, when civil war raged for a time, 
and as Matewan in 1920, when ten people were killed in a 
shooting affray with private detectives brought in to evict 
miners who had joined the union, are the raw material out 
of which the history of the conflict has been written. Slowly 
the union has gained headway. Today half of the 90,000 
miners in the state are organized. Those who are un- 
organized are concentrated for the most part in a few fields, 
and the issues at present are, first, whether these fields shall 
be organized and, second, what methods each side shall pur- 
sue in securing its ends. 

It was in Mingo county that the senators first gained 
valuable data. A strike, called to force the operators to 
recognize the union, has been in progress here for fifteen 
months. During all of that time many miners and their 
families have lived in tent colonies, supported by relief funds 
appropriated by the United Mine Workers. The number of 
such inhabitants of tent colonies today is between 1,300 and 
1,400, including women and children, and the union places 
the total number of strikers at 2,500. The senators visited 
two of these tent colonies, Lick Creek and Blackberry City. 
At Lick Creek, lying on the mud flats of the Tug River, they 
found approximately two hundred people living in some fifty 

The senators learned of the hardships that these people 
have borne, of the rigors of winter cold and summer heat. 
They looked into the faces of native Americans, who spoke 
of their "constitutional rights" and their purpose to carry the 
fight through. They learned of the community life of the 
colonists, and listened to tales from the men of how brave the 
women have been. They heard, too, of deeper sorrows and 
joys. An informant told them that twenty-two babies had 
been born in this colony, and that some of the men had been 
carried away to graves on the hillside. 

At Blackberry City they had another kind of experience. 
Here they saw evidences of the warfare that has made Mingo 
county little less than a battleground for months. Up and 
down the forty-mile stretch of this region bullets have 
whizzed and firing parties have lain under cover of the 
wooded hills. Both sides have taken part in the fighting. 
Today the people are living in an atmosphere of warfare; 
they use its phraseology. Blackberry City itself was the ob- 
ject of a three-day attack last May. From the surrounding 
hills bullets poured in upon its exposed tents and houses, 
and the miners, armed themselves, returned the fire. The at- 
tack ended when emissaries of both sides, meeting mid-way, 
arranged a truce, which has not been broken since. 

At the plants of the Borderland Coal Company near 
Chattaroy and the White Star Mining Company at Merri- 
mac, the senators saw the damage that the union miners 
could do. These companies had attempted to operate despite 
the strike. Firing upon their plants from the nearby hills 
had occurred frequently. A power plant of the Borderland 
Coal Company had been blown up. At Merrimac a mail 
pouch had lain on the railroad tracks for hours because every 
attempt to get it had drawn a fusillade from the Kentucky 
side of the river. The front of the company store was punc- 
tured with bullets. The superintendent, George H. Perkins, 
even told of a woman carrying a child who had tried to 
cross a cleared space and had been shot at continuously as 
she proceeded. No one had been caught or arrested for these 
attempts. One man was tried for blowing up the power 
plant of the Borderland Coal Company, but he had been 
acquitted. In Logan county the senators got different mate- 
rial. Logan county is one of the most intense anti-union 
strongholds in the United States. The place is inaccessible, 
lying away from all main lines of travel and reached only by 
a tedious, winding journey through hills. Twenty years ago 
its green-clad mountains were virgin nature ; wild animals 
held sway in them. Today they are bored and tunnelled by 
coal mines. The county's annual production exceeds nine 



million tons. Capital from the outside has poured in with 
its men and machinery and converted this retreat of nature 
into an industrial center. As the judge of the local circuit 
court said to the senators: '"Coal, gentlemen, is king here. 
It is our existence. Take from us our coal and we have noth- 
ing left. We shall return to the days of the bobcats and 

In Logan county the senators heard the case against the 
union presented in its full force. The argument was made 
by W. N. Wiley, vice-president and general manager of the 
Boone County Coal Corporation. Mr. Wiley is himself a 
union operator, his mines lying in that small part of Logan 
county cut off by the ridge of Blair mountain from the rest. 
But he is one in spirit with his non-union brothers. For two 
solid hours he discussed the evils of unionism in general and 
in particular, including a disquisition on constitutional gov- 
ernment. He denounced the leadership of the United Mine 
Workers in this region as "lawless" and "anarchic," and de- 
scribed with great detail the recent march of armed miners 
toward Logan county. He said it was reported that this 
force had so far adopted military methods that it had tried 
and actually executed some of its own men for desertion. He 
referred to the frequently used argument that the union oper- 
ators of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana and Western Pennsylvania 
are in a "conspiracy" with the United Mine Workers to 
organize the remainder of the West Virginia field. 

There was one thing about Logan county that the senators 
particularly wanted to know. They had heard that the sal- 
aries of the deputy sheriffs there were paid by the coal oper- 
ators. Indeed, the union has contended that these deputies 
take an active part in preventing the organization of that 
field. So the senators asked W. R. Thurmond, president of 
the Logan Coal Operators' Association, to give them the facts. 
Mr. Thurmond confirmed their understanding. He said that 
the county was financially unable to provide adequate police 
protection for all of the mining properties and camps. The 
operators, therefore, helped the county out. The treasurer 
of the operators' association paid a certain sum of money to 
the sheriff, who used it in meeting the salaries of these depu- 
ties. The deputies were regularly appointed by the county 
court and gave bond as required by law; they were public 
officials. Yet their salaries came from the private funds of 
the coal operators. Mr. Thurmond did not know the exact 
number of such deputies, but he thought it was fifty-four. 
Neither did he know just how much money was paid an- 
nually by the association for this purpose, but he agreed to 
give this information to the committee later. (Two years 
ago, when a state commission took testimony on this same 
subject, the amount was stated by an official of the operators' 
association to be $32,700 a year, but the number of deputies 
was then smaller.) 

"Are you not putting functions of government into the 
hands of private parties?" asked Senator Kenyon when he was 
talking on this subject to Mr. Wiley. 

"You are perfectly right," said Mr. Wiley. "But when the 
state doesn't perform those functions, somebody else must." 

Senator Kenyon tried to put the whole West Virginia 
trouble into its fundamental terms when he said, while he 
was questioning Mr. Wiley: 

The situation seems to boil down to this, Mr. Wiley: The 
union is determined to organize this territory. The operators 
are determined that it shall not. They refuse to employ men 
who join the union. Now, you are a practical man, what is the 

Mr. Wiley's answer, condensed, was this: 

The solution lies in the enforcement of law and order. We 
feel that we have a right to ask you as representatives of the 
federal government for protection. 

The solution offered by the union was contained in a 
statement handed to the senators before they left. In this 
the officials of District 17 declared that the first step was 

"a public finding of facts as to the causes of the conflict. The 
Senate committee, we assume, will make that." The second 
step, they declared, was to secure "a joint conference be- 
tween operators, miners and representatives of the federal 
and state governments in order to effect an agreement similar 
to those made and so successfully enforced by the War Labor 
Board during the war." No settlement can secure peace, 
said the statement, "unless it provides, first, for the total 
abolition of the mine guards and all other agents of force 
in the hands of the operators, and second, a working agree- 
ment to end the intolerable conditions of labor in the non- 
union field." 

The senators did not gather much, by way of specific infor- 
mation in regard to the causes and incidents of this conflict, 
that was not already known. They secured a brief orienta- 
tion in the atmosphere of the struggle. They stood between 
two groups, so to speak, and saw the determined gaze of an 
irrevocable purpose come from each. They looked through 
a crack in the door at one of the most bitter industrial strug- 
gles going on in this country. If they had been in West 
Virginia last winter, as the writer was, they would have 
realized that the state now seems farther than ever from a 
solution of the problem. The feeling of each side ' is more 
intense, and the elements of force seem to be more than ever 
in the ascendancy. Winthrop D. Lane. 

The Cardiff Meeting | 

London, September II. 

IT can hardly be said that the Cardiff meeting of the 
Trade Union Congress has been a successful one. It 
showed a real advance in the position taken by labor 
toward international affairs. Mr. Thomas and Mr. 
Clynes pointed out with emphasis that the trade depression 
from which British labor is suffering so acutely is merely 
the reaction of foreign conditions; and the delegates seemed 
to appreciate the impossibility of remaining content with an 
insular attitude. But beyond what, after all, was largely 
an academic discussion, the congress did not rise to its oppor- 
tunities. Denunciations of capitalism there were in abundance. 
A resolution in favor of promoting workers' education was 
passed with enthusiasm. Women workers were accorded a 
more definite status in the movement. A trade union council 
to replace the old and inefficient Parliamentary committee 
was created. Mr. Henderson's insistence that labor will put 
five hundred candidates into the field at the next general 
election was cheered repeatedly. Much sympathetic indigna- 
tion was shown at the unequal burden of the rates; and the 
action of the Government in imprisoning the borough council 
of Poplar was roundly and rightly condemned. 

But when one looks beyond the formal gesture of a resolu- 
tion for positive achievement, it must be admitted that there 
was little or none. The president, E. L. Poulton, made a 
most melancholy inaugural address in which he could blame 
only capitalism for unemployment and suggest only short ,, 
time as a temporary solution. But since it is absolutely clear 
that short time is the direct highroad to a lowering of the 
worker's standard of life, that can hardly be considered a 
helpful suggestion. Broadly, there were, four great issues 
before the congress: unemployment, the trade union general 
council and its problems, workers' education, and the relations 
of the trade unions to the Labor Party. On none of these 
questions can the congress be said to have been helpful. 

On unemployment, it did absolutely nothing. It heard a 
deputation from the local unemployed and it denounced the 
general condition. But of ways and means it had no idea. 
Though there lie buried in the reports of the Ministry of 
Reconstruction a whole group of valuable suggestions, the 
congress did not call for their production. Though there 
exists, in the Minority Report ©f the Poor Law Commission 



of 1909, a plan for coping with unemployment to which 
every public man of importance has now assented, the con- 
gress did not draw attention to its existence. Yet it is clear 
enough that the attitude of the Government to the unemployed 
this winter will depend very largely upon the lead given by 
labor. There must be unanimous agreement upon the scale 
of unemployment pay. There must be rigorous insistence 
upon the provision of works of public utility. There must 
be a demand for the success of disarmament as the prelude 
to relief in taxation. There must be a vast, if temporary, in- 
crease of the provision of meals and clothing for necessitous 
school children. If the congress had drawn emphatic atten- 
tion to these possibilities, the public opinion that would have 
been aroused would soon have compelled the Government to 
move. A general resolution is simply, in the tragic circum- 
stances, a cry in a vacuum. 

On the trade union general council a start, but no more 
than a start, has been made. A council has been set up and 
its members balloted for ; but the congress did nothing about 
its machinery and refused to create the office of president. 
Both these omissions are grave. The first means that in this 
very critical period the council will have no definite organs 
upon which to rely. It will have no research agencies at its 
command ; for one hears, with profound regret, of the prac- 
tical eclipse of the Labor Research Department. It will have 
no thoroughly equipped secretariat. Old and tired officials 
like Mr. Bramley are excellent in their ways; but what the 
council needs is administrators who are also economists. The 
absence of definite organization, moreover, will mean that 
until next year the council will be a purely tentative effort. 
The need of immediate coordination is too imperative for that 
tentativeness to be tolerable. And the fact that the council is 
representative of interests rather than of persons leaves it still 
in the vicious atmosphere of craft structure. The effort to 
give it power to control strikes broke down through sectional 
jealousy, of which the miners made the chief display. In 
the issue between local autonomy and centralization the argu- 
ment is almost always on the side of the former. But upon 
the battlefield of industry the main need, as the disastrous 
coal strike made manifest, is that a body should exist to 
which all local interests are subordinate. It is simply futile 
to allow the miners to strike when and where they please; 
their last effort involved the General Workers' Union in an 
outlay of $2,000,000 in unemployment pay; if such a risk 
is to be taken, there should at least be considered cooperation. 
But the unions cling desperately to a creed which refuses to 
recognize the unified and indivisible interest of labor; and 
until that attitude of mind has been changed, a general ad- 
vance is impossible. 

Much the same can be said of the refusal to create the 
office of president of the council. Labor badly needs a figure- 
head who can speak in its name, for the present diversity of 
tongues is lamentable. On the one hand is Mr. Clynes, 
preaching progress through parliamentary action ; on the other 
is Mr. Lansbury, who desires a bloodless revolution im- 
mediately. A president would have given labor a representa- 
tive whose utterance would have carried decisive weight with 
public opinion. The refusal to have such an official is partly 
the result of sectional jealousy and partly because of the 
utter inability of the trade unions to grasp what is implied 
by administrative expertise. Just as they expect their officials 
to work with too few and ill paid subordinates, and to com- 
bine in themselves the offices of agitator, administrator, and 
.member of Parliament, so they seem to imagine that the 
creation of a body implies the existence of the requisite ethos. 
At the back of all this, perhaps, is the incurable and woeful 
distrust of the official which has been consistently preached by 
the extremists for the past four years. The Daily Herald, 
for instance, seems to imagine that the existence of a rank 
and file precludes the necessity of direction. A compulsory 

reading of Mr. and Mrs. Webbs' Industrial Democracy 
would be the salvation of the left wing of labor. 

On workers' education, there was much pious enthusiasm. 
The resolution passed commits labor to a great scheme under 
trade union control ; but it says nothing of ways and means. 
The truth is that labor is divided between a small section, of 
which A. Pugh of the Iron and Steel Trades Federation is 
the leader, and the members of which are really earnest about 
an educational advance, and the mass of the movement which 
is largely indifferent. Within the section of enthusiasts, there 
is again a division. One party seems anxious for an educa- 
tional scheme the main object of which would be the develop- 
ment of anti-capitalist economics. The Workers' Educational 
Association, the labor colleges and Ruskin College would all 
be taken over by the trade unions and used as organs of 
propaganda. It would be lamentable indeed if that occurred. 
The important thing is the attainment of a maximum ob- 
jectivity of outlook on the one hand, and the maintenance of 
a high standard of teaching upon the other. If working class 
education ever becomes the servant of a theory its merits as 
a movement will be destroyed. For it will then cease to be 
scientific; and it will no longer serve, as it now serves, the 
invaluable purpose of providing a meeting ground upon 
which those interested in the general need for raising the 
educational standard of the democracy can pool their services 
for the common good. At the moment, indeed, there is little 
fear that this change will take place. A long road has still 
to be traversed before the rank and file of labor begins to 
understand the significance of education. The W. E. A. is 
still a pioneer body [see the Survey for November 13, 1920, 
page 253] ; and the teacher is not yet, even for the leaders 
of trade-unionism, the symbol of a new age. 

The final subject of importance was the relation between 
the trade unions and the Labor Party. What was significant 
at the congress was the fact that this problem was not men- 
tioned at all. Mr. Henderson, who appeared as a fraternal 
delegate, spoke with genial optimism ; but he left the thorny 
aspects entirely alone. They yet remain ; and sooner or later 
they will have to be met. ,The essence of the problem is 
simple. The funds of the unions are the basis of the Labor 
Party's finance. As a result most of the candidates are union 
nominees; and it seems impossible to persuade mining dis- 
tricts, for example, to return other than miners to the House 
of Commons. Because of this the level of candidatures is 
almost uniformly disappointing, and not seldom monstrous. 
It has become essential that the main work of picking 
nominees should be left, not to the local constituency, but to 
the executive of the party. The local group picks its own 
leader without any real reference to his fitness for parlia- 
mentary work ; and, as often as not, the basis of choice is 
simply trade union service. The result is a party in the 
House which, while it is confident of its own powers, instills 
dismay into the hearts of its leaders. It is not that its level is 
lower than that of the Tories, though, intellectually, it is 
inferior to the little groups of Independent Liberals; it is 
simply that it has not men enough of caliber to cope with the 
issues in debate. That condition will continue until a much 
more rigid power of control is centered in the executive of 
the party. The autonomy of the constituencies here means 
the unfettered discretion of the local unions; and that, in 
its turn, is ruinous to the quality of the party. 

I may perhaps be permitted to suggest that it does not 
redound to the credit of American labor that one of its 
fraternal delegates should make his speech an unintelligent 
attack on prohibition and an offer to teach English visitors 
how to evade the law. Most observers of English labor 
would, I think, agree that if we had the advantage of a 
vigorous control of the liquor traffic we should have the right 
to a greater optimism than we dare profess. 

Harold J. Laski. 





By Jesse Lyman Hurlburt. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 429 pp. 

Illustrated. Price, $2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.75. 
As the title suggests, this is a story and not a history of Chau- 
tauqua, and it should be regarded as such, although the author 
in the course of his writing calls his book history. The reader 
will find it an interesting account, especially because of its lu- 
cidity of style and the idealistic serenity characterizing all the 
leaders and the followers of Chautauqua. 

But if we turn to Chautauqua as one of the most original 
achievements in the education and enlightment of the masses, 
we may perhaps regret that this book is only a story. We 
may regret the author's scrupulousness in giving as complete as 
possible a list of all those who appeared on or were connected 
with the Chautauqua platform. This apparently has prevented 
his giving a detailed survey of what has been spoken and 
achieved, instead of who has spoken and how the speaking has 
been done. 

Born forty-eight years ago of a small group of religious, 
public-spirited men under the leadership of Lewis Miller and 
Bishop Vincent, Chautauqua has developed into a national edu- 
cational institution. The present Chautauqua Institution in 
Chautauqua, N. Y., is its surviving and ever inspiring mother. 
As the years have passed by Chautauqua has broadened the 
scope of its work and accumulated more hearers and followers. 
Everything, from electricity to universal suffrage and from 
Darwinism to theology, has been embraced by the Chautauqua 
speakers, and crowds growing ever larger have filled the camps 
and the tents of Chautauqua. 

The most interesting and at the same time remarkable facts 
in Chautauqua should be mentioned in discussing the story of 
its life: 

1. It has never lived on any private endowment and so must 
be considered the most democratic, truly popular creation in 

2. It has always been the real defender of free thought and 
speech, having created probably the most liberal platform in 

3. It has been the cradle of many characteristic and later 
influential or important organizations in America, such as the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union. The National Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs is an outgrowth of Chautauqua read- 
ing circles. It was one of , the first platforms to endorse woman 
suffrage and to show its liberal views on the problem. Frances 
Willard and Mary A. Livermore have been among the con- 
stant and most popular speakers on the Chautauqua platform 
since 1876. 

4. It was— until 1914 — one of the most noble centers and 
promoters of the idea of disarmament and world peace. 

It is of exceptional interest to note one thing brought out 
by the story; namely, the role of American women in social 
work, educational life and striving. Thousands and hundreds 
of thousands of people have come to Chautauqua during the 
years of its growth and most of these have been women, at 
the average age of thirty. Whether in the field of history or 
prohibition, philosophy or practical sciences, the woman student 
has been in the lead at Chautauqua. This same thing may be 
noticed today in the Chautauqua tents, the so-called Chautauqua 
daughters of the original Chautauqua: the majority in the 
audience are women, who seem to be both more responsive 
and more receptive in matters intellectual and educational 
than men. 

There are now at least ten thousand towns in America which 
have Chautauqua, the attendance in all being about five million 
people. Chautauqua is becoming, if it has not already become, 
one of the most powerful channels for the inoculation of the 
small town masses with ideas and ideals. 

Dr. Hurlburt's story of Chautauqua is an inspiring introduc- 
tion not only for those who desire to study the movement, but 
' for those who in the field of practical social work need an 
illustration of a great experiment that has developed into 
a phenomenal and fruitful living social experience. 

Gregory Zilboorg. 

The Human Aspect of 
96 pp. 

the Continuation Schools 

By Basil A. Yeaxlee. Oxford University Press. 
Price, $i.oo; by mail of the Survey, $1.10. 


By Basil A. Yeaxlee. Oxford University Press. 80 pp. 

Price, $1.00; by mail of the Survey, $1.03. 
These are volumes in The World of Today series, edited by 
Victor Gollancz. The author was a member of the Adult 
Education Committee of the Ministry of Reconstruction. The 
final report of that committee is a rich mine of social and educa- 
tional thinking, the full implications of which will not be ap- 
parent for a generation, perhaps. The most constructive work 
in educational criticism and theorizing now appearing in Great 
Britain is inspired by that report. These two volumes are 
based upon its findings. Each of them takes up and carries 
farther the arguments there presented. War-time thinking on 
educational subjects presents some most unwelcome suggestions 
to the statesmen and obstructionists of the present. But the 
impetus to constructive thinking cannot be fully annulled. 
England must yet become an educated nation. Education must 
yet become the most important activity of government and 
people. The hope of the world, in all nations, lies that way. 
The work can be delayed, as in the postponement of the carrying 
out of the Fisher act. But not always; not for long. The world 
faces the dilemma of education or decay. The sooner we all 
find out that fact, the better for everyone. J. K. H. 


Reprints of papers and addresses, with notes by Arthur E. 

Bostwick. H. W. Wilson Co. 474 pp. Price, $2.25; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.45. 
This volume is the third in the series of Classics of American 
Librarianship, edited by Dr. Bostwick, librarian of the St. Louis 
Public Library. It contains forty-eight papers and addresses 
on the social aspects of library work; twenty-seven by libraries, 
one anonymous, and the other twenty by eminent citizens, several 
of them presidents of American universities, and one a former 
president of the United States, Grover Cleveland. 

The book, which, by the way, contains a good index, is a 
compact volume in rather fine print, so that reading it at length 
is somewhat tiresome to the eye. However, it is a mine of 
information, not only with reference to the present outlook on 
the social significance of libraries; to librarians and library 
trustees especially it should prove a great stimulus, for many 
ideas set forth most clearly a generation or two ago have been 
realized thus far by relatively few American libraries. There 
is great force in the cumulative effect of a group of papers 
stressing library socialization. 

The papers are grouped somewhat loosely under the following 
headings : 

General Community Relations. 

The Community's Service to the Library. 

Financial Support. 

Alternative to Tax Support. 

Boards of Trustees. 

The Library's Service to the Community. 

The Provision of Books. 

Collection of Information. 

Control and Guidance of Reading. 

Community Center Service. 

Preceding each article or extract, the editor gives a brief 
statement of the occasion of the address or paper together with 
a short account of the speaker or writer. Among the non- 
librarians whose views are published in this volume are Moses 
Coit Tyler, Andrew Carnegie, George Ticknor, Josiah P. 
Quincy, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Hugo Munsterberg, 
James Russell Lowell, Robert Collyer, Edwaid A. Birge, Ed- 
ward Everett, Grover Cleveland, Charles Dudley Warner, 
William H. P. Faunce, Talcott Williams, and James B. Angell. 
In point of time the papers cover the period from the founda- 
tion of the Boston Public Library in the middle of the last 



century to a report of the St. Louis Public Library for 

The dominant thought in the mind of the editor in making his 
selection may be expressed in the words of Ibsen, who has said 
that in the solution of our social problems ' there is only one 
thing that avails — to revolutionize people's minds." And this 
revolutionizing of people's minds every well administered public 
library either consciously or unconsciously is helping along. 

One minor error may be mentioned. The dedication of the 
Ryerson Library building in Grand Rapids, when President 
Angell gave the address here published, was on October 5, 
1904, instead of October 8 as stated in the volume. 

Samuel J. Ranck. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 


By Victor Gollancz. Oxford University Press. 63 pp. Paper. 
Price $1.00; by mail of the Survey $1.05. 
Part of a series of small volumes on current problems and 
events, destined it would seem for educational uses, the one 
under review describes the main ideals of industrial reform 
on which movements of noteworthy strength have grown up in 
England — omitting, however, two that are at any rate of at 
least as much importance as some of those included: single 
tax and anarchist communism. The ideal of noblesse oblige, 
still acted upon by a surprisingly large number of great em- 
ployers, often in combination with extreme hostility to any 
kind of labor legislation, comes first in chronological order. 
Protective legislation of the more elementary tpye, socialism 
in general, state socialism, syndicalism, guild socialism, the 
guild society, the soviet system, anti-labor or anti-socialist so- 
cial reform, industrial peace, profit sharing, and the Whitley 
council form of industrial democracy are the ideals discussed. 
The objections are given in each case, as well as the arguments 
in favor; and with considerable skill the author steers his 
workingman reader away from too favorable a consideration 
of radical panaceas to a mild liberalism which will accept as 
much of socialistic industrial organization as is forced upon 
it from time to time by the force of economic happenings, but 
no more. B. L. 

By Alfred Fitzpatrick. Hunter Rose Co. 150 pages and 
appendix. Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 
This is a brief by the principal of the Frontier College of 
Canada for extra-mural university work. A goodly share of 
the book is given over to a discussion of the very hideous condi- 
tions forced upon the frontiersman and of the relation of his 
moral disintegration to enforced ennui. The state's responsi- 
bility to carry education to its borders and to establish a nucleus 
of learning in every nucleus of population is stressed. The book 
is repetitious of its general truths and somewhat incoherent as 
to specific information about the Frontier College. 

Marion Clinch Calkins. 


By Daniel Johnson Fleming. Oxford University Press. 209 
pp. Price, $2.40; by mail of the Survey, $2.55. 
This book contains description of certain types of schools in 
India: a part-time school, a modified apprentice school, a voca- 
tional school in one of the villages, and various other forms of 
educational effort in the modern India. The problem of educa- 
tion in India is appalling: it represents the illiteracy of hundreds 
of millions. Certain schools, Tagore's, for example, have under- 
taken big things, though they are as yet but a scratch on the 
surface, a drop in the bucket. J. K. H. 


By G. Stanley Hall and others. D. Appleton and Co. 326 
pp. Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 
A new edition of a book first published many years ago. It 
contains some of Dr. Hall's oldest and best work, including 
The Contents of Children's Minds, The Story of a Sand Pile, 
and Boy Life in a Massachusetts Country Town Forty Years 
Ago. Other articles by some of his favorite students make this 
a collection very much worth while. Nothing better from an 
educational point of view has ever been written in America than 
The Story of a Sand Pile. It is well that this has once more 
been made available to the public. J. K. H. 

JACK O'HEALTH AND PEG O'JOY ; a Fairy Tale for Children 

By Beatrice Slayton Herben, M. D. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

39 pp. Price, $.60; by mail of the Survey, $.67. 

By G. Clive Binyon. Macmillan Co. 88 pp. Price, $1.40; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.50. 

By Gilbert Reid. Dodd, Mead & Co. 332 pp. Price, $3.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

By Clarence A. Berdahl. University of Illinois. 296 pp. 

Price, $2.25; by mail of the Survey, $2.45. 

By Blaise Cendrars. La Sirene, Paris. 320 pp. Price, Fr. 

20; by mail of the Survey, $4.20. 

By J. Dryden Kuser. The Gorham Press. 108 pp. Price, 

$3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.15. 

By Bagdasar Kiekor Baghdigian. Burton Publishing Co. 

90 pp. Price, $1.50, postpaid. 

By T. W. Galloway. Association Press. 99 pp. Price, 

$1.00; by mail fo the Survey, $1.10. 

By George O. Draper. Association Press. 148 pp. Price, 

$1.00; by mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

By Bagdasar Krekor Baghdigan. Bui ton Publishing Co. 

198 pp. Price, $1.50, postpaid. 

By Helen Frost. A. S. Barnes & Co. 40 pp. Price, $2.40; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.50. 

By Llewellyn Jones Llewellyn. C. V. Mosby Co. 469 pp. 

Price, $7.50; by mail of the Survey, $7.75. 

By the London Society. Edited by Sir Aston Webb. 286 

pp. Price, $15.00; by mail of the Survey, $15.35. 

By modern authors. Edited by Helen Louise Cohen. Har- 

court, Brace & Co. 342 pp. Illustrated. Price, $2.25 ; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.45. 

WE WRITE, lay out and print appeal literature for social 
agencies — attractive folders, booklets, posters, etc. Mail 
campaigns conducted. Lists compiled. Long experience. 




in layout and plans should give expression to the latest 
medical and social practice. 

Advice on plans and operating problems made avail- 
able through 


HENRY C. WRIGHT, Director 
289 Fourth Avenue, New York City 






is the peak month for 


The death rate for this disease is going up 

Among children under age five the death 
rate from diphtheria is higher than from 
tuberculosis at all ages. 


save many lives this year by inducing 
parents to have their very young child- 
ren undergo the 


This will determine if they are suscept- 
ible to diphtheria. If they are they should 
be given the proper preventive treatment 
without delay. 

If our circular "Diphtheria" can help you write the 

Welfare Division 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 

1 Madison Avenue 

New York 

Administration op Child-Labor Laws; dealing 
with Employment-Certificate System of Wiscon- 
sin. By Ethel E. Hanks. United States Dept. 
of Labor, Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Studies in Child Welfare. University of Iowa 
studies of the physical growth of children from 
birth to maturity. By Bird T. Baldwin. Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City. la. 

Infantile Paralysis. A statement in regard to 
epidemic poliomyelitis. Prepared by Committee 
on Public Health Problems of Institute of Medi- 
cine in Chicago. Visiting Nurse Association, 
104 S. Michigan ave., Chicago. 

Happy's Calendar. A nonsensical calendar for 
school children. Compiled from odd bits of 
health information. Child Health Organization of 
America, 370 Seventh ave., New York city. 
Price, 25 cents. 

The Intellectual and the Worker. By Philip 
Kunnsky. Workers' Educational League, Mod- 
ern Press, Box 205, Madison Sq., New York 
city. Price, 10 cents. 

Health Game for Children. Adapted from the 
ryhmes in the Child Health Alphabet Book. 
Child Health Orzanization of America, Penn 
Terminal Bldg., New York city. Price, 25 cen*.<=. 

Juvenile Delinquency and Its Aftermath. A 
paper read to the Tokyo Branch of the Asso- 
ciation of College Alumnae. By Caroline Mac- 
Donald. 32 Itchome, Tujimicho, Kojimachi, 

The Schools op Your City, I. The General 
Situation, Civic Development. Chamber of Com- 
merce of the United States, Mills Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Tuberculosis Among the Nebraska Winnebago. 
A Social Study on an Indian Reservation. By 
Margaret W. Koening, M.D. Nebraska State 
Historical Society, Lincoln, Neb. 

World Peace, How To Get It Now. By Viola 
Mizell Kimmel, M.D. Kimmel Sanitarium and 
Health School, Creighton, Neb. 

The Citizen's Charter. Prepared for the Labor 
Party's Advisory Committee on Local Govern- 
ment. By Herbert Morrison. The Labor Party, 
33 Eccleston Sq. S. W. 1, London. Price, Id.; 
Post free, 2d. 

Rural Strategy. By Prof. C J. Galpin. The 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, 23 
East 26 St., New York city. 

The Vermont Way. By the Rev. W. A. Davison. 
Department of Social Service and Rural Com- 
munity Work of the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society, 23 East 26 St., New York city. 

Standards of Growth in the Detroit Public 
Schools. By Paul C Packer and Arthur B. 
Moehlman. Board of Education, Detroit^ Mich. 

Women's Wages in Kansas. United States Dept, 
of Labor, Women's Bureau, Washington, D. C 

The Labor Party's Fight. Agricultural Workers' 
Wages. Full reports of labor speeches and a 
list of members of Parliament who voted against 
the Labor Party's motion for the rejection of 
the bill to repeal act which establishes the Wages 
Board. The Labor Party, 33 Eccleston Sq. 
S. W. 1., London. 

Function and Functioning op the State Hos- 
pital Training School. By Donald A. Laird. 
University of Iowa, Des Moines, la. 

Element of Personality in Nursing. A reprint 
from The American Journal of Nursing. By 
Donald A. Laird. University of Iowa, Des 
Moines, la. 

Manual of the Household Survey in Town 
and Country. A religious census of all the 
people of a given community. Interchurch World 
Movement of North America, 45 West 18 St., 
New York city. 

Positions of Responsibility in Department 
Stores and Other Retail Selling Organiza- 
tions. A study of opportunities for women. 
By Mary H. Tolman. Bureau of Vocational 
Information, 2 West 43 St., New York city. 
Price, 50 cents; postpaid, 60 cents. 

Physical Standards for Working Children. 
Preliminary report of the committee appointed 
by the Children's Bureau to formulate standards 
of normal development and sound health for 
use of physicians in examining children entering 
employment and children at work. United 
States Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C 

Studies in Church Efficiency. A study of 648 
churches in the country with histories of four 
recorded. Educational Department, Board of 
Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America. 156 Fifth ave., 
New York city. 

Final Report op the United States Fuel 
AdministraTox. By H. A. Garfield. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 



Home and Institutional Economics 



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Brushes. Brooms. Dusters, Polishes for Floors. 
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sweet, clean, well put up. and 
withal so efficient. 

CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO., Manufacturers 
Branches: Chicago, London 
271 Ninth Street Brooklyn. N. T. 

How To Meet Hard Times 

Reprinted from t 1 6-page Sup- 
plement to The Survey of Feb- 
ruary 5, 1 92 1. A practical work- 
ing program on how to meet and 
how to prevent abnormal unem- 

25 cents a copy postpaid 

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sent to one address 


112 Eart 19 Street, New York 

Essential to Health and 

Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
the Mattress. 

No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
equipped without Mattress Protectors. 

A sheet in itself cannot properly protect the Mattress. 

During sleeping hours the body in complete repose 
throws off waste tissues and gases, much of which 
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484 Fulton Street Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Hudson and North Moore Sts- New York 

Hardware, Tools and Supplies 
Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 

Electric Clock Systems 

501 Fifth Avenue New York City 

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WANTED: For Bernardsville, New 
Jersey, a registered trained nurse for rural 
district nursing. A fully furnished house, 
light, heat, telephone and transportation pro- 
vided. Salary $125.00 per month. One 
month's vacation a year, with salary. Nurse 
must find housekeeper, who may be relative, 
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to Visiting Nurse Association of Somerset 
Hills, P. O. Box 45. Far Hills, N. J. 

WANTED: by the Jewish Children's 
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be good executive, capable of directing the 
activities of a new Cottage System, and a 
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WANTED: By Jewish child-caring insti- 
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HEBREW Orphans Home, Philadelphia, 
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Physicians' Exchange, 30 Michigan Blvd., Chicago. 


EXPERIENCED well qualified School 
Nurse desires permanent position. Aznoe't 
Central Registry for Nurses, 30 N. Michigan 
Ave.. Chicago. 

special experience in Legislative work, pub- 
licity and promotion of statewide welfare 
programs, desires change about January 
first. Six years in present position with pro- 
minent statewide organization. 3969 Survit. 

VICE EXECUTIVE, trained in community- 
organization and publicity, available for part 
or full time proposition. 3914 Survey. 

SOCIAL Worker Executive, experienced 
all phases children's work, case and proba- 
tion work, desires change position. Avail- 
able November ist- Especially adapted to 
development of state work, good organizer 
and investigator. . 3994 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, eight years' experience in 
settlements and community centers, desires 
position as Boys' worker in New York City. 
3995 Survey. 

BOYS' WORKER; ten years' experience 
boys' clubs and playgrounds, desires all- 
year position. 3997 Survey. 

teacher, experience: organization, American- 
ization, writer, speaker, wants position re- 
quiring interest, intelligence and ability. 
3998 Survey. 

YOUNG LADY wishes position, New 
York, in domestic science and art. Club 
leader experienced. Monday, Friday, Satur- 
day afternoon and Saturday mornings free. 
3999 Survey. 

LADY wishes position as useful compan- 
ion; household assistant; care of animals; 
country. Good references. Address G. O., 55 
South St., Morristown, New Jersey. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, Industrial Nurses, 
Secretaries, Dietitians, Matrons, Cafeteria 
Managers, Miss Richards, Providence, R. I. 
Box 5, East Side. Boston Office, Trinity 
Court, 16 Jackson Hall, Thursdays n to 1. 
Address Providence. 

WANTED: Experienced executive for 
Tuberculosis Society. Also medical director 
without children for Tuberculosis Sanato- 
rium. National Association of Social Work- 
ers, 130 East 22d Street, New York City. 

manent hospital and office positions. Excel- 
lent positions open everywhere. Write today 
if interested. Aznoe's Central Registry for 
Nurses, 30 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

WANTED: A Visiting Housekeeper with 
training in home economics and domestic 
science who can hold cooking classes and 
visit in homes. Write Charity Organization 
Society, City Hall, Plainfield, N. J. 

DIETITIANS for hospital positions in all 
parts of the United States. Write at once- 
Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 N. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago. 


vites correspondence. An exceptional op- 
portunity to secure the services of a recog- 
nized specialist in immigrant education with 
ten years' experience directing community- 
wide Americanization, information and legal 
aid; unifying racial relations; coordinating 
and systematizing existing agencies in any 
phase of community service among immi- 
grants. Executive and administrator; lin- 
guist; forceful speaker. Experienced in 
legislative reference, research, surveys and 
investigations. 3980 Survey. 

with broad experience seeks permanent or 
temporary connection. 3975 Survey. 

WANTED: Position as Anaesthetist by 
Graduate Nurse; in hospital or doctor's of- 
fice. Excellent experience. Aznoe's Central 

Registry for Nurses, 30 N. Michigan Ave., 


SUPERVISOR, Matron, woman, institution 
and training school experience, location op- 
tional, finest references. 3996 Survey. 

mention The Survey vihen writing to advertisers, 

BOYS' WORKER, at present employed as 
Field Scout Executive Boy Scouts of 
America, wishes to make change. Ten 
years' experience. 3993 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE with experience that pro- 
duces; can supervise office, attend to confi- 
dential matters, systematize and organize. 
Intelligence and aggressiveness. 3983 Survey. 

WANTED: By young woman of excel- 
lent training and practical experience, posi- 
tion as mental examiner and social worker in- 
connection with clinic or elsewhere. 3986 

WANTED: Executive position by trained 
woman, ten years' experience Community 
and Americanization work, speaking Italian, 
French, Spanish and English. 3987 Survey. 

ITALIAN speaking woman, experienced 
in settlement work, wishes welfare or case 
work in New York City. 3982 Survey. 

YOUNG WOMAN, Jewish, many years' 
experience in child care and work with boys 
and girls; also in organizing and in secre- 
tarial work, seeks position in New York or 
vicinity. 4001 Survey. 




Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Industbial Facts. By Kirby Page. No. 1 of 
Christianity and Industry Series. Concrete data 
concerning industrial problems and proposed 
iolutions. A 12,000 word summary. 32 pages. 
Valuable for personal study, discussion groups, 
open forums, adult Bible classes. Geo. H. Doran 
Co., New York city. Price, 10 cents. 

•Civil War in West Virginia, Winthrop D. Lane's 
impartial, informative, indispensable report on 
Mingo. (Freeman Pamphlet). To read this is 
to ful61 a duty to yourself: to circulate it is 
to perform a public serv 1C e. B. W. Huebsch, 
Inc. 116 W. 13th St., New York. 50 cents. 

Catechism o* the Social Question. By Rev. 
John A. Ryan, D. D. f and Rev. R. A. Mc 
Gowan, National Catholic Welfare Council, So- 
cial Action Dept. Price, 10 cents; 25 to 50 
copies, 8 cents each; 50 or niore copies, 7 cents 
each. The Paulist Press, 120 West 60th St., 
New York City. 

Educational Work of the International Ladies 
Garment Workers' Union. Report submitted 
to the Conference of the Workers' Educational 
Bureau of America by Fannie M Cohen. Edu- 
cational Dept., I. L. G. W U., 31 Union Sj 
New York. Price 3 cents; with postage 4 cents. 

Infant Mortality in New York City. A study 
of the Results Accomplished by Infant Lite 
Saving Agencies. By Ernst Christopher Meyer. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 61 Broadway, New 
York city. 

A Jewish Community Center in Action, The 
Immigrant's Adjustment to a new Environment. 
Philip L. Seman, Chicago Hebrew Institute, 
1258 W. Taylor St. $.25 a copy. Reprint from 
September Number of Observer, 61 pages. 

Asia's American Problem. By Geroid Tanquary 
Robinson. (Freeman Pamphlet.) B. W. Huebsch, 
Inc., 116 W. 13 st,, New York. 25 cents. 

Can We Live Together in Peace? Addresses to 
laborers and employees, by Wallace M. Short, 
mayor of Sioux City, la. Price, 50 cents. 

Immigration Literature sent on request by the 
National Liberal Immigration League, Box 116, 
Station F, New York City. 

Credit Union: Complete free information on re- 
quest to Roy F. Bergengren, 5 Park Square, 
Boston, Mass. 


United Hospital Training School for Nurses 

Offers a 2Yi years' course; 8 hour day, affiliation 
with Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City. Scholar- 
ship for Teachers College. Catalogue on request. 
Port Chester, New York. 


wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
write Literary Bureau, 509 Hannibal, Mo. 


sell entire Libraries and smaller collections 
of good books. Correspondence solicited. 
SCHULTE'S BOOK STORE, 80-82 Fourth Ave., 
New York City, New York. 

■y n? t 


Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser 
iions, copy unchanged throughout the month 

<Et(c Amcrirait |o«rnal of burning, shows the 
part which trained nurses are taking in the bet- 
terment of the world. Put it in your library. 
$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St., Rochester, N. Y. 

9hr Jtrtrman; a radical paper cognizant of the 
interests that constitute a life of culture. Sample 
free, 116 West 13th Street, New York. 

IHoBOftal Mortal Srrwfct; monthly; $3.00 a year; 
published unuer the auspices of the Hoapiu- 
Social Service Association of New York City 
I«r.. 19 East 72d Stree:. New York. 


[T SE printed stationery at no greater cost than 
*-' the ordinary kind. 200 sheets high grade note- 
paper and 100 envelopes printed with your name 
and address $1.50. Envelopes correspondence not 
business size. Samples on request. Lewis Sta- 
tionery Co., Dept. C, 156— 2nd Ave., Troy, N. Y. 


TEACHERS wanted for emergency va- 
cancies — public and private schools, 
colleges and universities — all over the coun- 
try. Walter Agnew, 1254 Amsterdam Ave., 
New York, N. Y. 


AUTOMOBILE Owners, Garagemen, Me- 
chanics, Repairmen, send for free copy of 
our current issue. It contains helpful, in- 
structive information on overhauling, igni- 
tion troubles, wiring, carburetors, etorage 
batteries, etc. Over 120 pages, illustrated. 
Send for free copy today. Automobile 
Digest, 545 Butler Bldg., Cincinnati. 


FOR SALE: An attractive 13 room residence 

with garage on plot 100x208 at 
ELMHURST, L. I. Fine place for large 
family. Only fifteen minutes from Penn 
station, yet country surroundings. Price, 
$35,00000. Address E. S., 200 Broadway, 
Elmhurst, L. I. 

AUGUST 24, 1912, of the Survey, published 
weekly at New York, N. Y., for October 1, 1921. 

State of New York, County of New York, 

Before mc, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the business manager of The Sur- 
vey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of 
the ownership, management (and if a daily 
paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above 
caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, 
to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are: Publisher. Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 Street, New York City; Editor, Paul 
U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York City; 
Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw, 112 East 19 
Street, New York City; Business Manager, Arthur 
P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York City. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a corpora- 
tion, give its name and the names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of the total amount of stock.) Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City, a non-commercial corporation under the laws 
of the State of New York with over 1,600 mem- 
bers. It has no stocks or bonds. President, Robert 
W. de Forest, 30 Broad Street, New York, N. Y.; 
Vice-Presidents, John M. Glenn, 130 East 22 
Street, New York, N. Y.; Henry R. Seager, ' 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. ; V. Everit 
Macy, "Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. ; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 
19 Street, New York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 1 
per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mort- 

ages, or other securities are: (If there are none, 
so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and 
security holders, if any, contain not only the 
list of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the books of the company but also, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as trustee 
or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the 
person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs 
contain statements embracing affiant's full knowl- 
edge and belief, as to the circumstances and con- 
ditions under which stockholders and security 
holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustees, hold stock and securities in 
a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any 
other person, association, or corporation has any 
interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, 
or other securities than as so stated by him. 


Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 20th 
day of September, 1921. 

Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York, 
New York County Clerk's No. 144; New 
York County Register's No. 22056. 
Commission Expires April 27, 1922. 

If Interested in the purchase of 




for office or home, let us send you free 
catalog and nearest dealer's name. 

The Weis Manufacturing Company 

140 Union Street, Monroe, Michigan 

Icntal Hsgiene; quarterly; $2.00 a year; pui- 
lifhed by the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. 

ubltr Health/ Stars?: monthly; duet $3.00 and 
upward; subscription $3.00 per year; publish- 
ed by the National Organization for Public 
Health Nuning, 370 Seventh Ave., New York. 


If you want to keep abreast of social and industrial progress. 

If you want accurate news and first-hand information on social and industrial 

movements. ■ . L . ■ t l 

If you are interested in any of the subjects discussed in this issue— for the 

Survey "follows up." 

The Suivey. 112 East 19th Street, New York. 
I enclose $5 for a year's subscription. 

Will send $5 on (date) 

N ame 



Please mention The Survet when writing to advertisers. 

vvhose Conference Is It ? 

The Conference on Disarmament was called because of the persistent 
and irresistible demand of the people that a beginning be made to fullfill the 
promises put forth while "the war to end war" was on. It will approximate 
its purpose only if public opinion is thoroughly aroused and indomitably 
sustained — on the job. 

In other words, it's your conference and your fight. 


(Formerly the League of Free Nations Association) 
is the logical group to work through. Since its organization in November, 1918, it has 
worked unceasingly and consistently for a liberal and constructive American foreign policy. 
Its luncheon discussions of outstanding questions which affect international relations have 
been a feature of New York public life for the last two and a half years. Its Bulletin has 
carried these discussions to members in other parts of the country. Its central interest this 
fall will be the success of the Disarmament Conference. It appeals for a minimum budget of 
$20,000, for the maintenance of Washington headquarters and for the immediate preliminary work to 
rally public opinion in favor of: 

1. — The fullest possible publicity for all sessions of the conference. 

2. — The selection of our Advisory Commission to the Disarmament Conference on 
the basis (of ability, constructive statesmanship and sympathy with the expressed 
objects of the Conference, rather than for any political consideration whatsoever. 

3. — The radical reduction of armament expenditures. 

4. — Adequate measures for putting into effect the decisions of the Conference. 

To carry out these plans effectively — to carry them out at all — we must have 
an immediate response to this appeal for funds. 

"The Foreign Policy Association has been for the last three years one of the 
most active agents in the political education of the people of the United States 
in respect to foreign affairs." — New Republic, Sept. 21, 1921. 

The Foreign Policy Association is the channel through which you can take your fiart 

in what vitally concerns you. 

Foreign Policy Association, 

Robert H. Gardiner, Treas. 

3 West 29th St., New York City. 

I enclose $5 for membership and $ as an 

additional contribution towards your work for reduction 
of armaments. 

I would like samples of your Bulletin and other literature. 




Executive Committee 




















Executive Sec'y. 



October 8, 1921 ^fefrtcjgff 


Exemptions of Charitable Gifts— A Campaign Against Cancer- 
Gas and the Consumer— Relief for Political Prisoners —The A. R. C. 
in Constantinople— Are Unions Dlegal? 

Up to the Public . . . 40 

The Dominicans .... Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 41 

Unemployment at Washington . William L. Chenery 42 

Canada and the A. F. of L. . . . J. S. Woodsworth 44 

San Antonio— The Flood City . . . J. B. Gwin 45 

Marriage and Maternity in Communistic 

Russia Hans Niedermair, M. D. 47 


Industrial Hygiene Alexander Fleisher 49 

The Nurse in Oklahoma ..... Jules Schevitz bO 

Nutrition Work in the Schools . . . James A. Tobey 51 

Infant Welfare Work in Greece . . Walter R. Brooks 52 


Decentralization in Education . . . . J. K. H. 53 

A Carnegie Library for Negroes . . . Sara D. Halley 54 

Labor Education in Germany . . . Brent Dow Allinson 55 
Training Visiting Teachers— An Educational Program 


15 Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a "! 




M Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massa- 
al " Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. 
National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
Organization to promote development of social work 
d dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
al Work. 

.; 131 E. 23rd SL, New Tork. For adequate public 
rvice; industrial safety and health laws; workmen's 
unemployment, old age and health insurance; mater- 
; one day's rest m seven; efficient law enforcement, 
terly, "The American Labor Legislation Review." 

National Social Workers* Exchange)— Graham Romeyn Taylor, 
director, 130 East 22nd Street, New Tork City. An organization of 
professional social workers devoted to raising social work stand- 
ards and requirements. Membership opened to qualified social 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knlpp, sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. 
Urges prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; ma- 
ternal nursing; infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre- 
school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU— An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession or 
community leadership. Address our nearest office — 

Tribune Building, New York. 

123 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 

716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field, pres.; C. J. Galpin. ex. sec; E. C. Lindeman, Greensboro N. C. 
field secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 

Cooper, sec'y.; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828. labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, 
$2 09 a year. Arthur Deerin Call. Secretary and Editor. 612-614 
Colorado Building. Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Kext Con- 
gress Jacksonv-ille, Florida, October 28— November 3, 1921 O. F. 
Lewis, General Secretary, 135 East IS street, New York city. 

J Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

Ave New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression or 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of 
sound sex educalon. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
reque'sL Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector To arouse public interest In the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children in the forming of health habits, 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public healtn 
workers and health literature for children; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available In any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
with any agencv. with a view to assisting It in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 22nd 
St., New York. 

York Organized in February, 1919, to nelp people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
pood citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps In 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds and will, if desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 


York. Miss Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, 

sec'y Promotes Social Betterment through Religion, Social 

are, Education and Civic Co-operation in U. S., Canada and 

ENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
in, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec. 
. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
litary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

ICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S/i 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 SL, New York.' 
Commiesion on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. ( 
Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y.; Agnea 
H. Campbell, research ass't. ; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenlx, vlce- 
pres.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
school. Free illustrated literature. 

Culbert Faries, dir., 1M E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free in-' 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other special agencies in plans to put 
the disabled man "back on the payroll." 

secretary; 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — to promote an 
intelligent interest in Socialism among college men and women. An- 
nual membership, $3, $5, and $25; includes monthly, "The Socialist 
Review." Special rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE — Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes Information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000, with 3St 
branches. Membership, $1 upward. 

Rush Taggart, pres.; Mrs. Robert L. Dikcinson, treas.; Virgil V. 
Johnson, sec'y.; 26 West 43rd St., New York. Composed of non-com- 
mercial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

ASSOCIATION — 600 Lexington Ave.., New York. To advance phy- 
sical, social, Intellectual, moral and spiritual Interests of young wo- 
men. Student, eity, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding houses, 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; Bible 
.study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D. C. 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 

Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 

Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John 
A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; 
Ass'L Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean; 
Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Training School for Women, Washington, D. C. — Dean, 
Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. 

Bureau of Immigration — National DUrector, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 East 22nd SL, New York. Industrial, agricultural investigations. 
Works for improved laws and administration; children's codes. Stu- 
dies health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. An- 
nual membership, J2, $5, $10, $25, and $100; Includes quarterly, "The 
American Child." 

Powlisonn gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exhibits, 
child welfare campaigns, etc. 

Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Ander- 
son; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re- 
education, psychiatric social service, backward children, surveys, 
state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

pres., Boston; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y., 23 East 9th St., Cincin- | 
nati, Ohio. General organization to discuss principles of humanitarian | 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings, 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 49th annual meeting, Providence, R. I., 
June 1922. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction — Louis Robinson, M. D. Philadelphia. 

Health — Donald B. Armstrong, M. D. New Ydrk. 

Public Agencies and Institutions — George S. Wilson, Washington, 
D. C. 

The Family — Frank J. Bruno, Minneapolis. 

Industrial and Economic Problems — John Shillady, New York. 

The Local Community— George C. Bellamy, Cleveland. 

Mental Hygiene — George A. Hastings, New York. 

Organization of Social Forces — C. M. Bookman, Cincinnati. 

Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America— (Temporary 




NESS-Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D Eaton, 
field sec'y Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects' To furnish information, exhib ts, lantern slides lec- 
tures publish literature of movement— samples free, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

Mr7 Florence Kelley, gen'l. sec'y.; John R. Shillady, exec, director 
Promoted eglslat Ton for enlightened standards for women and 
™in industry and for honest products; minimum wage commis- 
sions e"ght hours' day, no night work, federal regulation food 
and paJking industries; "honest cloth" legislation. Publications 

, N ec'T 20 Unirnpfrk Boston Develops broad forms of comparative 
Jtudy and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting: the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seek, the higher 
Ind more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

.iA-rir.Mii MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
way. New York. Dues, J5.00 a year. 

ttSST* n?rb1rsnlp 6an bu^. ^^^^^^iptloa^M 

per year. 

matiomal TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION— 370 Seventh Avenue. 

Sv AT °. ^ Hitfirfd UE T Managing Director. Information about 
?r h e Yntzation education nsUtutlons: nursing Problems and other 
££«,»« nf r\ibe7culosi8 work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crulaae^pubnlher. "Journal of the Outdoor Life." "American Review 
of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin.' 

„._,.„., iiRRAN LEAGUE— For social service among Negroes. 
r NA Hom*«wort f Woodf pres.T Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
^7 E 23 It New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
;"p?e to work ; out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

4 n , rrinn ^resident Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue. Evanaton. 
nM^ol. To secure eff^uve enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
2?i^? t„ Advance the welfare of the American people through the 
ment, to a^J^.^VIw'™ Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 

fleial organ. "Life and Labor." 


k s Braucher sec'y.; 1 Madison Ave., New York Ciy. P\a.y- 
™und' neighborhood and community center activities and admlnl- 
ftraUon.Spec^l attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

Tenuition for all C G. Hoag. sec'y.. 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership" *2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the^ study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
improvement Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence tnT Eugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, secy. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvment of Living 
Conditions-JohE i M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St New York Depart- 
ments Cnarity Organization, Child-Helping. Education. Statistics. 
Recreation Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
d\Vs L-ibrarj "southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and inex- 
pensive form some of the most Important results of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TU<SKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
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Bouth; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
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The Survey's work is conducted under the following editorial staff: 

Editor, Paul U. Kellogg 

Civics, Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker 

Social Forces, Edward T. Devine 

Industry, William L. Chenery 

Health . ._ _ _ 

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Conducted b 


The problems of unemployment are the most insistent of 
our present social problems. We have been studying these 
problems for years, more or less. They are being studied, 
again, especially by the Washington conference, now in ses- 
sion, and by economists and special groups all over the coun- 
try. Slowly we are coming to see that while these problems 
are economic in nature, they are much more than economic: 
they involve the whole structure of our social order. 

IThe Economics of Unemployment. 
♦ Must we assume that unemployment is to be one of the 
permanent problems of our social organization? If so, should we 
regard it as a natural fact, like the succession of night and day? 
Or is it a social fact, inhering in our social structure, much as 
slavery used to exist? If the former, is there any use talking about 
curing it? If the latter, why should it not be permanently solved? 
Has the population of America outgrown the capacity of our 
natural resources to provide support? Is the development of 
America so nearly complete that some considerable part of the 
population may be permanently released from further work? Is 
unemployment profitable or unprofitable to the nation? To the 
unemployed? To employers? To investors? To anybody? If 
it is not profitable to anybody, why is it endured? If there is 
work still to be done in America, why is it not being done? 

a. Labor turnover. Is it an essential of machine industry 
that tenure of position should be determined by the machine, 
rather than by the worker? When the machine stops, must the 
worker stop? And when the machine starts, has it the right 
to ask that a man shall be there to take care of it? Is the 
industrial situation wholly impersonal, controlled by the ma- 
chine? Is the machine a fact of nature, or is it a social in- 
vention? Have we any ground for supposing that men will 
ever be able to control machines? 

b. Seasonal ups and downs of industry. Is American in- 
dustry still largely subject to the changes of the seasons, to slack 
periods, to purely natural conditions? Then industry is a 
purely natural phenomenon, incapable of being modified by 
men's planning or foresight? 

c. The credit system. Is the world's "credit system" a nat- 
ural phenomenon, like the ocean currents, or is it an artificial 
thing like an association of bankers or scientists? Is "credit" 
understood by anyone, or is it a mystery? Does understanding 
imply power to control, or just facility in manipulation? Is 
"credit" a private possession, or might it become a public con- 
cern and be used for social uses, entirely? If extent of in- 
dustrial operation depends upon extent and control of credit, 
what is the interest of society as a whole in this problem? 

2 The Psychology of Unemployment. 
To what extent has our attitude toward industrial problems 
been cultivated, inculated, inherited? To what extent has this 
attitude been extended since the war? Are we growing more 
sanguine of our ability to understand and control in these rrreat 
questions, or more pessimistic about them? Are economic passions 
rising or falling? Is economic intelligence desired, or dreaded, 
or suppressed, or ignored? 


The Survey for February 5, page 677, questions and references, 
and supplement to that issue, How to Meet Hard Times, com- 
prising a sixteen-page digest of the report of the Committee 
on Unemployment appointed by Mayor Mitchel of New York. 
Reprint, 25 cents each, 10 for $1.00, for classroom use. 

Julia E. Johnson, Unemployment. H. W. Wilson Co- Price, 
$1.80; postpaid $2.00. 

Don D. Lescohier, The Labor Market. Macmillan Co. Price, 
$2.00; postpaid $220. 

The Survey for October 1, pp 5-9, 15-16, 21 (2nd column). 

This issue, page 42. 

The Survey, Vol. XLVII, No. 2. Published weekly by the Survey . sociates, 
matter March 25, 1909, at the post-office. New \ork, N. Y., under tin. act of 

lor in Section 1103, Act ef October 

Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-clas= 
March 5, 1879. Acceptance tor mailing at a special rate of postage provided 
3, 1917, authorized on June 26. 1918. 



How to make 
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The Survey reports civic developments 
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Each of these comprises a department 
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Last year teachers in 67 high schools 
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Please mention The Survey <u>hen writing to advertisers. 



No. 2 



Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW. Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert IV. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Prick: this issue, 15 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; Canadian, 
65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in advance. 
When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 
Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
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special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1907, 
authorised on June 26, 1918. 


THE teacher dictates the history test to her pupils and 
they write down what they hear and proceed to deal 
with the subjects as intelligently as the situation permits. 
A recent test dictated in this fashion, on the lower East Side 
of New York, came out on one pupil's paper in the following 
scarcely intelligible form: 

Tell about: 

The battle of Fair Doon 

In Fasion of Belgium 

German atropsies 

Masker in America 

Russian entrence Apolan 

Assnation, restration, indeminities 


Russian entrence into northern perusia 

The Elias would brake up, if they made peace sepretly 


THOUGH the revision of the measure dealing with 
the exemption of charitable gifts from the federal in- 
come tax as reported out by the Senate Finance Com- 
mittee is substantially the same as that in the existing income 
tax law, the measure adopted by the House made two far- 
reaching changes. They were, first, the exemption of gifts 
made by individuals to community trusts and foundations, 
and, second, the exemption of gifts made by corporations for 
charitable, educational and religious purposes. The Senate 
committee disagreed with these provisions in the House bill. 
If, however, they are not included in the Senate bill when 
finally passed the measure will go to conference. 

The provisions of the present law relating to the deductions 
of charitable contributions allowed- to individuals are as 
follows : 

That in computing net income these shall be allowed as de- 
ductions: . . . Contributions or gifts made within the taxable year 
to corporations organized and operated exclusively for religious, 
charitable, scientific or educational purposes, or for the preven- 
tion of cruelty to children or animals, no part of the net earn- 
ings of which inures to the benefit of any private stockholder or 
individual, or the special fund for vocational rehabilitation, 
authorized by Section 7 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, to 

an amount not in excess of 15 per centum of the taxpayer's net 
income as computed without the benefit of this paragraph. Such 
contributions or gifts shall be allowable as deductions only if 
verified under rules and regulations prescribed by the commis- 
sioner, with the approval of the secretary. 

The law also does not provide for the exemption of gifts 
of this sort when made by corporations, estates or trusts. 
The National Information Bureau in a bulletin upon the 
subj'ect points out that "in the case of partnership, however, 
the proportionate share of contributions made by the partner- 
ship to corporations or associations of the kind described in 
this section of the law, may be claimed as deductions in the 
personal returns of the partners." Gifts made to a common 
agency, such as a war chest, whose objects come under the 
purposes of the act are treated as though they were gifts 
made directly to the organizations themselves, and are thus 
deductable. Similar gifts to a foreign agency, provided that 
the total deduction does not exceed 15 per cent of the tax 
payer's net income, may likewise be deducted. 

Contributions made to individuals, whether charitable in 
nature or not, do not constitute allowable deductions. Asso- 
ciations formed to disseminate controversial or partisan propa- 
ganda are also not educational within the meaning of the 


A NATION-WIDE campaign against cancer will be in- 
augurated by the American Society for the Control of 
Cancer by a "Cancer Week," the first one to be held 
in this country, from October 30 to November 5. The cam- 
paign will largely be an educational one. An effort will be 
made to carry facts concerning the disease to as many people 
as can be reached through the professional and the lay press, 
by lectures and general publicity. The work will be carried 
on by the foremost physicians and surgeons in the country who 
specialize in the control of cancer, by state and municipal 
health officers, and by a large body of public-spirited citizens. 
Cancer Week is the culmination of eighteen months of in- 
tensive organization by the society as a result of which per- 
manent cancer committees have been formed in every state. 
This represents a noteworthy advance in cancer control and 
brings it abreast of the public health movement now at flood 
tide in this country. The campaign has also carried a new 
group into public health — the surgeons, who, heretofore, have 
not taken a prominent part in public health work. 

It has been the experience of the society that accurate in- 
formation concerning the disease is the best instrument with 
which to lower the mortality from it and that a large number 
of cases can be cured if taken in hand early enough. The 
efforts of the organization have, therefore, been largely 
directed toward urging persons to seek competent advice as 
soon as they recognize any of the symptoms as set forth in 
its campaign of education. 




Since 1 91 6, states Mr. Osborne further, the death-rate from 

the disease has remained practically stationary. According to 

the figures of the society cancer causes ten out of every 

hundred deaths in this country where the victims are more 

than forty years old. Francis Carter Wood, M.D., director 

ititute of Cancer Research of Columbia University, 

that 9,300 residents of New York state will die of 

ring 1 92 1. He states that this increase in the num- 

ths in New York state is due primarily to the fact 

y small proportion of those afflicted consult a physi- 

_. when they know they have a tumor. 

In connection with the educational phases of the campaign, 

the society expects that clinics will be held in many of the 

large cities for demonstration and diagnostic purposes. 


WHO benefits most from the operation of the gas busi- 
ness as at present conducted ? Some will say, obviously 
the consumer — for, if the service he receives is com- 
pared with the discomfort of having to fuss around with oil 
and coal, the price he pays is seen to be very low indeed. 
Others will say, why, of course the gas company — for it is 
a monopoly and, within certain legal restrictions, can gather 
the fruit of its monopoly. But no, says Warren S. Blauvelt, 
president of the Indiana Coke and Gas Company: There is 
only one group that derives benefit without contributing any- 
thing: the land owners. In a closely reasoned paper which 
he read recently at a gas conference of all the interests con- 
cerned — including that of investors and employes, as well as 
those already named — Mr. Blauvelt attempted to find out 
whether some method was not practicable by which all un- 
earned earnings could be eliminated from the gas business. To 
this end, Mr. Blauvelt shows the necessity, first, of distinguish- 
ing between those operations of the gas business which in them- 
selves are not of a monopolistic nature at all, though in popular 
parlance and thought linked with the natural monopoly of 
the distribution system. He says: 

A gas company conducts three distinct kinds of business. It 
runs a chemical manufacturing business all the products of 
which, except gas, are sold in the open competitive market. 
Both its raw materials and labor must be obtained under pre- 
vailing competitive conditions. ... 

The gas company also conducts a merchandising business 
in which gas is sold in competition with all other forms of 
energy, subject, however, to the price limitations and other 
regulations established by the governmental controlling 
body. . • . 

The third type of business is radically different. The gas 
company owns and maintains pipe lines for the transportation 
of gas from the works to the consumer's premises. This func- 
tion, very curiously, was for a while considered by the general 
public to be competitive. Parallel competing highways for the 
transportation of gas were encouraged in many cities and still 
exist in a few places. Experience has shown clearly, however, 
that competition in this highway function always resulted in 
unnecessary capital investment and consequently in ultimately 
higher prices for gas service, even though abnormally low 
prices might prevail during the period when the two under- 
takings were determining which was to survive. 

The question, if distribution must be monopolistic, therefore 
is how any private interest can best be prevented from securing 
for itself the results of a unique situation which it has not 
itself created. Governmental control of prices has been tried ; 
but, says Mr. Blauvelt, it "has increased the hazards of the 
gas industry, enhanced the cost of service and diverted the 
activities of gas engineers and executives from productive and 
service functions to non-productive political and legal func- 
tions." He proposes a radical change in the public attitude 
to the problem, one seemingly in harmony with prevailing 
progressive thought, both in America and other countries, on 
the direction in which a solution of the problems that arise 
from the' existing private ownership of natural monopolies 
must be sought: 

Let the community purchase from the gas company at a fair 

present valuation the entire distribution system, paying for 

the same by city bonds, the interest on which and a sinking 
fund for the retirement of which are to be provided by a tax 
levied solely on land values. Thus the community would 
acquire ownership of the monopolistic feature of the gas busi- 
ness, and the cost thereof would be paid by those who have 
received the direct financial benefit arising from the existence 
of this distribution system. 

Allow the gas company the free use of this gas highway, 
just as the coal dealer, the grocer or any other person is 
allowed the free use of the street. 

Eliminate governmental control of the gas company, except 
as regards discrimination in rates or service and standards of 
gas service. _ 

Subject the free use of the distribution system by the com- 
pany to the following conditions: The company rendering gas 
service would have such rights, subject to being dispossessed 
on, say, eighteen months' notice, whenever responsible people 
might come forward with a proposition satisfactory to the 
established authorities and guaranteed by proper security to 
render either better service or satisfactory service at lower rates- 

This Mr. Blauvelt puts forward as a counter-proposal to 
that of municipal ownership and operation, a movement which, 
he says, may develop with politically irresistible force if 
something is not done to remedy the injustice to the investors 
and employes of the company, the consumers and the com- 
munity as a whole that arises from the present system. 


AN Emergency Defense Committee has been formed this 
week to make a country-wide appeal for funds with 
which to carry on the legal and relief work for political 
prisoners. To the present time this burden has been borne 
for cases of the I. W. W. by its General Defense Committee 
and for the Communist and other so-called "anti-red" 
prosecution cases by the National Defense Committee. Ac- 
cording to the American Civil Liberties Union, which is back- 
ing this new effort, there are now between 140 and 150 
federal political prisoners of whom 103 are members of the 
I. W. W. The financial burden of the work for these peo- 
ple and for some seventy-five state syndicalist cases in the 
Northwest has, according to the Union, been carried almost 
entirely by the workers themselves who have raised funds 
chiefly by selling stamps. Since the imprisonment of the first 
political prisoners in 191 7, more than a thousand dollars a 
month has been paid out in sums of from $10 to $15 a week, 
to the prisoners' families which have been dependent upon 
these allotments. The $200,000 which has been raised 
for the most part by the workers themselves for the defense 
of the prisoners is practically spent, and because of unemploy- 
ment and hard times it is impossible for them to carry their 
work of relief farther. The new committee hopes to step 
into the breach, and to appropriate money from the funds it is 
raising to meet the needs of the political prisoners. 


WHEN the American Red Cross announced last July 
that it would be compelled to turn over its work in 
Constantinople for the 17,000 Russian refugees con- 
centrated there protests were received urging that the relief 
be continued. The executive committee of the organization 
now announces that it has made an emergency appropriation 
for carrying on the work for a limited period of time. Mean- 
while effort will be made to bring about international action 
for the solution of the problem. The reason given for this 
reversal in policy is that it was apparent that the withdrawal 
of the Red Cross at this time would bring about a serious con- 
dition in the city. The executive committee states that the 
situation is infinitely beyond the resources of private philan- 
thropy. It is the hope of the committee that the governments 
directly interested will find some solution either through the 
League of Nations or some other agency. 

The American Red Cross began its work for these refugees 
in the summer of 191 9 along the northern shores of the Black 
Sea. Relief, however, was not extensive until the capture of 
the Crimea by the Soviet forces when Constantinople became 



According to Simplicissimus, from which this draw 
by force always has the same effect, tuheth 

the gathering point for thousands of them, taxing the resources 
of the Red Cross and other organizations to the limit. The 
Red Cross has spent more than $1,500,000 in cash and sup- 
plies in addition to $300,000 donated by the Russian embassy 
in Washington, in keeping these Russians from starvation. 


THE principle of collective bargaining and the right of 
a trade union to live will be challenged by the injunc- 
tion against the United Mine Workers of America, for 
which the Borderland Coal C6rporation of West Virginia will 
apply on October 14. The order is "to enjoin and restrain the 
international organization, its officials, district, sub-district, 
local unions, and members from assessing, levying, charging, 
and collecting any dues and assessments levied or to be levied 
... its members ... on the ground that . . . the United 
Mine Workers of America . . . has become unlawful per se 
and is an unlawful combination in restraint of trade and com- 
merce and is acting and existing in violation of the Sherman 
Anti-Trust Act of 1920, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, and in 
violation of the Constitution and the federal statute enacted 

The "conspiracy" is a contract entered into between the 
United Mine Workers of America and the operators of the 
so-called central competitive field covering Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois and western Pennsylvania, as far back as 1898. 


ing by William Schulz is reproduced, government 
er it be. carried on b\ Trotzkv or by Foch 

Among the "illegal practices" which the injunction seeks to 
prevent the defendants from indulging in is that of maintain- 
ing the "closed shop." Excluding the clauses in the injunction 
such as "interfering ... by violence, threats, menace or injury 
to them, their persons ..." "acts of insurrection, murder, 
violence, intimidation, threats and other unlawful acts," which 
need no injunction to be declared unlawful, the practices 
against which the appeal is aimed are among the strongest 
weapons of organized labor whose legality has seldom been 
questioned in recent years. 

In one paragraph of the application, the company seeks to 
have the miners' union enjoined from "further doing any act 
or thing which will lessen the ability of the plaintiff ... to 
continue their competition with coal produced by the operators 
of said central competitive field in the sale of their coal in 
interstate trade and commerce." In a later paragraph, the 
coal company would enjoin them from "doing any act or thing 
which will create or further tend to create and establish a 
monopoly of labor for the purpose of unreasonably increasing 
wages or the price of labor above what it should be under 
normal conditions. . . ." It is difficult to grasp exactly how 
even exorbitant wage increases in the competitive field will 
tend to create a monopoly against the operators who maintain 
non-union shops. 

The case will be heard by federal Judge Anderson at In- 




Up to the Public 

f M ^HE public can no longer plead ignorance of work- 
ing conditions in the steel industry. Release of the 
>orts of the Incerchurch World Commission 
k completes the record. Public Opinion in the 
-court, Brace and Co., New York) contains 
wrts of the investigations of the Steel Strike 
te Interchurch World Movement of which 
. Connell was chairman. It takes up speci- 
fically Under-Cover Men by Robert Littell ; The Pittsburgh 
Newspapers and the Strike by M. K. Wisehart ; Civil Rights 
in Western Pennsylvania by George Soule; The Mind of 
Immigrant Communities by David J. Saposs ; Welfare Work 
of the United States Steel Corporation by George Soule ; The 
Pittsburgh Pulpit and the Strike by M. K. Wisehart; The 
Steel Report and Public Opinion by Heber Blankenhorn, sec- 
retary to the commission, and The Mediation Effort by the 

Under-Cover Men tells who and what the under-cover 
man is. The findings of the investigator contain "no theories 
about the class-struggle, but facts about maintenance of the 
'open shop.' " The facts are then presented, galleys and gal- 
leys of them, exposing to public view the inside workings of 
these "services" which at one time are and again are not 
private detective agencies: as witness the Sherman Service 
which in court in 1920 argued that they had changed their 
name in 191 8 from Sherman Detective Agency to Sherman 
Service and were "industrial conciliators" although in 191 9 
they had described themselves in court as a "private detective 

At any rate the head of one agency freely explained to Mr. 

Littell : 

Our aim is to work into labor and control it with sensible 
ideas founded on economic fact. We expect eventually to con- 
trol the unions, which have fallen into radical hands in the last 
few years. We work to control labor to lead it in the right 
direction, away from radicalism. 
Yet "does any one doubt the wisdom, justice and necessity of 
a spy system on the part of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion in sheer self defense?" reads an apology for the Steel 
Corporation by a New England minister, circulated by the 
corporation after the Interchurch inquiry, as a pamphlet, 
prefaced with a commendatory letter by E. H. Gary. "The 
national conditions making possible, or 'necessary,' the busi- 
ness of all these operatives are principally due to the no-con- 
ference industrial relations policies of the great corporation," 
states Heber Blankenhorn, secretary to the commission. 

What the under-cover men did to destroy the Interchurch 
Steel Strike Report of 1919 and to aid withdrawal of financial 
support from the Interchurch World Movement is related in 
detail : Document A, worked up by detectives following in- 
vestigations on the ground and sent out by Malcolm Jennings 
of the Ohio Manufacturers Association, was retracted by the 
same man after the false statements of the document had been 
exposed. Nevertheless it was rehashed in other industrial pub- 
lications. Document B, whose author-agent was working for 
the National Civic Federation and whose report together with 
the recommendation that "these men be kicked out of their 
positions" was sent by Ralph M. Easley, chairman of the exec- 
utive council of the organization to the Steel Corporation, 
named only one man employed by the Interchurch and he 
had nothing to do with the steel report. Document C, cir- 
culated in steel circles as "extremely confidential" and de- 
scribed by laymen as "the thing responsible for the failure of 
the Interchurch financial drive in Pittsburgh," seems, in con- 
nection with A and B, to have been the basis for the "con- 
fidential communication" which officers of the National Asso- 
ciation of Sheet and Tin Plate Manufacturers filed against 
the Interchurch World Report at the hearing before the 
Senate Committee of Labor and Education. As to the facts 
in that "communication" the report gives the following: 

This remarkable production quotes from an editorial criticiz- 
ing Bishop McConnell in the N. Y. Christian Advocate. When 
Senator Kenyon read the quotation at the hearing, Bishop 
McConnell remarked that it sounded inaccurate. The original 
editorial (Nov. 13, 1919) reads, "If the multitude who listen 
possessed the bishop's rare ability to discriminate," etc. The 
quotation furnished by the steel men to the senators reads 
". . . possessed the bishop's wild inability. . . ." 

The document (p. 19) also changes the spelling of the name 
of the prominent Interchurch official, Dr. Fred B. Fisher, to 
Fischer in support of its charges of pro-Germanism among those 
responsible for the steel report. 

"The failure of the press was one of the reasons for the 
Interchurch investigations of the steel strike" — was a comment 
following the publication of the main report. The section of 
the present report on the Pittsburgh Newspapers and the 
Strike states that the Pittsburgh papers consistently refused to 
publish the "news" of the strike. In the four hundred issues 
during the first two months of the strike only one indepen- 
dent investigation appeared. Mr. Wisehart points out that 
the Survey "in a single issue" [November, 191 9] published 
"more actual news" concerning the companies, the workmen, 
the living conditions of the strikers "than all the files of the 
Pittsburgh newspapers." 

The report comments: 

Before and during the strike the Pittsburgh newspapers main- 
tained an almost unbroken silence regarding the actual indus- 
trial grievances of the steel workers as to hours, pay, working 
conditions, and the lack of means to confer with employer! con- 
cerning such matters, not to mention housing and social condi- 

A feature of the strike was the fact that no newspaper in 
Pittsburgh took a stand for freedom of speech and a just en- 
forcement of the law by the regularly constituted authorities. 
The Pittsburgh newspapers' silence in the past regarding the 
discriminatory conduct of officials of the city and the county 
has been interpreted by many residents of Allegheny county to 
mean that there exists a fundamental solidarity of interest be- 
tween the media of public opinion, the officers of the law and 
the steel industry, such that even flagrant violations of the rights 
of individuals belonging to labor unions can occur without 
awakening protest or effective comment. 

David J. Saposs in the Mind of Immigrant Communities, 
strikes at the American's "panicky" fear of the "foreigners" 
and points out that the basis of this fear is ignorance. The 
foreword of this report says: 

Like most cities having large communities of immigrant work- 
ers, "American" Pittsburgh had and has no real knowledge of 
the dominant thoughts or "public opinion" within those com- 
munities. Physically, linguistically and mentally segregated, 
the masses of steel workers live in worlds of their own. "What 
influences move those worlds is an unanswered question to most 
good 'Americans' and for the most part an unasked question." 

Mr. Soule in Welfare Work gives the United States Steel 
Corporation full credit for progressiveness in welfare work. 
The best summary of the corporation's welfare policy, he says, 
is given by Judge Gary in an address to the presidents of 
subsidiary companies, January 21, 1919. Judge Gary is 
quoted as saying : 

. . . Make the Steel Corporation a good place for them to 
work and live. Don't let the families go hungry or cold ; give 
them play-grounds and parks and schools and churches, pure 
water to drink, every opportunity to keep clean, places of en- 
joyment, rest and recreation; treating the whole thing as a busi- 
ness proposition, drawing the line so that you are just and gen- 
erous and yet at the same time keeping your position and per- 
mitting others to keep theirs, retaining the control and manage- 
ment of your affairs, keeping the whole thing in your own hands, 
but, nevertheless, with due consideration to the rights and in- 
terests of all others who may be affected by your management. 

Mr. Soule then comments: 

In conclusion, we may say that while the corporation de- 
serves ample recognition of its efforts in welfare work, such 
efforts cannot be regarded as a substitute for those elements of 
an intelligent labor policy which would recognize the workers' 
rights in industry. 

"If any justification is needed for considering the relation 
of the pulpit to the strike, it will be found in the fact that no 
individual or institution can possess the spirit of Christ and 
not be concerned with the conditions under which people live 



and work," says Bishop McConnell in his foreword to Mr. 
Wisehart's The Pulpit and the Strike. 

Mr. Wisehart takes up the relation of clergymen to the 
employers and the workers and quotes the president of a steel 
company as saying: 

"I am a Presbyterian. If I thought the Presbyterian church 
was spending any money on this investigation, I'd never con- 
tribute another dollar to the Presbyterian church." 

The Interchurch Commission has made an illuminating 
study of working conditions in the most outstanding American 
industry and finds those conditions demoralizing. It cor- 
roborates the findings of the Pittsburgh Survey in 1908. It 
has been reinforced by the Cabot Fund findings of the sum- 
mer of 1920 [see the Survey for March 5], by the report of 
the engineering study undertaken under that auspice. Its 
report has not been controverted as to facts. It has not even 
drawn any "reasoned statistical" reply from the steel com- 
panies or their spokesmen. 

But the commission has gone farther. It has attempted 
to get public action : first, through an effort to have the Presi- 
dent appoint a special federal agency to initiate a free and 
open conference between workers and employers in the indus- 
try; second, through an effort to get the Senate to publish the 
report of the commission as a public document. Both these 
efforts failed. Now with a master stroke in publicity the 
commission gives the public its complete findings. What's 
the public going to do about it? 

The Dominicans 

A MARINE officer's wife stopped reading a story to 
her small daughter as I dropped into the next deck- 
chair. The little West-Indian liner slopped lazily 
along through a peaceable sea. Steamer preliminaries 
being accomplished, we fell upon Dominican affairs ; she was 
going to the States after a long stay in Santo Domingo City, 
fresh from the life of the American military government 
which rules the Dominican Republic with an almost unchecked 
hand. A sheaf of San Juan papers contained parenthetic ref- 
erences to a riot in Santo Domingo on August 15, and to the 
imprisonment of a number of Dominicans who had joined 
in urging their countrymen not to accept the conditions im- 
posed by the United States as necessary precedents to the sug- 
gested withdrawal of American troops from their submerged 
republic. I asked for some details. 

"It was all very funny," said she. "You know it is hard 
for the marine boys there ; the Dominicans call them all kinds 
of names and they simply can't do anything in return. They're 
not the sort to be cursed by those people and you can hardly 
blame them if occasionally they break out. This time a bunch 
had come from the United States and weren't accustomed to 
the tropics; they were still full of northern energy. Then, 
too, it was the day of a fiesta when we normally keep them in 
barracks to prevent trouble; a crowd of Dominicans almost 
always gives provocation and of course we try to keep clear of 
it. Apparently a lot of soldiers were in the Parque Indepen- 
dence and got talking to some of them, mostly young boys 
who were feeling their oats. It got worse and worse, and a 
crowd formed, and then there were some stones thrown and a 
general row started. Our boys were not armed, and they 
backed into the enlisted men's club which has the ground floor 
of one of the buildings on the park. There were a lot of 
billiard balls in the clubhouse and they were first rate ammu- 
nition; and our boys aren't bad shots. There was a regular 
time for a while, until finally details cleared up the town a 

"The next day we really expected trouble. Almost every 
one of the boys had something along with him ; not firearms, 
but a sock with a rock or a billiard ball or something in it, 
and everything was set for something first class; but the na- 

tives kept out of sight and there wasn't any trouble. We were 
all a good deal relieved. 

"Of course that whole Santo Domingo government is work- 
ing under a great deal of difficulty. They get no gratitude 
from the natives at all in spite of everything we have done for 
them, and the things that are said about us are awful. They 
haven't any real national feeling but they ju: 
When we offered to give the country back to 1 
ago they wouldn't take it." 

I asked about the conditions we had imposec 
the Dominican finances — including internal rev< 

zation of their native guard under American offi 

saw fit to turn it over to Dominicans; validation of all the 
acts of the occupation, and so on — a pretty stiff dose for a 
supposedly sovereign state to swallow, remembering what the 
practical result of these and similar stipulations had been in 

"We proposed an election," said she, "and announced a real 
good election law, but no one would nominate anyone and the 
Dominicans wouldn't let anyone attend. But we had a good 
answer to that. Admiral Robinson proclaimed that since 
they wouldn't cooperate, the occupation would be indefinitely 
continued, and that in his first proclamation giving the condi- 
tions on which they could come in, the United States had 
said exactly what it meant. There has been no answer to 

"You must keep in mind that the Dominicans don't under- 
stand kindness, although we do our honest best for them. 
Washington is always telling us to go slow, to consider the 
native feelings on all possible occasions, not to retaliate, and 
generally we don't; but the only way you make any impres- 
sion on a Dominican is to treat him rough. The officers say 
that the thing to do is to put anyone who says anything 
against the administration in jail; give him six months at hard 
labor on the roads. Once he is seen actually working in a 
convict gang he is disgraced for life. That is the way to 
handle them. The present governor, Admiral Robison, has 
found that out and he's doing it. These people who have been 
getting up petitions to keep the Dominicans from cooperating 
and taking their country back and going to the election we 
proclaimed and so on are mostly all known, and the admiral 
has just been putting them in the fort with a six months' sen- 
tence, and it works well. But I suppose Washington will 
find out after a while and then he will have to go slow. It's 
discouraging. You have to remember too that none of these 
fellows really care about having the Americans out. The 
only people that really care and the only people who would 
run the country if we got out would be the politicos who are 
just professional placehunters and who have been doing it all 
their lifes. The really good people want us there." 

The little girl wandered back to her mother's knee, and the 
story-reading was resumed. I crossed the deck and leaned 
over the taffrail. I had lived under the Occupation ; had heard 
marine officers gossiping about prisoners "shot while attempt- 
ing to escape" after being hammered over the head with a 
revolver-butt to make them run ; had seen something of the 
defense of the guardia lieutenant who had shot eleven hostages 
in Seybo after a marine was sniped in the bush ; I had seen, 
too, a lot of marines laughingly help a Dominican pull his 
stalled Ford out of a ditch. I had seen leathernecks light 
their cigarettes at the candles which burn eLernally before the 
shrine before which all Domincans uncover or cross them- 
selves, and I had seen them playing with the mulatto children 
in the bush. This matter of the Dominicans not wanting their 
country back — a group of exiled Dominicans in Santiago de 
Cuba calling themselves the de jure government, aided by a 
little subterranean society known as the Junta Nacional had 
signed an edict forbidding loyal natives to participate in an 
American-planned election: and not a Dominican had parti- 
cipated. Nor will they, until the Junta Nacional otherwise 
decrees. Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 




at Washington 

f | ^HE first fruits of President Harding's Conference 
i Unemployment have been harvested. What is 
>w available is merely one of a series of reports, 
n September 30 the conference adopted an 
program for the relief of idle workers. This was 
•r the aid of those who now feel responsible for 
hing to mitigate the condition of those who cannot 
find work. It was not intended to provide a permanent 
scheme for dealing with unemployment. That presumably 
will be done in other special reports. It is, accordingly, fair 
to appraise the emergency program only on the narrow claims 
which it makes for itself. The success or failure of the con- 
ference can be estimated only after its work has been done. 

The conference reported the estimate that between 
3,500,000 and 5,500,000 wage-earners are now unemployed. 
A much larger number of people are dependent upon the 
earnings of this idle host. Winter is coming and clearly 
something must be done to relieve the necessities of this im- 
portant section of the population. In considering the national 
problem presented by the needs of such a group the confer- 
ence was handicapped. In his opening address President 
Harding had forcefully indicated the limits within which the 
conference must work. "It is fair to say to you that you 
are not asked to solve the long controverted problems of 
the social system," said the President. He continued : "We 
have builded the America of today on the fundamentals of 
economic, industrial and political life which made us what 
we are, and the temple requires no remaking now. ... I 
would have little enthusiasm for any proposed relief which 
seeks either palliation or tonic from the public treasury." 

That told the members of the conference plainly enough 
that unemployment insurance must not be recommended. 
That was a very serious limitation. Unemployment is a risk 
of industry, as measurable and as recurrent as fire losses or 
work accidents. The most important device which society 
has developed for protection against risk is insurance. Hazards 
of the sea which used to be termed "acts of God" are now 
covered by insurance. Promoters of sporting events assure 
their investments. Even the wind which bloweth where it 
listeth is the occasion of insurance. Farmers safeguard their 
growing crops against hail storms by insurance. Peaceful 
city folk insure themselves against the depredations of 
burglars. Banks take out insurance against theft. Some 
companies offer insurance against twins. Almost every human 
risk is provided for by means of insurance. 

In the face of this enormous body of experience and in the 
face of the experience of Great Britain and of other industrial 
countries which have had their chief reliance in unemploy- 
ment insurance, the President definitely excluded this resource 
from the consideration of the National Conference on Un- 
employment. It was like telling a group of citizens who had 
come together to devise means of dealing with fire losses that 
they must not consider insurance. Such a procedure can be 
defended, but the possibility of taking effectual remedial 
action is denied. 

In such circumstances the body of citizens who are en- 
deavoring to deal with unemployment concentrated their 
efforts on suggestions which seemed to be in harmony with 
the President's initial speech. What they proposed looks 
chiefly to local communities. Cities and private charitable 
organizations are manifestly expected to supply the funds 
with which to feed and clothe and shelter the millions who 
are not able to find work. 

The suggestions made to the local communities by the 
national conference are none the less sound. They were 
based in no small way on the work done by Mayor Mitchel's 

New York Committee on Unemployment. Work for the 
unemployed ought of course to be centralized in every com- 
munity and the mayor of a city ought ex-officio to be the 
leader. The dispensing of relief ought to be kept separate 
from the finding of jobs. Public employment offices ought 
to be established. At this place, it is, however, but just to 
observe that the nation cannot escape its responsibility for 
providing a public employment service. It will be remembered, 
furthermore, that the present Congress by cutting off funds 
has kept closed offices which the United States Employment 
Service had opened in other years. 

In their proposals for hastening public improvements and 
for renewed activity in the construction industry the confer- 
ence was on firm ground. Cities and states and the nation 
itself ought to undertake with all possible expedition needed 
public improvements. No other measure for counteracting 
the effects of the economic depression is so inviting and none 
is more valid. It will take more than good advice, however, 
to stimulate renewed building activity. Barring governmental 
action this will come about only when investors regard home 
building as an investment at least as attractive as other oppor- 
tunities which are now available. The most promising of 
this group of suggestions is that looking to municipal building. 
The recommendations for manufacturers are the product 
of the experience of the more humane employers. They are 
based on the assumption that only a given quantity of work 
is in existence and that this quantity ought to be divided 
among many workers rather than among a few. The result 
of such a policy is that nobody has enough but that more have 
something. It plainly is not a solution. The consumptive 
power of the community is not increased. Men whose earn- 
ings are lowered by this procedure will resent it but those 
who have no earnings will welcome it. 

The next meeting of the National Conference on Unem- 
ployment is scheduled to take place on October 10. At that 
time reports dealing with the more permanent aspects of un- 
employment will be brought before full conference for action. 
The committees, which include members of the conference 
and of the advisory committee, are as follows: 

Unemployment Statistics — James A. Campbell, Mayor James 
Couzens, C. R. Markham, Henry N. Robinson, Mary Van Kleeck, 
Matthew Woll, Clarence Mott Woolley, W. L. Burdick, Carroll 
W. Doten, Walter F. Wilcox, Leo Wolman, Allyn A. Young; 
executive secretary, T. W. Mitchell. 

Employment Agencies and Registration — Julius H. Barnes, 
Elizabeth Christman, Bird S. Coler, Joseph H. De Frees, Mort- 
imer Fleishacker, Clarence J. Hicks, Jackson Johnson, William 
M. Leiserson, M. F. Tighe, Henry S. Dennison, George E. Bar- 
nett, Bailey B. Burritt, Sam A. Lewisohn, Henry R. Seager. 

Emergency State and Municipal Measures and Public Works 
— Charles M. Babcock, Bird S. Coler, James Couzens, Bascom 
Little, Andrew J. Peters, Ida M. Tarbell, Matthew Woll, Colonel 
Arthur Woods, Evans Woolen, Henry S. Dennison, Edwin F. 
Gay, Otto T. Mallery, Edward R. A. Seligman; executive sec- 
retary, Otto T. Mallery. 

Emergency Measures by Manufacturers — William M. Butler, 
James A. Campbell, Sarah Conboy, John E. Edgerton, Samuel 
Gompers, Clarence J. Hicks, A. L. Humphrey, Jackson Johnson, 
W. C. Procter, Charles M. Schwab, W. H. Stackhouse, J. A. 
Penton, R. M. Dickerson, Henry S. Dennison, Sanford E. Thomp- 
son, William S. Rossiter, E. S. Bradford; exectuive secretary, 
Gordon Lee. 

Emergency Measures to Transportation — W. S. Carter, Edgar 
E. Clark, C. H. Markham, Raymond A. Pearson, Davis R. 
Dewey, Clyde L. King, J. H. Parmelee; executive secretary, 
Charles P. Neill. . ' 

Emergency Measures in Construction — Winslow B. Ayer, John 
Donlin, John H. Kirby, Bascom Little, Richard C. Marshall, Jr., 
Ernest T. Trigg, Sanford E. Thompson; executive secretary, 
John M. Gries. ^ 

Emergency Measures in Mining— John T. Connery, W. K- 
Field, John L. Lewis, J. Moore, James B. Neal, E. M. Posten, 
John D. Ryan, Mary Van Kleeck, John P. White, Sam A. Lewi- 
sohn; executive secretary, David L. Wing. 

Emergency Measures in Shipping— James F. Gibson, Thomas 
V. O'Connor, Charles M. Schwab, Carroll W. Doten; executive 
secretaries, E. S. Gregg and R. A. Lundquist. 

Public Hearings— S. McCune Lindsay; executive secretary, 
John B. Andrews. WlLLIAM L. CHENERY. 

Emergency Relief Program 

Of the National Conference on Unemployment 

Adopted at Washington^ September 30 

t. The conference finds that there are 
variously estimated from 3,500,000 to 5,- 
500,000 unemployed, and there is a much 
greater number dependent upon them. 
There has been an improvement, but 
pending general trade revival this crisis 
in unemployment cannot be met without 
definite and positive organization of the 

2. The problem of meeting the emer- 
gency of unemployment is primarily a 
community problem. The responsibility 
for leadership is with the mayor, and 
should be immediately assumed by him. 

3. The basis of organization should be 
an emergency committee representing the 
various elements in the community. This 
committee should develop and carry 
through a community plan for meeting the 
emergency, using existing agencies and 
local groups as far as practicable. One 
immediate step should be to coordinate 
and establish efficient public employment 
agencies and to register all those desiring 
work. It should coordinate the work of 
the various charitable institutions. Re- 
gistration for relief should be entirely 
separate from that for employment. 

4. The personnel of the employment 
agencies should be selected with consid- 
eration to fitness only and should be 
directed to find the right job for the right 
man and should actively canvass and or- 
ganize the community for opportunities 
for employment. The registry for em- 
ployment should be surrounded with safe- 
guards and should give priority in em- 
ployment to residents. Employers should 
give preference to the emergency employ- 
ment agencies. 

5. The emergency committees should 
regularly publish the numbers dependent 
upon them for employment and relief that 
the community may be apprised of its re- 
sponsibility. Begging and uncoordinated 
solicitation of funds should be prevented. 

6. Private houses, hotels, offices, etc., 
can contribute to the situation by doing 
their repairs, cleaning and alterations 
during the winter instead of waiting until 
spring, when employment will be more 

7. Public construction is better than re- 
lief. The municipalities should expand 
their school, street, sewage, repair work 
and public building to the fullest possible 
volume compatible with the existing cir- 
cumstances. That existing circumstances 
are favoraule is indicated by the fact that 
over $7od,ooo,ooo of municipal bonds, the 
largest amount in history, have been sold 
in 1921. Of these, $106,000,000 were sold 
by 333 municipalities in August. Muni- 
cipalities should give short-time employ- 
ment the same as other employers. 

8. The governor should unite all state 

agencies for support of the mayors and, 
as the superior officer, should insist upon 
the responsibility of city officials; should 
do everything compatible with circum- 
stances in expedition of construction of 
roads, state buildings, etc. 

9. The federal authorities, including the 
federal reserve banks, should expedite the 
construction of public buildings and public 
works covered by existing appropriations. 

10. A congressional appropriation for 
roads, together with state appropriations 
amounting to many tens of millions of 
dollars already made in expectation of 
and dependence on federal aid, would 
make available a large amount of em- 
ployment. The conference, under exist- 
ing circumstances, notwithstanding va- 
rious opinions as to the character of the 
legislation and the necessity for economy, 
recommends congressional action at the 
present session in order that work may 
go forward. 

11. The greatest area for immediate 
relief of unemployment is in the construc- 
tion industry, which has been artificially 
restricted during and since the war. We 
are short more than a million homes; all 
kinds of building and construction are 
far behind national necessity. The Senate 
Committee on Reconstruction and Produc- 
tion, in March of this year, estimated the 
total construction shortage in the country 
at between ten and twenty billion dollars. 
Considering all branches of the construc- 
tion industries, more than two million 
people could be employed if construction 
were resumed. Undue cost and malig- 
nant combinations have made proper ex- 
pansion impossible and contributed large- 
ly to this unemployment situation. In 
some places these matters have been 
cleaned up. In other places they have 
not and are an affront to public decency. 
In some places these things have not ex- 
isted. In others costs have been adjusted. 
Some materials have been reduced in 
price as much as can be expected. Where 
conditions have been righted, construc- 
tion should proceed, but there is still a 
need of community action in provision of 
capital on terms that will encourage home 
building. Where the costs are still above 
the other economic levels of the commun- 
ity, there should be searching inquiry and 
action in the situation. We recommend 
that the governors summon representative 
committees, with the cooperation of the 
mayors or otherwise, as they may deter- 
mine (a) to determine facts; (b) to or- 
ganize community action in securing ad- 
justments in cost, including removal of 
freight discriminations and clean out 
campaigns against combinations, restric- 
tions of effort, and unsound practices 
where they exist to the end that building 
may be fully resumed. 

The Manufacturers Committee of the 
conference recommended the following 

additional measures which were included 
in the program: 

Manufacturers con contribute to relieve 
the present acute unemployment by, 

(a) Part-time work, through reduced 
time or rotation of jobs. 

(b) As far as possible, manufacturing 
for stock. 

(c) Taking advantage of the present 
opportunity to do as much plant construc- 
tion, repairs and cleaning up as is pos- 
sible, with the consequent transfer of 
many employes to other than their reg- 
ular work. 

(d) Reduction of the number of hours 
of labor per day. 

(e) The reduction of the work week to 
a lower number of days during the pres- 
ent period of industrial depression. 

(f) That employes and employers co- 
operate in putting these recommendations 
into effect. 

A large number of employers have al- 
ready, in whole or in part, inaugurated 
the recommendations herein set forth, 
and for this they are to be commended, 
and it is earnestly urged upon those em- 
ployers who have not done so to put same 
into use, wherever practicable, at the 
earliest possible opportunity. 

(g) Specific methods for solution of 
our economic problems will be effective 
only in so far as thev are applied in a 
spirit of patriotic patience on the part of 
all our people. 

During the period of drastic economic 
readjustment, through which we are now 
passing, the continued efforts of any one 
to profit beyond the requirements of safe 
business practice or economic consistency 
should be condemned. One of the im- 
portant obstacles to a resumption of 
normal business activity will be removed 
as prices reach replacement values in 
terms of efficient producing and distribut- 
ing cost plus reasonable profit. 

We therefore strongly urge all manu- 
facturers and wholesalers who may not 
yet have adopted this policy to do so, but 
it is essential to the success of these meas- 
ures when put into effect that retail prices 
shall promptly and fairly reflect the price 
adjustment of the producer, manufac- 
turer, and the wholesaler. 

When these principles have been rec- 
ognized and the recommendations com- 
plied with, we are confident that the 
public will increase their purchases, 
thereby increasing the operations of the 
mills, factories and transportation com- 
panies, and consequently reducing the 
number of unemployed. 




Canada and the A. F. of L. 


"^ HOUGH bound to Great Britain by political and 
sentimental ties, Canada's economic and social future 
' textricably interwoven with that of the United 
es. Within Canada itself, there is a great differ- 
east and west. Further, as has often been 
he natural divisions on this continent run north 
-Vere it not for artificial restrictions, Winnipeg 
er would have more in common respectively 
with Minneapolis and Seattle than with Toronto or 
Montreal. These industrial and political and social influ- 
ences are reflected in the diverse currents within the labor 
movement in Canada. 

According to the Canadian Department of Labor of which 
a zealous "internationalist" is minister: 

In the main the organized workers of Canada are connected 
with international labor organizations the majority of which are 
working under charters derived from the American Federation 
of Labor, the recognized head of the labor movement of the 
North American Continent. . . . The Trades and Labor Con- 
gress of Canada is recognized by the federation as the head of 
international trade unionism in the Dominion, so far as legis- 
lative matters are concerned. . . . The authority of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor to deal with trade matters as they 
affect international organizations on the North American Con- 
tinent is fully conceded by the Trades and Labor Congress of 
Canada, which body accepts without question the decisions ren- 
dered by the federation. 

The report of the department on this point may be author- 
itative. Where it deals with "organizations other than inter- 
national" it is not only partisan but unreliable. 

In the Province of Quebec, there are some forty national 
and Catholic unions, bodies in which only adherents of the 
Roman Catholic faith are allowed membership, and seventeen 
other national unions which are called neutral, membership 
in which is not confined to workmen of any particular creed. 
Throughout Canada, there are fifteen non-international 
central organizing bodies of which those of the postal 
employes are perhaps the most important. 

In the west, there is the One Big Union. This was 
organized two years ago near the end of the Winnipeg 
general strike. It represents not merely a protest against the 
"machine methods" of the American Federation of Labor, 
but an effort to get away altogether from the "craft" form 
of organization and to develop the "industrial" form of 
organization as the only effective means of carrying on the 
"class war." 

The majority of the organized workers in the west are 
from England and Scotland — the radicals nourished on Kerr's 
publications and very sympathetic toward their fellow- 
workers on the Continent. 

Into this west — to Winnipeg — came the Canadian Trades 
and Labor Congress early this fall. A few months previously, 
the president, Tom Moore, had been refused a hearing at a 
public meeting. But the Congress, sitting in the ballroom 
of the Royal Alexandra Hotel, held its sessions without 
interruption. Samuel Gompers alone was missing! 

As usual, many reports and resolutions were presented — 
that concerning unemployment being the most vital. But the 
most important feature of the Congress was the expulsion 
of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employes. 

Trouble had b-^en brewing for some time. The C. B. 
R. E., founded in 1908, had affiliated with the Trades and 
Labor Congress in 191 7. The Congress officials claimed that 
affiliation was granted on "the understanding that the charter- 
ing of the said Brotherhood of Railway Employes was in no 
way to interfere with the jurisdiction or membership of the 
bona fide international organizations chartered by the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor and Labor Congress of Canada, 
and in the belief that it would be a means of having the 
C. B. R. E. consolidate with the International Brotherhood 

of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express 
and Station Employes. The C. B. R. E. officers denied this 
understanding and challenged the authority of the Congress 
to interfere in jurisdictional disputes, claiming that such 
action was unconstitutional. 

During the year, the executive of the Trades and Labor 
Congress had notified the C. B. R. E. that its charter would 
be cancelled. The C. B. R. E. had countered by obtaining 
an injunction restraining the executive from such action, and 
had been upheld by the courts. 

Two whole sessions were given to the discussion after which 
the resolution revoking the charter was passed by a rollcall 
vote of 394 to 151. The Western Labor News, the organ 
of the Winnipeg Trades and Labor Council reports, "It 
was practically a straight party vote, internationalists on the 
one side, and Canadian brotherhood delegates on the other." 
At a later session, the Congress amended its constitution, 
which now provides: "Notwithstanding anything in this 
constitution the delegates at an annual or other convention 
may by a majority rollcall vote revoke the charter of and 
expel any affiliated body." And further: "No federations 
of labor, trades or labor councils or any other central body 
of delegates, chartered by this congress, shall admit to or 
retain in their councils, delegates from any organization which 
holds allegiance to any other body local, national or inter- 
national, hostile to the congress or its affiliated organiza- 
tions. ..." 

So the Congress is over. The authority of the officers was 
sustained. The machine moves on unhampered. But is the 
victory a real gain for the A. F. of L. ? 

The Free Press, the leading Winnipeg daily, in discussing 
the issue stresses unduly — from the working-class standpoint 
— the nationalistic sentiment; but nevertheless states the case 
for local autonomy: 

What is bound to emerge from a thorough debate is the fact 
that the organized workers of Canada in affiliation with the 
Trades Congress, have no national trade union status; they are 
merely the Canadian members of American trade unions. The 
American trade unions, true enough, are described as interna- 
tional organizations, but the term international is improperly 
made use of. The great majority of the members of these unions 
are Americans, the funds of the organizations are controlled 
from American head offices ; the basic policies of the organiza- 
tions are determined by the American majority. The Canadian 
worker simply joins these international unions as a minority 
member. He does not join as a Canadian citizen; he is not 
regarded as a Canadian citizen in the organization; he is 
lumped into the general mass of the membership. . . . 

And again: 

Whatever action the Brotherhood may take, the Congress has 
openly embraced a policy which will, if persisted in, ultimately 
destroy it. 

It is possible that more important than any action of the 
Congress was a sort of by-product — the organization of the 
Canadian Labor Party. In view of the approaching federal 
elections, announced since the rising of the Congress, the at- 
tempt to secure effective political action is of great interest. 

Though in its industrial policies, the Congress is American, 
it is decidedly influenced in its political outlook, by the British 
Labor Party. The outstanding speaker at the Congress was 
the British fraternal delegate, Neil MacLean, M. P., of 
Govan, Scotland. Under the inspiration of the organization 
and success of the British Labor Party three years ago, political 
labor parties sprang up spontaneously in almost every Prov- 
ince in Canada. These had no formal affiliation with one 
another and each outlined its own platform and policies. 
Advantage was taken of the presence of labor delegates in 
Winnipeg to organize tentatively a Canadian-wide party with 
which it is hoped that, on the plan of the British Labor 
Party, these already established local parties will affiliate. 

It is distinctly understood that the political organization 
is to be entirely free from the control of any industrial 
organization. J- S. WoODSWORTH. 

San Antonio-The Flood City 

By J. B. Gwin 



i HE recovery of the city of San Antonio from the 
plight created by the flood which swept the valley 
of the Olmos creek on September 9 is an inspir- 
ing story. With blocks and blocks of upturned 
pavement, mountains of debris, dead dogs, cats, horses, cows, 
chickens; with almost a foot of ooze and slime carried by 
the waters which inundated an 
area six or seven miles long, and 
nearly two miles wide; with stag- 
nant pools in all low spots and 
without a city water supply, elec- 
tric power or lights, the health au- 
thorities were confronted imme- 
diately with the problem of pre- 
venting an epidemic of sickness. 
Within twenty-four hours, how- 
ever, the removal of this accumula- 
tion was well under way. 

During the flood, large fuel 
tanks containing crude oil were 
emptied. The oil spread rapidly 
across the waters and did extensive 
damage to buildings and to mer- 
chandise. But if it damaged prop- 
erty on the other hand it had a 
wholesome effect in helping to pre- 
serve the health of the community 
by settling upon stagnant pools of 
water and coating filth of all kinds 
with a film of oil which absolutely 
checked the flies and mosquitoes 
and other germ carriers in the 
flood area. Moreover, it largely 
aided in keeping down the stench 
from the thick muck which settled 
upon everything as the waters re- 

The known loss of life frpm this disaster as I write stands 
at fifty-one. The property loss is heavy; probably it will take 
three million dollars to cover the losses of buildings, mer- 
chandise, private effects, homes and public improvements in 
San Antonio. There has in addition been an extensive loss 
on farms in the river valley and surrounding territory, but 
th_-re is absolutely no means whereby even an approximate 
valuation of the loss in those areas can be reached. They 
range all the way from a heavy loss of cotton in the boll 
to livestock and harvested crops. 

But considering that the flood came with such rapidity that 
concerted flood warnings were impossible, and that the work 
of rescue was impeded by immense collections of debris swirl- 
ing in the currents there are remarkably few people sick 
or injured. The hospitals contain less than ninety cases of 
injured, hysterical or nervous prostration cases due to the 
flood and there are probably not more than that in private 
dwellings under care of relatives and friends. A large num- 
ber of people of course received minor injuries. They were 
cut by glass as wreckage crushed in doors and windows, they 


stepped on nails or other sharp instruments in wading 
through the flood, or were bruised and gashed when 
by floating debris as they came through the waters. 

First measures for the relief of flood sufferers were 
at a meeting of the city and county officials, representatives 
of civic organizations and citizens at central fire and police 

headquarters, early in the morn- 
ing following the flood. A pro- 
gram for providing food, clothing 
and shelter to the many whose 
homes were washed away, for car- 
ing for the dead and injured and 
for searching for the missing was 
quickly formulated. The Red 
Cross and various civic organiza- 
tions shortly afterwards opened 
general relief headquarters in the 
market house. Funds were col- 
lected by a committee of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce for relief work, 
but practically all this irumey was 
placed at the disposal of the Red 
Cross whose local workers took 
charge of all relief and rehabilita- 
tion work. The emergency period 
which lasted for about five days 
represented the quickest action in 
the collection of food, household 
goods and clothing that has ever 
been witnessed here. Several thou- 
sand were helped during this period 
and hundreds were cared for in a 
tent city which was completely 
erected and equipped on the first 
day after the flood. 

By the second day workers 
had arrived from the Southern 
Division at St. Louis to assist in the work and especially to 
plan for the rehabilitation of lost homes and business. Some 
of these workers had already assisted in relief work in eight 
communities which had suffered from some form of disaster 
in this division of the Red Cross during the last five months. 
These disasters have been so frequent that the manager of 
the division, James Fieser, is now often called "Disaster 

On the sixth day a separate office was opened to carry on 
more permanent work of the Red Cross. Furniture has 
since *been bought for hundreds of families, assistance given 
to move houses back to their former foundations and an em- 
ployment bureau established. Supplies have been bought for 
some of the smaller merchants, sewing machines, carpenters' 
tools, boot-black stands, and other equipment has been given 
or loaned so that the idle can be busy and the sufferers started 
on the road to a new life. 

The Mexican population living along the banks of the 
flooded creeks and in the lower sections of the city were the 
worst sufferers. Those who are unacquainted with the 
Mexican people, their racial characteristics and historic back- 



Hundreds of Mexicans who escaped when their shacks were destroyed cooked their 
meals over open fires on the very sites within a feiv hours 

ground were surprised at the quiet and seemingly indiffer- 
ent manner in which they bore the losses, even of death. 
The Mexicans are of Indian blood and are almost always 
stoic in the face of danger and trouble. Floods have been 
of frequent occurrence in parts of Mexico and Mexico City 
was often flooded before the lakes which surround the city 
were lowered. In the plateaus and mountainous region of 
Mexico these people are accustomed to fleeing to the higher 
grounds to escape the flood waters. 

In San Antonio as the waters receded from the city they 
calmly climbed down from their places of refuge, from the 
tree tops or from the roofs and were soon cheerfully camped 
in the open along the banks of the creeks cooking the Red 
Cross food over wood fires, while the children scrambled 
among the debris and mud for valuables washed there from 
the business sections of the city. Many who were caught by 
the flood in their rooms cut holes in their roofs, and they 
formed a picturesque sight the next morning sitting on the 
roof tops surrounded by their dogs and chickens which some 
of them had taken up through the holes they had cut. 

But even with interest focused on rebuilding the city has 
not yet shown the least interest in preventing a reoccur- 
rence of the bad social conditions among the Mexican popu- 
lation, which were crying for remedy years ago. These peo- 
ple, some of whose forefathers settled this city and neigh- 

borhood, lived many of them in rude shacks, built in a hit 
or miss manner, called corrals. In some sections the houses 
were very close together, several families crowded into one 
house. Streets and alleys were lost or never existed. The 
conditions were no worse than in most border communities 
where Mexicans dwell but the destruction of these shacks 
and even of whole corrals has given an opportunity for bet- 
tering the lives and sanitary conditions of the Mexican popu- 
lation, which on account of the press of other difficult prob- 
lems is not being met. 

For the most part, however, in meeting the present situa- 
tion and in considering the future, both as to the restoring 
of business quickly and to the prevention of future floods, 
San Antonio has met the situation thrust upon her and is 
conquering it. The flood has created a wide interest in 
dams, diverting canals and storage lakes over the state. 
Cities as far west as El Paso, whose water supply comes from 
hilly or mountainous regions, are reported to have held meet- 
ings and to have consulted engineers on how to prevent any 
possibility of floods. Suddenly they have been brought to a 
realization that a normal, annual rainfall may be precipitated 
in a few hours' time. The citizens of San Antonio have al- 
ready made a detailed study of the best manner to prevent 
a further flood, either by a dam below the Olmos basin or 
by diverting some of the excess water into canals. 



Showing hoiv the oak blocks were swept away 

Marriage and Maternity in New Russia 

By Hans Niedermair, M. D. 

J~\R- HANS NIEDERMAIR, born a Tyrol ese, studied at the University at Innsbruck, and 
./_-/ also in Vienna, Prague and Graz where he took his degree of M. D. In 1913, after finish- 
ing military service, he entered the clinic of the renowned Professor Habermann as second assist- 
ant and within six months became representative of the professor. When the tuar broke out he 
was sent to the front as a surgeon, and three weeks later he was a prisoner of war in Russia 
where his involuntary stay lasted from September 7, 19 14, until November 3, 1920. Pie was 
put to ivork in prison camps and in 191 5 dispatched to Siberia, where he fought the exanthematic 
fever epidemic. By August, 1918, he was ordered to a place called Ishym, ivhere he remained as 
head doctor of the prisoner of war camp. There the Russians of the surrounding villages came to 
the Austrian doctors for help. It was about the worst time in Siberia — epidemics continually. 
Dr. Niedermair fell a victim to the fever and report had it that he succumbed. He did not, however, 
and when the camp in Ishym was dissolved and the epidemic was over, he fled to Petropowlowsk, 
his old camp, and waited there for a chance to get home. But now in Vienna his health does not 
permit him to return to the clinic, where a seat was kept for him. 

THE further east a people is situated, the lower is 
the position of woman. One can only marvel at 
the work to be done, and which was done without 
a murmur by women of the lower and often of the 
middle classes of Russia. The Russian woman's work began 
at cock's crow; she had to attend to the cattle, make the fires, 
light the samovar so that when the lord and master arose, he 
would find fresh bread and other warm food on the teatable. 
She had to take care that there were alcoholic drinks in the 
house off and on, which was no light task during the war on 
account of the existing restrictions; but she had to find some 
kind of solution and either brewed a frightful house beer, 
or distilled spirits according to primitive methods. 

The primitive Russian was never concerned with the taste 
of the drink — when he couldn't get his vodka, he would even 
drink varnish — all he asked was the effect and that the in- 
toxication be thorough and complete. To be absolutely 
beastly drunk, as a matter of fact, is one of the greatest ambi- 
tions of the Russian. Only after one has seen the black eyes, 
or rather the bodies covered with bruises, can one form an 
adequate picture of what the woman of the house had to un- 
dergo during these periods of ecstasy, or if she failed to supply 
the necessary reinforcements. Off and on in the first excite- 
ment, a woman would consider appealing to the court and 
laying the facts of the case before it, but it was a timid at- 
tempt and she soon saw the futility of such an undertaking 
and resigned herself to her unhappy lot. When the peasant 
was sober, he often did not hesitate to settle the question 
quickly by means of the knout, according to an old Rus- 
sian saying: "Treat your wife as you do your fur, beat her 

If a woman ages, and she does so tolerably early in Russia 
on account of the hard work and the bearing of many chil- 
dren, then she loses all value in the eyes of her husband and 
is only a servant in the house ; in the country, this is the prin- 
cipal motive of the men's marriage. The son does not choose 
his wife. It is almost always the father who seeks out the 
most capable worker, and who makes the marriage. Any 
higher feelings play no part whatsoever in the matter, or at 
least, only a very insignificant role, and it is therefore com- 
prehensible that the idea of constancy in conjugal relation- 
ships is a fairly loose one. "Just so far as the tower of the 
church is visible, just so far lasts the constancy," says a 
"golden" Russian rule! 

The alimony laws during the time of the czar were very 

inadequate and were handled in the most extraordinarily lax 
manner. The man often deserted his wife and a flock of 
children, without any scruples and without the slightest risk, 
and would go on a village or two further and establish a 
new home — no judge interfered to bring the deserter back or 
even to force him to provide for the deserted family. 

Under these circumstances, the communistic teachings did 
not have a depressing effect ; the beautiful phrases preaching 
the equality of man and woman, and the absolute abolition of 
slavery, found willing listeners. No longer should the woman 
be subservient to the man, but she should have her share in 
the contract — both sides of the family might work and both 
sides should have their bread. And the communism had an 
interest in breaking the family bonds ; it saw a danger to the 
state in the existence of the family, this old-fashioned preju- 
dice; in the family, the children would get ideas which would 
be contrary to the teachings of commuism — in other words, 
the bringing-up of children according to bourgeois ideas was 
a danger to the coming generation. 

Not that the Moscow government brutally interfered in 
the matter, or that it forcibly tore asunder family bonds or 
trod down age-old sentiments and feelings! Oh no! it only 
strove to destroy the family idea by allowing it to die a slow 
death through abolishing the permanent union — this latter as 
the result of the simplification and convenience of the mar 
riage laws. When the family fell, then the rest of the 
bourgeois institutions would also fall ; it was only in the 
family that the bourgeois state held its power; the commun- 
istic state considered the family as an enemy, for in the 
family lay the seeds of the counter-revolution. 

According to the communistic laws and their legal inter- 
pretation, marriage is a contract which can be entered into 
by two partners of absolutely equal rights for any length of 
time desired, and which can be revoked at any time within the 
legal limit of six weeks. This contract is only legal when it 
is signed before the commissar ; the shortest term of such a 
marriage is two months — shorter limits will now be granted. 
The contracting parties are perfectly at liberty to have a 
religious ceremony, but such a ceremony is not at all neces- 
sary for the legality of the marriage. 

The religious confessions play no role whatsoever in the 
communistic state. A religious profession as well as the various 
duties growing out of such a belief is purely of personal con- 
cern and a matter of complete and absolute indifference to the 
state. Only rarely when the members of some religious body 





appear in the political foreground does the state interfere in 
any Avay. The popes of the orthodox church who lost so 
much through the separation of church and state began an 
active agitation and organized dangerous resistances — for ex- 
ample, in the government of Pernier, during the winter of 
iqi8 and 1919, they organized such an uprising immediately 
:els of the Red Army, as a result of which many of 
is threw down their weapons and in this way fell 
lands of the White Army. This led to the open and 
: pursuit of ecclesiastical functionaries. This same 
) many of the Jewish organizations which were dis- 
banded and whose schools were closed because they showed 
tendencies inimicable to the state. 

Marriage is the simplest ceremony imaginable, and the 
cheapest thing obtainable in Russia. When both of the con- 
tracting parties are unmarried, or are designated as unmar- 
ried, they present the two necessary papers (certifying as to 
their identity and employment — Labor or Employment Cer- 
tificate) to the commissar in authority and state their wishes; 
this functionary then registers them, inquires how long in 
duration such marriage is to be, makes out the marriage 
certificate and charges a fee of fifteen roubles. The matter is 
settled, the bride has the right to obtain linen and clothing 
at relatively cheap prices from the civic distribution bureau — 
she is now a wife and has a dress. 

If one of the contracting parties is legally married and the 
marriage was considered legal according to the laws existing 
before the establishment of the commune, then this marriage 
must first be annulled. For this purpose, an announcement is 
placed in the newspaper of the town in which the divorce is 
to be obtained, summoning the other party to the marriage to 
appear before the commissar. Failure to appear results in the 
marriage being declared void. Since this requirement is im- 
possible in most cases it follows that the marriage is auto- 
matically annulled after the expiration of a certain term, and 
then the new marriage contract can be made. The process 
in connection with the annulment of a former marriage or the 
notice in connection with the subsequent dissolution of a con- 
tract of appreciable long duration, is considerably more ex- 
pensive than a new marriage contract. It costs fifty roubles, 
but even this is not a large amount when one considers that 
a box of matches cost 250 roubles in the summer of 1920 
when obtainable in contraband trade. 

Since a marriage contract of short duration can be ex- 
tended as long as desired at any time, the form of the contract 
is especially convenient — both parties may comfort themselves 
with the idea of an extention if it can be shown that such is 
mutually agreeable and serviceable. On the other hand, it 
makes it very simple for people who are making short stops 
in any place or who are on a detail of several months to 
establish themselves as householders. In this way, four stu- 
dents, who learned of one another's destination by chance dur- 
ing the course of the journey, decided to marry for the dura- 
tion of their two months' holiday, and arranged matters ac- 
cordingly immediately after their arrival. One laughed at a 
commissar in the city, who feeling perfectly sure of his per- 
manent happiness, declared he was marrying "for always." 
It was remarked that with the income of a commissar, it 
wouldn't be necessary to consider the fifty roubles for the 
magic word of release. 

But in spite of all the simplification and the conveniences, 
monogamy is still retained in principle since a marriage con- 
tract can only be entered into when the former marriage has 
been annulled. And there are apparently no exceptions made 
in favor of the Mohammedans — in fact, it is scarcely neces- 

sary since it would never occur to a council to take measures 
against bigamy or any of the other old-fashioned bourgeois 

The practical result of these marriage regulations will 
doubtlessly be the loosening of all family ties and if the pres- 
ent generation does not altogether relinquish all the old ob- 
servances, but still holds to the old-fashioned ideals, one may 
be fairly sure that the younger generation will be so imbued 
with the newer ideas in the schools that it will throw over- 
board the antiquated institution of the family along with a 
lot of other things. 

Naturally, the Communistic government is perfectly aware 
of the results of these marriage laws, and it has therefore de- 
voted special attention to the protection of the mothers, and 
has made provision for the most comprehensive assistance for 
the woman who has done her duty to the state. At the 
beginning of the sixth month of pregnancy (which must be 
certified to by a physician) the expectant mother has a right 
to partake of the privileges arranged for by the state. She is 
released from any municipal labor, and if she has any per- 
manent position, she is allowed a leave of six months with full 
salary; the law does not permit the diminution of these 
privileges in any way whatsoever, although they may be ex- 
tended through the recommendation of the division of the 
Health Department having charge of this particular branch of 
social welfare. When the time of the accouchement arrives, 
whether it occurs in a hospital or in a private house, medical 
attendance as well as nursing is provided free, and when there 
are already several small children, a servant is provided for 
several months, also free of charge. If the confinement is 
especially difficult or complicated, an additional leave of three 
months may be requested, and will be promptly accorded. 

Attention is given to the nourishment of the mother and 
care is taken that the food is abundant and good. Besides 
the original donation of food and money, a card will be 
granted which allows for additional food over a considerable 
period of time; the new little citizen will also receive a card 
(infant's card) which will take all care from the mother's 
shoulders. Linen and clothing will be furnished to the child 
as it grows ; in fact the mother enjoys the most unusual favors 
whether she belongs to the ranks of the proletariat or to the 
class which bears the sign of the counter-revolution em- 
blazoned on its forehead, and which is noted on the black 
lists of the secret police. If the mother again resumes her 
work after the expiration of her leave, she is still released 
from the necessity of doing any municipal work for the period 
of two years, and moreover, she can give up her employment 
entirely until the child is six years of age through the excuse 
of her new occupation, that of housekeeper. A child under 
six years in a sense is counted as four adults, for without a 
child under six, a woman is not considered a "housekeeper" 
unless she has five children to provide for, and only such a 
one can be released from the labor requirements. 

In this manner, the Communistic state respects and provides 
for maternity, and in this effective way it endeavors to com- 
bat the threatening results of its form of marriage laws. The 
mother receives consideration on the part of all officials, 
favors are granted to her on all sides and she always may find 
a generous supporter in the administrative branch of the 
Health Department which is concerned with this question. 

The Communists are not unjustifiably proud of their 
"Mutterschutz" (this provision for mothers) for no capital- 
istic state has handled the question of the mothers so gener- 
ously, nor has any social welfare agency of the world solved 
the problem so broadly and so thoroughly. 




Industrial Hygiene 

WITHIN the past few years there has been a marked 
increase in interest in the hygienic and medical prob- 
lems of American industry. There has developed a 
demand for more scientific data in regard to the effects of 
industry on health and the corresponding effects of morbidity 
on industry. This demand for more detailed and reliable data 
has resulted in a reexamination of existing information and 
generally accepted hypotheses. Perhaps nothing more clearly 
indicates this newly felt need for the study of industrial 
hygiene and the efforts that are being made to meet it than 
a series of pamphlets and reprints that have recently come to 
hand. 1 All students of morbidity will recognize these as an 
indication of the present trend to build up detailed knowledge 
of specific health hazards in certain industrial processes. In 
limited fields they fill serious gaps in our scientific informa- 

More than this the pamphlets indicate that progress is be- 
ing made in the development of a science. They form a part 
of the gradually increasing mass of scientific material that is 
being gathered. 

As the knowledge of industrial hygienists and industrial 
physicians has increased, employes and employers have changed 
their attitude toward the subject. They have come to feel 
that the new science can be of marked service to them. The 
feeling that industrial investigations are either an impertinence 
or an intrusion has largely disappeared. Requests for these 
studies are coming from' the industry itself and from groups 
of employes. The study on which the monograph on lead 
poisoning was based was undertaken at the request of the 
Brotherhood of Operative Potters and had the full coopera- 
tion of most of the employers in the industry. Dr. Hoffman 
in his paper read before the glass division of the American 
Ceramic Society, suggests that the industry undertake a de- 
tailed analysis of its health hazards. The study of tuber- 
culosis in a factory had the help of the employers. The 
monographs on morbidity are based on plant records and the 
experience of certain plant benefit associations that are usually 
not available to the public. 

This new cooperation has come from the appreciation of 
the mutual responsibility for industrial conditions and the 
realization of the possibility of solving many of the evils 
through working together. This attitude is responsible for a 
change of approach on the part of investigators. The cock- 
sureness, the desire to make a case or to prove a point are dis- 
appearing. A new attitude is being adopted, one that is 
essentially scientific. The facts are to an increasing extent 
allowed to speak for themselves; conclusions wh«n drawn are 
less sweeping; there is a willingness to admit the influence of 
auxiliary factors which cannot be definitely measured. 

The monograph on lead poisoning is a good example of 
this. Many correlations between age, sex, length of time in 
the industry and working conditions are successfully worked 
out but occasionally one finds the admission that the facts 
available do not permit the drawing of a conclusion. The 

K l T bad poisoning in THE pottery trades. By Bernard J. Newman William 

J. McConnell, Octavius M. Spencer, and Frank M. Phillips of the United 
i States Public Health Service. 

The incidence of tuberculosis among polishers and grinders in an axe 
factory. By \V. Herbert Drury, M. LX 

Sickness frequency among industrial employes. 

A study of the dust hazard in the wet and dry grindinc shops op an 
axe factory By C.-E. A. Winslow, professor of public health of the Yale 
School of Medicine, and Leonard Greenburg of the United States Public 
IT nlth Service. All of the foregoing reprints of the U. S. Public Health 

The mortality from respiratory diseases in the glass industry. By 
Frederick L. Hoffman, statistician of the Prudential Life Insurance Com- 

article by Winslow & Greenburg furnishes another » 
of this increasingly scientific approach. Here the autl 
examine the current, generally accepted premise that g 
with wheels running in water, oil or some other prope 
adequately reduces the amount of dust and removes the con- 
sequent danger. This critical attitude toward generalizations 
is a forward step and one that will lead to important and help- 
ful differentiations. 

In no field is there perhaps greater need for definite infor- 
mation than in the field of morbidity. Though there has been 
but little reliable data on the amount of sickness, yet this 
dearth of material has not hindered social workers and others 
in the past from suggesting plans for meeting the community 
sickness problem and supporting them with detailed briefs. 
Recent discussion of proposed sickness insurance legislation 
brought forward widely varying estimates of cost. These dis- 
crepancies were due primarily to this dearth of adequate data, 
but also to a desire to prove a case. In these studies of the 
Public Health Service, however, the facts are presented as 
found, without any attempt to draw conclusions. This is a 
substitution of scientific for deductive reasoning. 

Important as these publications are in indicating the newer 
methods in industrial hygiene investigation and in showing 
that industrial hygiene is establishing itself, they are also of 
interest because of the mass of exceedingly valuable data they 
present. This will prove of primary interest to specialists in 
industrial problems and will also be very helpful to social 
workers. The morbidity study reports the experience of sick 
benefit associations of the employes of twenty-nine plants dur- 
ing the first half of 1920. They present an analysis of the 
illness causing disability for more than one week and not com- 
pensatable under the workmen's compensation acts. This is 
the first of a series of publications of Industrial Morbidity 
Statistics that are to be published by the United States Public 
Health Service. They are the result of a recommendation by 
a committee of the Public Health Association made some years 
ago. At that time the plan for such a study was presented 
together with suggested standard forms and classifications. 
The annual frequency or case rate by months (i. e. the num- 
ber of cases that would occur in a year among one thousand 
persons if the rate at which new cases occurred during the 
month should continue throughout the year) was January 
267, February 324, March 133, April 111, May 94, June 82. 
These indicate an expected seasonal fluctuation but are natur- 
ally affected by the influenza epidemic during the period of 
the study. The pamphlet gives detailed analyses of the in- 
cidence of specific diseases. 

The studies of the tuberculosis mortality among polishers 
and grinders in an axe factory indicate an exceedingly high 
death rate when compared with the rates for other employes 
and for the general populations of various towns in the 
vicinity. Polishing is a grinding process in which the axe- 
heads are held against a wheel of soft natural sandstone run- 
ning in water. The authors find that this process instead of 
being a dustless and innocuous one, as is usually supposed, 
may be a dusty and exceedingly dangerous one. While they 
do not doubt the efficacy of the principle of using moisture to 
eliminate industrial dust, they emphasize that the efficacy of 
a plan of this sort must be checked up by laboratory tests in 
order to determine its real effectiveness. 

"Lead Poisoning in the Pottery Trade" is based on the 
inspection of ninety-two potteries in four states and the results 
of the medical examination of a large percentage of the em- 
ployes subject to lead poisoning hazard. The distribution of 
lead poisoning by occupation in the pottery and by the amount 

' I 



of soluble lead used in various glazes is shown. The hygienic 
conditions found and the personal habits of workers as factors 
fostering plumbism, are brought out. The authors state they 
"are not wiling to say that one contributes more toward the 
incidence of lead poisoning than does the other. The recom- 
mendations affect both employe and employer." The results 
.ch instance checked with the previous studies of 
^egge, Hamilton, Thompson and Hayhurst and 
pt made to account for the difference in the findings. 
1 interest to the general reader is the emphasis 
it on adequate service activities for employes — cen- 
i oyment machinery, periodic medical examinations, 
adequate toilet, washroom and lunchroom facilities, education 
of workers in the dangers of their occupation. The thorough- 
ness and scope of the study is enlightening and indicates the 
possibility of applying the same methods to other fields. 

This summary, inadequate as it necessarily is, indicates the 
interest and uniformly high character of these monographs. 
They bring out, as has been suggested, the progress in method- 
ology and approach in industrial hygiene. To the person in- 
terested in the progress of community health, there is another 
point of special interest in these pamphlets. They indicate 
the value of medical examination in industry. That this can 
be done with the full cooperation and support of employes is 
shown by the study of lead poisoning as well as the experience 
in Framingham and the study of the granite industry by a 
committee of the National Tuberculosis Association. If these 
efforts and studies in industrial hygiene can bring about a. gen- 
eral and regular medical examination much good will be ac- 
complished and the basis for scientific data strengthened. 
Assistant Secretary, Alexander Fleisher. 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 

The Nurse in Oklahoma 

EVEN under normal conditions in well established com- 
munities the fight for better health is accomplished by no 
end of obstacles and handicaps. In the baby state of Oklahoma 
where the health problems of an old state had to be met by 
the machinery of a new state, where communities sprang up 
over night and people flocked from all parts of the country to 
share the state's riches, these problems and difficulties were 
numerous and constant. 

It was not difficult to recognize that if an organization 
intended to maintain a staff of efficient and contented workers 
special measures would have to be taken to retain their in- 
terest under such conditions. Added to this was the war 
crisis when every available nurse was mustered into govern- 
ment service and the demand for public health nurses became 
so unprecedented. The association was paying its nurses an 
average salary and could not compete with other organiza- 
tions who in their desire to obtain workers offered hitherto 
unheard of salaries. 

A plan for conducting nurses' institutes or conferences was 
decided upon, whereby all nurses employed by the state and 
its local associations met in Oklahoma City three or four 
times each year at the expense of the state association. It 
was felt that certain local associations might not see the wis- 
dom of such meetings or could not afford to send their nurses 
because of lack of funds, and since the primary purpose of 
these institutes was to take the nurse out of her own com- 
munity where she met with discouragements and indifference 
and have her meet with co-workers similarly situated, the 
state association decided to pay the expenses of all the nurses 
and make attendance mandatory. It was simply the appli- 
cation of the adage "misery likes company." This move 
was in reality the most strategic yet attempted by the asso- 
ciation, and proved to be a most profitable investment in 
reducing the nursing turnover. During the years when 
nurses were so scarce it meant the successful continuance of 
the work wherever the system was established. Six nurses 
gathered to attend the first institute in the summer of 191 8 

in a small private office; forty nurses convened in the com- 
munity house auditorium at the institute last spring. 

Obviously when these groups of nurses met in Oklahoma 
City for a period of two days they were desirous of something 
more than the pleasure of each other's companionship. They 
were happy to meet fresh faces, make new acquaintances, talk 
about mutual friends, but these women were well-trained 
nurses and wanted to take advantage of this opportunity to 
acquire more knowledge, learn new ideas and profit intel- 
lectually. To satisfy these latter cravings which were defi- 
nitely anticipated in advance of the meeting, an informal pro- 
gram was prepared which was entered into most heartily by 
the nurses. At first the matter of records, uniforms and 
questions of general interest were discussed. Later as the 
institutes grew in size as well as importance particular at- 
tention was paid to local health programs, dispensary proced- 
ure, school nursing demonstrations, child welfare conferences 
and the like. In order to give the nurses a part in the selec- 
tion of the program and also provide them with an oppor- 
tunity to meet outside of their official connection with the 
association, they were encouraged to organize among them- 
selves, and the Oklahoma State Public Health Nurses As- 
sociation was the result. One half day at each institute is 
given over to this nurses' organization. 

One other significant advantage derived from these in- 
stitutes has been the uniting in spirit and interest of the pub- 
lic health nurses employed by organizations not affiliated with 
the state public health association. In Oklahoma, as in other 
states, school boards, Red Cross chapters and other voluntary 
organizations support public health nurses. These agencies 
have very wisely accepted the invitation of the state asso- 
ciation to send their nurses to the institutes, the expense to 
be borne by their respective organizations. As a result the 
public health nursing profession in Oklahoma has developed 
into an harmonious whole that is invaluable to the future de- 
velopment of the public health movement in the state. 

General Secretary, Jules Schevitz. 

Oklahoma Public Health Association. 

Nutrition Work in the Schools 

AT the present time there is an unparalleled popular in- 
terest in the nutrition of children. Although nutrition 
authorities for a long time have realized that if the next 
generation is to have better health than the present gene- 
ration, attention must be centered upon the nutrition of the 
child, the public for the most part has been indifferent. An im- 
portant change has come. 

The statement made by the medical examiners regarding 
the physicial defects found in the men seeking admission to 
the army received a wide circulation and undoubtedly was a 
startling revelation to many readers. The Child Health Or- 
ganization and its affiliation with the Federal Bureau of Edu- 
cation has been a potent factor in stimulating public interest 
and energizing health activities in the schools of the country. 
The wider interpretation which the American Red Cross has 
given to its peace-time program 1 has resulted in the establish- 
ment of many health centers whose interest is being felt. The 
parent-teacher associations and mothers' clubs form a channel 
through which much health information has been disseminated, 
as the members of these clubs have been most receptive to the 
new movements for the better nutrition of children. The 
parent-teacher associations and mothers' clubs are found chief- 
ly in the cities and villages, yet the rural sections have not 
been without a source of inspiration for in most counties there 
is found a home bureau agent. 

An additional explanation of the widespread interest in the 
nutrition of children is to be found in another and unsuspected 
quarter. The results of a great deal of modern research in 
the nutritive value of foods has been expressed in simple lan- 
guage, in terms of their effect on body weight. Formerly, 
reports on food values that were issued from the research 



laboratory were expressed in chemical terms and only those 
persons who had been trained in chemistry could interpret 
them. Most readers ignored the journals of chemistry. Dur- 
ing the past few years research has taken a different turn. 
Partly because most foods have been analyzed in the chemis- 
try laboratory and partly because there has been a growing 
conviction that the nutritive value of a food is not fully 
known until its effect on a living organism has been studied, 
much modern research has been devoted to the study of the 
biological effect of different foods and especially to their effect 
on the rate of growth. Our newer knowledge may be ex- 
pressed in simple language. Persons who have not studied 
chemistry may read and understand. 

From various sources then has sprung an awakening to the 
importance of nutrition. This general interest at present, 
however, is somewhat inarticulate and is earnestly seeking ex- 
pression. Many organizations and many leaders of thought 
are trying to give it expression and are attempting to shape 
policies of action wisely. Two convictions seem to be emerg- 
ing: one is that the movement calls for well-trained workers; 
the other is that the movement must be conducted along edu- 
cational lines if it is to have an abiding value. 

Nowhere does one find the recommendation made that 
social agencies should provide the right kind and amount of 
food for the undernourished child until he attains normal 
weight. On the other hand the policy recommended by the 
most competent leaders is that the child and the parent be 
taught what the nutritive requirements for normal growth 
are and that devices be created for making that teaching 
effective. For the school child at least it would seem as if 
the school were the logical place in which to teach him the 
facts regarding his food requirement. Though this seems 
obvious the schools in the past have not provided adequate 
instruction in nutrition. Improvements however are already 
in sight. In New York state, the state Department of Edu- 
cation is formulating a new syllabus on health education in 
which will be included simple definite lessons on food require- 
ments. In the earlier years the instruction will be given in a 
very concrete manner and the goal will be the establishment 
of good eating habits. 

More than the typical classroom instruction is needed. If 
the children are to acquire good food habits they must be 
taught to like the foods that are essential for growth. The 
mid-morning feeding of milk at school has been the means of 
teaching many children to like milk who formerly refused to 
drink it. Moreover it is a very common occurrence to find 
children who do not eat cereals and who dislike many vege- 
tables. Their food education is not complete until they have 
been taught to like these essential foods. The school lunch 
room has been, incidentally, a means of accomplishing much 
in this respect but this teaching must not be incidental ; it 
must be incorporated into the regular classdoom instruction. 
When the young children are having their lessons on cereals 
they ought to have an opportunity in school to learn to like 
cereals. Once or twice a year the young children could have 
at school a "breakfast party" at which they would learn the 
taste and the "feel" of an adequate breakfast. This is a new 
though legitimate part of food education, and may be in- 
augurated wherever there is a domestic science class. The 
use of vegetables should be taught also. 

The schools then through their educational program may 
become a powerful agency for the prevention of malnutrition. 
They may also become effective instruments for the correction 
of malnutrition. With the services of the school medical 
inspector, the school nurse, the oral hygienist, the physical 
trainer and the nutrition specialist, the schools are in a posi- 
tion to give to the undernourished children who do not re- 
spond to the classroom instruction the special attention which 
they need. Since various physical conditions may be respon- 
sible directly or indirectly for malnutrition, the undernour- 
ished child should be given a thorough medical examination 
by a competent physician and every attempt should be made to 
have his physical defects corrected. The cooperation of both 

child and parent is essential. Probably the best device for 
securing this cooperation is the "nutrition class." The "nutri- 
tion class" method is so new, however, that it has not been 
adopted on an extensive scale by many school systems. Some 
school superintendents are trying it as an experiment in one 
or two of their schools: other superintendents are waitir 
watching. One must not be surprised to find in thi 
activity that the school superintendents are making 
slowly. The school superintendent is essentially an ac 
trative officer and not a nutritional expert. Moreovi 
movement is only one of many which are seeking adnioa.un 
to the schools, and for the success of each, if admitted, he 
will be held responsible. Since the superintendent knows that 
the public neither tolerates mistakes in its schools nor regards 
its schools as experiment stations, he is reluctant to sanction 
the introduction of a new movement in his schools until its 
need and value have been conclusively demonstrated or until 
the public demands it. 

In nutrition work, therefore, we are in a stage of develop- 
ment in which private organizations can be the greatest pos- 
sible assistance. We need demonstrations in every community 
of the value of corrective measures in malnutrition. The pub- 
lic must be made aware of the prevalence of malnutrition 
among all classes of children and must be made to see that it 
is possible to bring most undernourished children up to a 
state of normal nutrition. When the public is willing to sup- 
port this movement its development in the schools will be 
rapid. Mary G. McCormick. 

Supervisor of Nutrition of School Children, 
New York State Department of Education. 

Public Health Administration 

AN analysis of the 1920 Directory of State and Insular 
Health Authorities, issued by the United States Public 
Health Service, brings out a number of interesting facts con- 
cerning state health administration in this country. Statis- 
tics are given for fifty-three states and territories. 

The average per capita appropriation of all states and ter- 
ritories (excluding Hawaii) is $.14, according to these statis- 
tics. This is the same as for 19 19, but two cents more than 
in 191 8. Pennsylvania leads with an expenditure of $.61 per 
capita, then comes the Di?trict of Columbia with $.48, Idaho 
with $.46, Massachusetts with $.39, Vermont with $.20, 
and California with $.18. New York spends only $.09 per 
capita. The smallest amounts spent by state health authori- 
ties are in Missouri with $.015 and North Dakota with $.017 
per capita. Iowa had only $.02 and Oregon only $.022. 
Tennessee, West Virginia, and New Mexico are allotted 
only a little more than three cents per capita for their state 
health departments. Forty states spend less than the average. 
It should, of course, be remembered that these figures do not 
represent the total amount spent on public health work in the 
state, but only that allowed to the state health department. 
The money expended by municipalities and private agencies 
is not included. 

The average number of members of state boards of health 
is about 6. The largest number is in Georgia with 15, 
next Virginia and Mississippi with 12, Alabama with 11, 
and Colorado, Kansas and South Carolina with 10 each. 
Four states, Illinois, Nebraska, Idaho and Oklahoma, and 
the District of Columbia have no boards. In Idaho and Ne- 
braska the bureau of health is under the state Department of 
Public Welfare. In 16 states the board is composed entirely 
of physicians. In two states an osteopath is a member. En- 
gineers are members in 12 instances, dentists in 4, lawyers 
in 4, veterinary surgeons in 3, and pharmacists in 3. The 
governor is ex-officio a member of the board of health in 6 
states, and the attorney-general in 4. There are 4 women 
members, 2 of whom serve as president. The best balanced 
board so far as the professional qualifications of its members 
are concerned, is in Connecticut. Of the 6 members of the 
public health council, 2 are physicians, 2 are sanitary en- 



gineers, I is a lawyer, and I a professor of public health. 
In 7 states the board is called the public health council. In 
2 other instances it is the advisory board. 

Every state and territory has an executive health official. 
Of the S3, eleven are on a part time basis, however. The 
oner is a member of the Board of Health in 25 in- 
There are two non-medical commissioners, in Dela- 
[ Idaho. According to a table given by Dr. John A. 
t an article in the July, 1920, issue of the American 
of Public Health, the highest salary paid is in Penn- 
sylvania, $10,000; next is New York with $8,000, then Mas- 
sachusetts with $7,500. Illinois, Ohio and Wisconsin pay 
$6,000 each. The special health commissioner of Delaware 
receives $6,500 from a private agency. The lowest salary is 
in Arizona, which pays the state health commissioner only 
$1,000 a year. North Dakota and Kentucky pay only $1,200 
and Colorado and South Dakota only $2,000. The average 
paid in 45 states is $3,864. Nineteen of these states pay less 
than the average. 

Laboratories are maintained in 39 of the states and terri- 
tories; bureaus of vital statistics and sanitary engineering are 
each maintained in 34, bureaus of venereal disease in 30, 
bureaus of communicable disease in 18, bureaus of child hy- 
giene in 17, of public health nursing and food and drugs 
each in 15, of tuberculosis in 14, and rural sanitation in 12. 
There are 11 bureaus of health education. Other functions 
are scattering. It is a notable fact that of 401 persons who 
are in executive positions in various bureaus of state health 
departments, 216 or about 54 per cent are physicians and 185, 
or about 46 per cent do not possess a medical degree. Monthly 
bulletins are issued in 18 instances and 10 quarterly bulletins 
are published — 15 issue annual and 18 biennial reports. 

While this analysis by no means permits a conclusive in- 
ference as to the status of state health administration in 1920, 
a number of points stand out. The states as a whole do not 
spend enough money on state public health work. The mod- 
ern tendency among progressive states is to replace the old 
unwieldly state board of health with an advisory health 
council. Nearly 21 per cent of our state health officers are 
part time officials. The salaries of commissioners are in gen- 
eral inadequate. About one-third of the states do not have 
any bureaus covering vital statistics, sanitary engineering, 
state laboratories, or venereal diseases. About two-thirds do 
not have bureaus to administer in the fields of tuberculosis, 
rural sanitation, child welfare, food and drugs and public 
health nursing. Four-fifths have no bureaus of education. 
There are about as many laymen in state health work as 
there are physicians. James A. Tobey. 

Washington, D. C. 

Infant Welfare Work in Greece 

ONE of the most conspicuously successful infant welfare 
stations in all Europe is that established by the American 
Red Cross in Athens, which now has more than six hundred 
babies enrolled. 

Need for such work was great. The death rate among 
infants in Athens was high, owing to the poverty and ig- 
norance of the people, and the conditions under which they 
live. There is no housing law. The houses have no floors, 
the ceiling and walls are not sealed, and frequently there are 
no windows. Most of the families live in one room. Water 
is carried in jugs and oil cans from taps on the street, and 
almost none of the houses have sewer connections. 

Moreover Greek mothers of the lower class have not the 
faintest notion of modern methods of infant care. Their 
methods and ideas have been handed down to them through 
generations, and these old erroneous ideas are difficult to 

Early in 191 9, the American Red Cross opened its child 
welfare clinic, and in July of that year turned it over to 

the Patriotic League of Greece with the promise that one 
American nurse would be supplied to aid in the direction of 
its activities. By March, 1921, the number of babies en- 
rolled had grown to 474. In her report for the preceding 
month, Charlotte Heilman, the director, said: 

We see daily evidence that the work is taking deeper root, 
and is being appreciated by the mothers. For instance, on one 
cold and stormy morning six mothers whose babies receive 
no milk from the station and who live one hour distant, came 
to tell us that their babies were quite well, but that they were 
afraid to bring them out in the cold that morning. 

We observe a marked difference in the cooperation of mothers 
who are bringing their second babies to the conferences; they 
are so much more responsive and eager to learn. Furthermore 
we often hear them talking to new mothers and explaining 
how they should care for their babies. 

The volunteers are expected to give at least one-half day 
a week to home visiting, and attend the conference once a 
week. At the conference one volunteer takes the desk, re- 
ceives the mothers as they arrive, dates the cards, and sends 
the babies to the weighing room. » She gives milk to the moth- 
ers as indicated on the babies' cards, keeps the records and 
makes out requisitions for weekly supplies. Another volunteer 
assists the doctor and sees that the mothers understand his 
advice. Two volunteers are in charge of the weighing room, 
where the babies are weighed and their conditions noted. 
The volunteers who visit the homes are instructed to make 
inquiries concerning living conditions, sleeping arrangements, 
the general health of the family, to give instructions as to 
the care of the baby, and to see that all children of school 
age are attending school. 

Only babies of three months or younger are accepted as 
clients. No milk is given until ordered by the doctor, gene- 
rally about the sixth month. In this way it is hoped the 
mothers will form the habit of coming without receiving milk 
and begin to see that it is worth while to come for advice 

In June of this year the station was transferred from the 
Patriotic League to the Ministry of Public Assistance. Mrs. 
Heilman says in her report: 

We are to have new quarters and it seems certain that the 
world will be put on a permanent basis. Our allowance of 
milk has been increased from 50 to 60 cases a month, and we 
have been given a fund from which we can buy goat's milk 
for the babies under six months old, and fruit for all the arti- 
ficially fed babies whose mothers cannot afford it. 

The minister is a very intelligent, wide awake man, and he 
now has a bill before Parliament which he believes will pass 
without any doubt, and which will enable him to create a 
child welfare department. He is eager to start the infant 
welfare work all over Greece, beginning of course in places 
where stations were established by the Red Cross. 

The committee is working much better and is taking much 
more responsibility. The chairman comes to the station prac- 
tically every day. We are having weekly committee meetings, 
to which the volunteers bring their difficult cases for discussion 
and advice. We are trying through these meetings, to interest 
the volunteers in treating the family as a unit, and in doing 
all they can to build up the health and morale of every mem- 
ber of the family. Sick or ailing members are sent to hospitals 
or clinics, and are followed up afterwards. Financial assistance 
is obtained, very often, for families in which the bread earner 
is ill. Work is found in many cases for the unemployed. Chil- 
dren who are out of school for want of clothing, or for other 
reasons, are assisted as may seem necessary. In this way our 
true worth is demonstrated to the families, who are beginning 
to rely upon us as friends, who not only tell them what to do, 
but who help them to do it. 

The creation of a child welfare department under the 
Ministry of Public Assistance, if the bill of which Mrs. Heil 
man speaks goes through, will be a long step forward in the 
improvement of Greek public health methods. Its value for 
the health and welfare of Greek children, on whom the future 
of Greece rests, is incalculable. And it will, incidentally, 
be a permanent memorial to the work of the American Red 
Cross nurses whose initiative and persistence convinced the 
Greek Government of its worth. Walter R. Brooks. 




Conducted by 

Decentralization in Education 

WHEN the last Congress came to an end, on March 
4, the Smith-Towner bill for the centralization of 
American education in a national department died 
also. Since then the development of that movement has be- 
come seriously confused; first, by reason of the efforts of 
those who oppose any such program, and second, through 
the work of those who favored the proposed department of 
public welfare, of which a division of education was to have 
been one of the coordinate parts. The struggle between these 
two groups seems to have been sufficient to kill off whatever 
interest the public may once have had in the matter. 

Meanwhile, movements in the opposite direction are be- 
ing supported in some quarters. A decentralizing program 
in education would probably be fought by most educators, 
today. The whole drift of American social life, including 
our economic, civic and educational programs, is toward the 
center. Sheer inertia is carrying us in that direction. Such 
drift is not predominantly in the direction usually called 
'American." As a matter of fact, "drift" and "American" 
were antithetic, once upon a time. The people who left 
Europe and came as pioneers to America came because they 
| refused to "drift with the currents" of public opinion in their 
homelands. They gave up "drifting." They made "choice" 
of new ways of living. They came to America where they 
could live the life of their "choice." And it took more than 
drifting to carry that new program through. Now that 
America seems to have arrived, may we safely give over all 
further choosing, and consign our institutional and personal 
living to the benignant influences of "drift"? Some Ameri- 
cans believe such a program utterly unwise. 

In Wisconsin, where, for a number of years, the demo- 
cratic movement has been looked upon not as a "drift" that 
would inevitably come out all right, but as a great social 
task to be achieved by the cooperative intelligences and wills 
of the people, a new educational experiment is slowly emerg- 
ing into the imagination and purpose of the educational lead- 
ers. This experiment contemplates "a decentralized educa- 
tional system" which will not, however, result in the mere 
fracturing and breaking up, or down, of the present system ; 
rather it is proposed to secure "unity of purpose and pro- 
gram" though "state-wide cooperation" of decentralized units, 
instead of, as has been so largely the case everywhere in the 
past, through the machinery of a state system centralized at 
the capitol. Just what this Wisconsin program will turn 
out to be has not yet been made public, if, indeed, those who 
have it in charge are as yet themselves fully sure of their 
grounds. But the undercurrents of such a tendency are to 
be found in many parts of the country; there are those 
everywhere who still feel that local interest is truly Ameri- 
can; and the following ripples selected from all these un- 
dercurrents will help the public to get some understanding 
|Df the direction of the main stream. 

Decentralization as a mere drift would mean the break- 
ng down of all large programs; and such a movement would 
>e highly undesirable. But decentralization as a deliberate 
iind constructive program of educational progress would, if 
iuch a thing were possible, be a very different sort of move- 
nent. It would mean the giving up of the un-American 
loctrine that all wisdom resides at the center, at the capitol ; 
t would turn back the control of local educational enter- 
irises to the people most definitely concerned, the people of 
he local communities of the state; it would enlist the in- 
erest, the imagination and the will of the people of the-. 

local communities; and it would make education seem 
more a thing of the people, by the people and for the 
pie. At the same time, by the policy of "state-wide co- 
operation" all the gains of any particular locality would be 
made immediately available for use in any other community 
where such developments could be wisely used. And the 
state department of education would be continuously engag- 
ed, not in laying down rules and regulations for local com- 
munities to follow at the peril of losing their state aid if 
they disobeyed, but in stimulating the local self-respect, the 
local intelligence and the local will and purpose. 

Of course, such a program will be long and slow and irri- 
tating, even maddening; but it will have some advantages. 
It will be fundamental : sooner or later, every slow com- 
munity in the nation will have to pull itself out of its sloth 
and get into the movement. The state can pull its ears and 
thump its head ; but it cannot arbitrarily order the communi- 
ty to "have brains"; it cannot go off and leave the com- 
munity to its own devices; it cannot carry the community 
around on a "state-wide development" ; and it dare not man- 
handle the community in Prussian fashion, if it hopes to 
escape the Prussian outcome. No; each community must b> 
gin where it is and go on, intrinsically, to something better, 
if democracy is to live. 

And this gives us the clue as to the limits of the decen- 
tralizing movement. If a state is to decentralize its educa- 
tional program, just how far from the center should the 
movement extend ? Where shall the centrifugal movement 
cease? The tentative answer is clear: The foundations of 
a decentralized educational system will be the various local 
communities of the state. But what is a "local community" ? 
Here the answer is not so definite ; but something approach- 
ing a standard can be given. A community will be such a 
natural grouping of people within the total area of the state 
as will provide sufficient numbers to give social and industrial 
variety and some degree of corporate self-assurance and self- 
respect. That is to say, for educational purposes a community 
must have the sense both of an essential unity and of an 
actual variety in both persons and activities sufficient to hold 
the interest of its members. The task of defining corporately 
such local communities will be very great. Originally, Ameri- 
can "towns" were largely defined arbitrarily on the basis of 
"townships." But all through the Middle West the move- 
ment toward the consolidation of schools is going forward on 
lines that recognize, more or less satisfactorily, the natural 
limits of an "educational community." The problem of the 
"community" is not insoluble; though we shall learn that 
there is a difference between a school community and an 
educational community. 

But what is to be gained by this return from the state 
system, centered at the capitol, to the older system decentered 
in the local communities? We have already seen some of 
the desirable results that are being sought. But one more, 
the largest and most desirable, remains to be discussed. This 
larger possibility will provide for our escape from mere school- 
ing into real education ; and that seems to be what the world 
wants, today, more than anything else. We are tired of 
schooling; we want education. The only way we shall ever 
be able to get education is by getting back to the institution 
that can provide it ; that is, the community. Our schools give 
schooling. Schooling may or may not have real significance 
for the life and work of the world. Some schools approach, 
in some measure, what may be called an education. Others 



merely "finish" their pupils — for time and eternity. But a 

community educates. Not always wisely, desirably, because 

we have devoted little attention to making it an instrument 

for wise and desirable education ; but, whether wisely or not, 

ways educates thoroughly. And, presumably, with proper 

ghtfulness as to its performances, what it does so thor- 

ily it might do wisely as well. 

he school is belated ; though the many experiments under 
name of "new schools" indicate that efforts are being 
uaue to help the school catch up. It what respects is it be- 
lated? Consider what the average small American com- 
munity was, as an educational institution, twenty-five years 
ago. Consider what has happened to that community as the 
result of the many new developments of the past twenty-five 
years. Farming has become a scientific and engineering vo- 
cation in that time. Rural mail delivery and the telephone 
have united the small community with the world of informa- 
tion and events. And the automobile has made the remote 
resident a participant in the activities of the larger centers. 
Any one can see that such transformations have profoundly 
modified the character of the older small neighborhood ; hence, 
they have modified the education provided by the community; 
and they have more fundamentally modified the kind of edu- 
cation needed by the young people of today, as they face the 
world of work and civic interest. 

But has the school changed its character in like measure, 
to meet the changing conditions and demands? Not greatly. 
And this is the reason the school is so much under criticism 
today. The school is in a position to do very much better 
than ever before the sort of work that it did years ago. But 
the world no longer wants that sort of work. The changed 
world calls for a different sort of education. The changed 
community provides a different sort of background for that 
changed education, the sort of background made necessary 
by the changed world. But the school has stood stationary 
within the bounds of its institutional character ; or it has ac- 
cepted a few slight changes with misgivings and rebellion. 
"The old kind of education," it has said, "was good enough 
for George Washington and Daniel Webster, and it's good 
enough for this age." But that is, of course, pure intellectual- 
ism, pure scholasticism, pure medievalism. The school's real 
job is to do what needs to be done in the community, not 
stand upon its ancient rights or glories. 

And what needs to be done in the community? That can- 
not be told until the community has been thoroughly investi- 
gated. The nation needs some very thorough educational sur- 
veys ; not school surveys, but educational surveys. And a 
decentralized movement will have to build its new programs 
on the findings of educational surveys. This will call for 
investigation, by competent men and women, of the actual 
educational results now being achieved in particular com- 
munities by the current life and influences and activities of 
those communities, aside from the efforts of the schools. Such 
an investigation will call for a new, as yet largely non-existent, 
type of surveyor. What is the community doing for its chil- 
dren in the way of preparing them effectively for work, for 
civic interest and activity, for social responsibility, for voca- 
tion, for understanding of the community, for active, effec- 
tive, intelligent membership in the community and the na- 
tion? These desired outcomes cannot be turned, over to the 
school ; the community will not let the school handle them, 
and the school could not handle them, at present, if the com- 
munity should beg it to take them. There are some things 
that the school must do ; but no one can tell fully what those 
things are until he has found out what the community is do- 
ing; for the community was there before the school was; and 
the educational work of the community is more fundamental 
than the work of the school can ever hope to be. 

But the hope of ever getting away from the schooling of 
the schools to an education in the community with the help 

of the school waits upon the realization of the program of 
decentralization. When educational systems get back to the 
roots of experience in the common life of the community, 
educators will begin to face the real problems of education. 
What is the local community doing for the lives and voca- 
tional and moral destinies of its children? What is the 
school doing, now, to further, to hinder, to thwart or to cor- 
rect what the community by itself is doing? Can an educa- 
tional program be wrought out of community life and the 
work of the school, so organically interrelated that their 
net incidence upon the child's whole experience will be posi- 
tive, constructive, wholesome? Can the community, with the 
intelligent and positive help of the school, become an effective 
instrument for the education of the children of a democracy 
for the more democratic life of the future? 

Decentralization of our over-centralized state systems, bas- 
ing the decentralizing movement upon a through considera- 
tion of the educational resources and needs of the local com- 
munities and making the school an active complement of the 
community in every case, is the only means of answering this 
most important educational question. The developments in 
Wisconsin will be watched with interest. J. K. H. 

A Carnegie Library for Negroes 

ONE of the most recent results of the efforts of the Car- 
negie Corporation to encourage education through a 
universal system of public libraries is seen in the opening in 
Atlanta, Ga., of a library for the exclusive use of the Negro 
population. This library is situated in the heart of the most 
populous Negro territory and is a branch of the Carnegie 
Library of Atlanta. The influence of the Carnegie fund, 
utilized as in this instance, is far-reaching, for it marks an 
epoch in the community effort to create an environment for 
the Negro in the South which is prompted not by utilitarian 
motive but by ethical impulses. Schools, churches, even parks 
and playgrounds are provided for the Negroes of the South 
Atlantic states, but this is the first general library for the 
exclusive use of the race which has yet been founded south 
of Louisville, Ky. 

The education of the Negro in the South, by the people 
of the South, means much in the future development of that 
section of the country. The need for an educational center, 
such as a library typifies, has for years been recognized by 
the present librarian of the Atlanta Carnegie Library, Miss 
T. D. Barker, whose personal and tireless efforts have been 
largely esponsible for the oper ing of this so-called "Auburn 
Branch." Miss Barker says she has always felt a sort of self- 
reproach when Negro teachers, preachers, or other Negrc 
citizens have appealed to the main Carnegie Library for 
books of reference. These have never been refused, but 
southern customs have necessitated the applicant's being asked 
to sit in some cloak room, store room, or other unfrequentec 
place while using the books. When Miss Barker therefon 
obtained some years ago the sum of $25,000, donated to th< 
city of Atlanta by the Carnegie Corporation for a Negn 
library, to be made available on the usual Carnegie Corpo 
ration terms (the purchase of a lot and the guarantee o 
municipal support by the local community) she determine! 
that these terms should be faithfully carried out. The wa 
and the general financial depression formed immense ob 
stacles, the high cost of labor and building material seeme. 
at one time to be unsurmountable barriers, and the time limi 
set on the acceptance of the gift was September, 1920. I 
Atlanta had not accepted the donation at that date, by agre< 
ing to meet the terms, the gift would have reverted to th 
Carnegie Corporation. By the date fixed, however, not onl 
was the gift accepted and the terms complied with, bv 
an additional $25,000 had been secured — $ 10,000 from th 


■ ill . 



city of Atlanta, a like amount from the county of Fulton, 
of which Atlanta is the center, and the remaining $5,000 from 
the public-spirited citizens of Atlanta. 

The library itself is an ornament to the neighborhood in 
which it stands. The building is pure Colonial in architec- 
tural design and is fully equipped. Beneath the main library 
floor, which is divided into sections for reference, circula- 
tion, magazine, and children's departments, there is an au- 
ditorium with seating capacity for about 150, and accessible 
both from the street and from the main floor of the library. 
Thus it may be used for community purposes when the li- 
brary proper is not open. 

Special attention has been given to the selection of chil- 
dren's books. The children were recruited before the public 
schools closed for the summer, and some five hundred juvenile 
application cards were issued. The children already give 
promise of being among the most frequent and enthusiastic 

The staff consists of a head librarian and two assistants, 
one a woman and the other a young hoy, the two former 
having had library training. A janitor completes the present 
personnel. All are Negroes. The librarian has a wide 
acquaintance among her own people, a fact which may ob- 
viate hesitancy in using the library which might otherwise 

In her work for the Negro library Miss Barker has made 
a decided contribution to the improvement of the Negro race. 
She has furthered a more cordial understanding by the white 
people of the Negro's needs, possibilities, and ambitions. It 
is upon such understandings that the future solution of the 
race problem rests. Sara D. Halley. 

Labor Education in Germany 

SINCE the revolution in Germany some significant de- 
velopments in labor education have taken place about 
which, for one reason or another, little has been heard abroad. 
Various kinds of schools have been established by the Ger- 
man working-class to give its members opportunities for high- 
er education, in order to make them more valuable as leaders 
of the labor movement and to bring them into touch with 
the best literature and art of the world. In addition to these 
strictly working-class undertakings, there now exist numerous 
other schools which wage-earners may attend, established or 
maintained by municipal and state governments or by inde- 
pendent associations. 

The Social Democratic Party founded in Berlin, in 1890, 
its first party school for the training of socialist editors and 
party leaders, under the direction of Wilhelm Liebknecht. 
In the course of the thirty years of its existence this school 
has altered little in purpose or method. Every member of the 
Social Democratic Party, feeling a need for further educa- 
tion in the principles of socialism, in economics and the social 
sciences, has been eligible for membership, and the school 
has exercised a wide influence. In several other cities of 
Germany similar schools have been established by branches 
or affiliated groups of the Social Democratic Party. 

In the year 1906 there was formed from the existing Ber- 
lin Socialist Party School a higher school in which instruc- 
tion of a more advanced kind was given. To this institu- 
tion about thirty of the ablest younger members of the party 
from all over Germany were sent and the most distinguished 
Socialist leaders and thinkers gave courses of instruction. 
Grunwald, Rosa Luxemburg, Franz Meyring and others 
were members of the faculty. The school was closed, how- 
ever, in 191 4, at the outbreak of the war. 

After the split in the Social Democratic Party, in 191 6, 
each section carried on its own party school without any 
fundamental change in theory, although emphasizing the dif- 
ferences in political method which had divided the party. 


In the school of the Independent Socialist Party — the "U. 
S. P. D." — at Berlin there are offered at the present time 
the following courses of study i 

1. Fundamental problems of socialism. 

2. History of socialism and of the modern labor movement. 

3. Practical questions in the labor movement. 

4. Political economy, economic history, economic geography. 

5. History. 

6. Questions concerning the state and the constitution. 

7. Philosophy and art. 

8. Education and the woman question. 

9. Modern political problems. 

Each course consists, upon an average, of nine lectures 
followed by discussion. A small tuition fee is charged which 
does not cover the expenses of the school ; the balance is paid 
annually from the party treasury. Besides the regular school 
curricula educational committees of the two socialist parties 
arrange evening meetings for their members and friends in 
which the best music and literature are interpreted by noted 
artists. These entertainments are enthusiastically attended. 

In addition to these Socialist Party schools an entirely dif- 
ferent kind of school was established after the armistice to 
meet the needs of an important section of the working-class. 
It may be called the "shop-steward school" (Betriebsraete- 
schule). Following the war and the revolution, when the 
labor unions and the shop-stewards acquired considerably 
more power in the factories than they had ever had before, 
it became painfully obvious that many of these men were 
unfitted to deal with the difficult questions which arose and 
incompetent to meet the responsibilities of their new posi- 
tions. In order to remedy this situation a few of them, as- 
sisted by a number of sympathetic "intellectuals," founded 
a small school, devoted entirely to the needs of shop-stewards. 
The management of the school was at first entirely in the 
hands of a committee selected by the student-body. Some 
months later, however, when the shop-steward movement be- 
came recognized and regulated by law, the central or national 
committee of shop-stewards took over the school. This school 
is now maintained by the shop-steward organization. The 
students pay a small fee chiefly for the purpose of insuring 
their own interest in the work of the school, which was at 
first absolutely free; this has been found to materially in- 
crease the standard and seriousness of the work. 

The name of this school is somewhat misleading because 
not only shop-stewards but all members of the German free 
trade unions {Gewerkschaftsverband) are eligible for mem- 
bership. The school differs from the Socialist Party schools 
chiefly in that the aim of the latter is to prepare men for the 
work of socialist propaganda at the editorial desk and on the 
public platform, whereas the purpose of the former is pri- 
marily to provide the young worker with the necessary in- 
tellectual equipment to become a capable shop-steward. The 
instruction, therefore, deals primarily with the practical prob- 
lems of the daily task. The course of study for the present 
semester comprises: 



i. The economic situation of the world as created by the 
peace treaty. 

2. Minimum existence wage and how it is worked out 

3. The tendency toward large-scale industry. 

4. The shop-steward in a small factory. 

5. The national shop-stewards' law. 

6. Problems of value. 

7. How must the shop-steward read a balance? 

8. Legal and economic duties of shop-stewards. 

9. Industrial diseases and how to fight them. 
10. "Scientific management." (The Taylor System.) 

• 11. Development from coal to the machine. 

12. Tariffs. 

13. Economic psychology. 

There seems to be no German equivalent for the Workers' 
Educational Association of Great Britain which has done 
such excellent work for British labor in this field. There 
are, however, two educational foundations in Berlin, the 
Humboldt and Lessing high schools, founded privately about 
ten years ago by Prof. Bruno Wille and conducted with 
much success every winter. Courses of lectures, something 
like the famous Lowell lectures in Boston, are given in var- 
ious schools and public buildings throughout Berlin, on 
literature, philosophy, science, social history and legislation. 
Reduced rates are offered to wage-earners and students. 

Finally, there are three schools which, because of their dis- 
tinctive character, deserve a leading place in any survey of 
contemporary labor education. They are Dreissig-aker, near 
Meiningen, Schloss Tinz near Gera, in Thuringen, and the 
Academy of Labor, newly founded at Frankfurt am Main. 
The first two are boarding-schools, primarily for wage-earn- 
ers. The first, led by Prof. Karl Wilker, comprises about 
twenty-five students who live and work together upon a kind 
of farm. They pay a small tuition. The school at Schloss 
Tinz was founded in September, 1919, by the Socialist Gov- 
ernment of the state of Thuringia (Middle Germany). Fear- 
ing that the state government would be overthrown by a re- 
action the school was divorced from the government in 1920 
and was wisely provided with an independent endowment. 
Its curriculum is definitely socialist in character and the school 
comprises some fifty young men and women who come for 
terms of from three to five months, alternately. The co- 
education idea was abandoned at the outset as being imprac- 
ticable. It differs fundamentally in this respect, therefore, 
from the more idealistic and pacifistic experiment now being 
conducted with some measure of success at Brookwood School, 
near Katonah, N. Y. 

Most significant and interesting of all recent German ex- 
periments in this field is the Academy of Labor established on 
May 2 of this year at Frankfurt am Main. This institution 
aims to become a labor university. It was founded through 
cooperation with the Prussian government of the three great 
divisions of organized labor in Germany. The government 
has given the use of the library, rooms and equipment of the 
University of Frankfurt and agreed to pay the salaries of 
the faculty, who, for the present, are drawn chiefly from the 
university. The original feature of the experiment is that 
the trade unions pay not only for the books and the housing 
of the students, but also pay them the wages which they were 
receiving in their various trades before their appointment 
to the university. , Because the school was founded through 
the cooperation of the definitely Socialist Freie Gewerkschaf- 
ten (Free Trade Unions), the so-called "Christian" trade 
unions and the Hirsch-Duncker labor organizations, the last 
two of which are much more conservative, the Frankfurt 
Academy of Labor is not necessarily committed to the propa- 
gation of the Marxian theory of society or program of revo- 
lution. The school has opened with about one hundred 
students, who are all trade union officials. This is not to be 
a permanent arrangement, however. It was started in this 
way because of a fear that, if the beginning were not made 
last spring, the Prussian minister of finance, who happened 
to be a Social Democrat, and who had approved and co- 

operated with the foundation of the school, might change 
his mind before it got under way. The purpose of the found- 
ers, I have been assured, is not to limit the student-body to 
Gorman wage-earners alone. It is definitely hoped that French 
and Swiss working-men, who give promise of profiting by 
the opportunity of a higher education, may also be sent to 
the academy through the cooperation of French and Swiss 
trade unions, so that the school, if the hopes for it do not 
miscarry, will become an international labor university. It 
is planned to give a one year's course of university studies, 
with particular application to the history and needs of the 
labor movement. The estimated cost of maintaining a stu- 
dent, including his wages and additional support for his 
family, if he should have one, averages at present M. 15,000 
a year, which is about $800. This sum is nominally loaned 
to the student, but there is a tacit understanding that so long 
as he remains connected in any way with the trade union 
movement and gives to it the benefit of his education, the 
money will not be expected to be repaid. 

These several forward-looking and intelligent educational 
experiments in Germany, together with the firm and success- 
ful determination of large sections of the organized workers 
to resist both the despotic pretensions of a group of some- 
times arrogant reactionaries who have been unhorsed and 
will not admit it and the almost equally despotic threats of 
revolutionaries whose scruples do not forbid the use of vio- 
lence, give much ground for the high confidence with which 
many friends of democracy in Germany look to the future 
in spite of the confusion and discouragement of the present 
and of the undiscriminating truculence of the military mind 
west of the Rhine. Brent Dow Allinson. 

Training Visiting Teachers 

"T 7"ISITING teachers" have been heard of for several 

▼ years. A few of them have even been seen. Where 
they came from no one has ever known. Mostly, they have 
been self-made, undertaking work of a social nature on their 
own initiative. Like all self-made things, some of them have 
been very superficial and useless ; but some have been exceed- 
ingly helpful, laying the foundations of a new profession. 

But a new profession cannot get very far on a self-made 
basis. Training for the career of the visiting teacher has 
become a social necessity. Adequate provision for the in- 
auguration of such training has not existed, however. Some 
sort of special provision has been necessary. Such special 
provision is now guaranteed and the preliminary arrangements 
are being made. The work of training the first group of 
students for the profession of visiting teacher will begin in 
Philadelphia on October 10. The story is not without 

For a number of years [see the Survey for July 2, p. 457] 
the White-Williams Foundation of Philadelphia has been 
developing practical work in vocational counselling in the 
schools of that city. This work has been recognized and 
accepted by the public school system. The values of such 
work having been recognized, the need of trained workers foi 
similar positions has been faced. An appeal on the pari 
of the foundation to the Commonwealth Fund of New Yorl 
brought a grant of money sufficient to finance the beginning! 
of a definite training program along lines theoretically desir 
able for such workers. The preliminary developments an 
necessarily experimental, since no corresponding training worl 

This new development will be undertaken by the White 
Williams Foundation in cooperation with the Pennsylvani; 
School for Social Service, a Philadelphia institution of fou 
years' standing. The courses will include training in th 
theory and practice of social case work and in the socia 
interpretation of education. Virginia P. Robinson, directo 



of case-work training in the Pennsylvania School, will have 
charge of the courses in social case work. Edith Everett, who 
has been for some years a successful teacher and counsellor 
in the Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn, will have charge 
of the field work and practice details. 

The students will be teachers in service in the schools of 
Philadelphia. In order to make sure of an adequate number of 
desirable teachers for these classes, the White-Williams 
Foundation offered twenty-five scholarships to approved ap- 
plicants from the schools. The foundation hoped to secure 
fifteen or twenty applicants. About seventy-five applied for 
the work; and the quality of the student group is fully as- 
sured. The work will be of college grade and students desir- 
ing it will be given credit in the University of Pennsylvania 
upon the completion of the course. 

The work for this first year will be as thorough as possible, 
while being altogether experimental and tentative. Certain 
phases of the program appear well defined and clear. Other 
phases must await the actual conduct of the experiment. The 
whole undertaking, both in its practical plans and in its 
theoretical organization, while based on the experience of 
years in training social workers, on the one hand, and teachers, 
on the other, is imbued with the experimental spirit ; and no 
one will be more interested in the outcome of the year's work 
than the ones who are in charge of it. 

An Educational Program 

THE Teachers' Union of New York city has adopted a 
definite program of work for the current school year. 
Teachers' unions have been fought by school authorities over 
the country on various grounds. In some places they have 
been accused of being wholly mercenary, interested in nothing 
but increases in salary. In other places they have been 
charged with attempting to usurp the power belonging to 
constituted authorities and to take over the control of the 
schools. For this reason the program, based on five years of 
study and representing actual intentions, is especially inter- 
esting. It is as follows: 

i. To obtain for teachers a sabbatical leave of absence with pay. 

2. To secure a considerable reduction in the appalling burdens 

bow placed on teachers by 

a. Eliminating clerical work that could be done by clerks. 

b. Reducing the size of classes to a maximum of 35. 

c. Striving to reestablish the traditional 9 to 3 school day. 

d. Demanding the removal of encroachments on the lunch- 


3. To keep up our campaign for establishing decent physical con- 

ditions in the schools in respect to 

a. General cleanliness. 

b. Ventilation. 

c. Lighting. 

d. Rest rooms and time in which to use them. 

e. Adequate lunch-room facilities. 

f. Adequate, decent and protected toilets. 

g. Reduction of outside noises. 

h. Immediate and complete removal of fire hazards. 

4. To keep pounding away on our legislative program, striving to 

develop interest and finally pass legislation relating to 

a. The joint Trial Board. 

b. The Examiner Appeals Board. 

c. The automatic salary increase. 

d. An elected board of education, having financial inde- 


e. The repeal of the Lusk law, which has destroyed our 

tenure and is meant to destroy all semblance of liberty 
for teachers. 

5. To bring about the reorganization of the Teachers' Council on 

democratic lines, and to make it constructive and influential. 

6. To encourage the organization of school councils of teachers. 

7. To strive to develop teacher-initiative for the sake of improv- 

ing the teaching, for insuring a better selection of subject- 
matter, and for stimulating the work of the school as a whole. 
8- To further our union program for teacher-participation in the 
management and control of the schools, two particular fea- 


An excerpt from a bulletin issued by the extension division 
of the Massachusetts Department of Education, James A. 
Moyer, director: 

THE foundation of all true Americanism is liberty. We 
are proud of being free men and free women; we resent 
it if any person or any nation interferes with our freedom. 
But it is now nearly a hundred and fifty years since our 
government was founded on the principle of liberty; and this 
month, in which we celebrate the anniversary of our inde- 
pendence, it is good for us to be reminded what true liberty 

On a large railroad, hundreds of trains are run each day. 
Each train is given the right to run over a certain piece of 
track at a certain time without interference form any other 

That is liberty. 

But in order that those trains may all operate without get- 
ting in each other's way, each one of them has to be gov- 
erned by laws and rules. Frequently those rules are incon- 
venient from the point of view of one particular train; yet 
every good railroad man observes them very carefully, for 
he knows that if the rules were not obeyed, no train could 
expect to run without being wrecked. In the same way, the 
liberty of every American depends upon certain laws which 
prevent others from interferring with him and at the same 
time prevent him from interferring with others. 

Many of us who fully intend to be first-class Americans 
find it hard to understand that liberty depends on law and 
that obeying the law does not interfere with liberty. There 
has long been a tendency on the part of ordinarily respect- 
able citizens to disregard certain laws. As an example, one 
sometimes hears the prohibition laws ridiculed and made 
light of by American citizens who are otherwise law-abid- 
ing. And in some states lynching has become such a com- 
mon offense as to attract the attention of papers all over 
the country. The determined breaking of law in any way 
is a sign of shaky Americanism, and lynching especially vio- 
lates one of the most important liberties guaranteed under 
the constitution — the right of an accused man to a fair trial. 
If that right can be refused to some citizens, no American 
can depend on it for protection. 

On the other hand, some laws that are enacted by no 
means receive the approval of everyone, even though they 
are intended to be for the best interest of the general public. 
A recent magazine article points out that certain automobile 
laws are unjust and that others are enforced in such a way 
that the most respectable citizen runs the risk of being 
brought into court for an offense which he does not know he 
has committed. Such laws ought to be corrected but they 
ought to be corrected by lawful methods. If laws are clearly 
unwise, it is our duty as good citizens to, work, through 
public opinion, to have them corrected or abolished. Laws 
can be changed; they must not be broken. 



tures of which are to win the right to elect our own prin- 
cipals and other supervisory officers and to have representa- 
tion on the Board of Education. 

To encourage teachers to interest themselves in social, eco- 
nomic and political affairs, and to profit by the opportunities 
offered by the New School for Social Research and other lib- 
eral schools. 

To provide free health examinations for public school teachers, 
and to disseminate information that will tend to protect 
teachers against occupational diseases and physical disturb- 

To work for the abolition of all mechanical systems of rat- 
ing the service of teachers, and to urge the development of 
standards of service conceived and agreed upon by the teach- 
ers themselves. 

To work for the establishment of equal salary for all grades 
from the lowest to the highest, where qualifications and 
license held are equal. 

To carry out the union project of making a survey of the phy- 
sical conditions in the schools, of the existing conditions of 
teaching, and of the prevailing conditions and ideals in the 
administration of the New York city educational system. 

To give our members a good time by means of dances and 
other entertainments. 




ic A. Ogg. Macmillan Co. 

Price, $3.00; 

409 pp. Price, 



775 PP- 
the Survey, $3.25. 


By James Q. Dealey. D. Appleton & Co. 

$3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

By Alleyne Ireland. E. P. Dutton & Co. 251 

$3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

By Alfred B. Cruikshank. Moffat, Yard & Co. 455 pp. 

Price, $3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.25. 

By Scott Nearing. Rand School of Social Science. 271 pp. 

Price, paper, $.50; by mail of the Survey, $.55. Cloth, $1.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.05. 

By Charles E. Martin. Columbia University Studies in His- 
tory, Economics and Public Law, No. 21 i. 173 pp. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.05. 

By R. F. Pettigrew. Introduction by Scott Nearing. Boni & 

Liveright. 700 pp. Price, $4.50; by mail of the Survey, $4.75. 

Regardless of the fact that the state is only one of the forms of 
human association, the world still goes on with its persuasion 
that government is the most important of human affairs. At least 
this would seem to be the fact if we may judge from the con- 
stant flood of writings on this subject for the last two thousand 
years; and from the group of books before us, the flood seems 
unabated. Of the seven volumes under review, some fall into 
the category of more or less general treatises ; some have to do 
with vigorous assaults upon democratic government; the others 
parry the blow and argue for more democracy as against the 
imperialistic tendency of America. 

Professor Ogg's The Governments of Europe is a revision of 
tile 1913 edition of this standard work. It has been brought up 
to date by omitting sections relating to Austria and minor states, 
giving larger space to England, adding chapters on Soviet Rus- 
sia and Republican Germany since 1918, and featuring the 
British Labor Party and the Irish Nationalists. It is highly 
critical of the Soviet Government as demagogic, undemocratic, 
and full of sweeping departures from usual constitutional prac- 
tice, such as failure to recognize separation of powers (there 
being no provision for a judiciary), lack of popular representa- 
tion and control, suppression of opposition parties; and it con- 
cludes that the chief fault of sovietism may indeed prove to be 
that it lends itself peculiarly to that gravest of all political 
abuses, the tyranny of minorities. The chief value of the book is 
that it sticks to objective facts and does not speculate in political 
futures, for example of France, India or Egypt. Yet the author 
does not hesitate to indicate such obvious tendencies as the trend 
toward occupational representation. This work is admirably 
outfitted with bibliographic references and footnotes for each 
important topic. A comprehensive index enhances its value as 
a work of reference. 

Dealey's book, The State and Government, is a re-writing 
and expansion of his Development of the State. It is not a 
discussion of comparative government, but rather of the de- 
velopment of government itself and of political democracy. Its 
practical aim is to aid in developing political intelligence. Its 
general theme is that the state originates in the war band, de- 
velops as population grows and property in land and goods 
arises to dispute over; that it diversifies its functions as need 
arises and is not likely to develop into a great league of nations 
or world state until amalgamation in blood, homogeneity in 
civilization and the taming of the fierce, warlike, and competitive 
spirit that rules the western world are achieved. The work in- 
cludes chapters on sovereignty, political parties, constitutions, 
and the political contributions of various nations. The author 

concludes that of the three historic forms of democracy, tribal, 
conservative and radical, the latter, as illustrated in Scandi- 
navia, Australasia, Switzerland, and the American far West, 
is not likely to dominate western civilization. This is not an 
exhaustive discussion; it is honest and plodding, but not cal- 
culated to keep the student or anybody else up late at night. 

Ireland's Democracy and the Human Equation stands on a 
totally different footing. In the first place, it is frankly read- 
able. The author has a vigorous, yet easy style. Whereas 
Professor Ogg's book might be considered a treatise on com- 
parative political anatomy, Ireland's standpoint is rather that 
of scientific, political physiology or applied biology. The main 
argument of the book is that America faces a tremendous crisis, 
nothing less than the breakdown of representative government. 
It is in danger of being overthrown by either socialism or so- 
called direct democracy. We are slipping away from represen- 
tative government, the government of the fathers, the most ef- 
ficient of all systems, toward mere democratic or delegate gov- 
ernment based upon the whims and passions of a grossly ignor- 
ant electorate. There is, therefore, too much law and too little 
respect for administrative ability, too much lobbying and con- 
trol by powerful propaganda, more incompetence than downright 
corruption in government, no real statistics or other scientific 
means of estimating the efficiency of governmental machinery. 
All of these are familiar strains which we have heard in such 
criticisms as Faguet's Cult of Incompetence and Le Bon's The 

The author's remedy is what he calls a qualitative instead 
of a quantitative franchise; that is, primarily, an eighth grade 
educational qualification for voting, better prepared teachers, 
some property qualification, the application of science to gov- 
ernment, and above all application of eugenics to the breeding 
and development of a higher class electorate. The author's so- 
lution is colorful, but not altogether convincing. His criticisms 
need to be tested in the clear light of Lord Bryce and Graham 
Wallas. The trouble with democratic government is not so 
much the ineptitude of the masses as their massiveness. There 
has been no real increase of governmental technique to cor- 
respond with the increased size of Great Societies. What is 
needed is not to go back to the fathers of a country of villages, 
but forward to scientific experimentation for a country of a 
hundred and fifty millions. The net result of the book, how- 
ever, is altogether wholesome, because it constitutes a strong 
plea for decent living conditions and improved education. For 
those conditions are just as essential in the upbuilding of our 
future industrial policies and technique as they are to cleanse 
our political system of its wastage and inefficiency. 

Cruikshank's Popular Misgovernment in the United States is 
conceived and executed upon a much lower plane. The purpose 
and spirit of the book are revealed in its opening sentence: "Great 
numbers of discerning Americans must by this time have been 
brought to realize that something practical must shortly be done 
in this country by the believers in private property and private 
property rights to safeguard the nation from its threatened in- 
vasion by bolshevism, socialism and other various forms of anti- 
individualism." The author's cure for the evil which he sees 
consists in "such a reform of the electorate itself as will make 
it impassable and impervious to every influence subversive of 
our basic institutions. An electorate of male private property 
owners of twenty-five years of age and upward would constitute 
an absolute barrier against all attacks on private property from 
any quarter." 

The author rehearses the familiar story of American political 
scandal and by a curious jumbling of the Bible, O. Henry, 
Sophocles, Ostrogorski, Bryce and Ida Tarbell, concludes that 
the failure of democratic government is due to our system of 
manhood suffrage, and that we shall be in still deeper trouble if 
women are admitted to the vote. He rejects the idea of an edu- 
cational franchise qualification, and insists that the franchise 
should be confined to those "who are socially qualified, as proven 
by lives of successful social endeavor, resulting in the social 



acquisition of substantial property." Evidently the only person 
who can take this book seriously, as it is written, is the author 
himself. The real issue never seems to occur to him ; namely, 
how to make a stake in life and in education more attainable 
for the mass of men; nor does he raise — or much less answer — 
the question of who but propertied men still oppose the extension 
of public education, the limitation of child labor, the minimum 
wasre or social insurance? 

Scott Nearing always writes briskly, even if not always con- 
vincingly. It must be admitted that his little book on The 
American Empire has gathered a good many pertinent facts 
which indicate that the original form and purpose of America 
have been shifted, and that both in structure and in purpose this 
country is approaching imperialism. He shows the successive 
steps in this process through the conquest of the Indians, of the 
Negroes, of portions of Mexico and of Spanish territory; the 
concentration of control of finance, railroads, food, publicity, 
political machinery. Imperialism without, plutocracy within! 
The great war rounded out the imperial beginnings, strengthen- 
ing prestige without and further intrenching plutocracy within. 
The logical goal of economic and political world control is "eat 
or be eaten." This interesting spectacle concerns the three great 
rivals, the United States, Britain, and Japan. The war, says 
Nearing, is already on. Its continuation is inevitable unless 
international labor solidarity challenges and ends the growing 
capitalistic imperialism. 

Nearing constitutes a good foil to the discussion of the ex- 
ceptions to our traditional policy of non-intervention, which Pro- 
fessor Martin brings out in his doctoral thesis on The Policy 
of the United States as Regards Intervention. Martin's cold 
skeleton of official political non-intervention is clothed by Nearing 
with the living flesh of economic intervention on an imperial 
scale. Martin's work is an elaboration from the historical stand- 
point of two fundamental American principles: the perfect 
equality of nations, and non-intervention; how the policies arose 
out of revolutionary and post-revolutionary situations and the 
conscious purpose of the fathers; how they became traditional, 
crystallized in the Monroe Doctrine, extended and deepened dur- 
ing the Nineteenth Century in spite of occasional lapses and pro- 
nouncements by individuals; were departed from in the cases of 
Cuba and Panama as the exceptions which prove the rule. The 
latter cases indicate that the rule is pragmatic and proves elastic 
wherever grave national interests are. concerned. On this point, 
apparently, the eloquent ex-professor and the grave, solid, well 
documented professor agree. Professor Martin's work is a 
worthy contribution to American political and international his- 
tory. It remains to be completed by a subsequent volume on the 
cases of Santo Domingo, Nicaragua and Haiti. 

The late Senator Pettigrew's The Course of Empire is simply 
a compilation of his various speeches in the Senate and elsewhere 
on American imperialism. The speeches on Haiti, on the Philip- 
pines, on railroads, big business in politics, the Boer war, and 
the trusts, constitute a valuable mine to a writer like Nearing. 
Indeed the kinship between Nearing's American Empire and 
Pettigrew's The Course of Empire could be clearly established 
by internal evidence even without bringing into court the fact 
that Nearing himself contributes the introduction to the Petti- 
grew volume. Arthur J. Todd. 


By Friedrich Wilhelm Forster, Friede Durch Recht, Stuttgart. 
Professor Forster, of the chair of pedagogy in Munich, is one 
of the most distinguished scholars in Europe. Furthermore, he 
has shown himself one of the most courageous and far-sighted 
of all Germans. At the expense of social and even academic 
ostracism, he spoke plainly in war time of the fallacy of the 
Bismarck ideals and of the certain ruin which persistence in a 
war of conquest must bring to Germany. 

The present volume is in part the story of his life so far as 
its relation to German politics is concerned. In part it is a 
running history of the war-time motives and influences, with 
finally a strong plea for the recognition by Germans of the 
lessons to be drawn from the experience of the world. As a 
convinced democrat he is frankly opposed to bureaucratic cen- 

tralization, as well as to disorder and intolerance in all their 
varied forms. Our limits do not permit an extended analysis of 
this great work. I may, however, find space for a few quota- 
tions which I translate freely and with much condensation: 
The era of Bismarck led naturally to the World War. Did 
the German people want wai ? The answer must be divided. 
Certainly, as a reckoning with Russia, as a step toward world 
expansion, a small but mighty group wanted a world war. 
These were the military, the pan-Germanists, the ironmongers, 
the great capitalists. A larger body did not want war but 
joyously hailed it for its expected fruits. What of the kaiser? 
Did he plan the war? Undoubtedly not. His was not a char- 
acter to plan anything. To bring on a world war requires a 
demoniac strength of will and nerve which this weak and 
shifty ruled did not possess. 

He toyed with the idea of a world in flames, in which the 
German kaiser would be absolute victor, crushing all oppo- 
nents. . . . His heart was ice cold, and touchily sensitive, at 
one time in wild eagerness for the fray, then suddenly over- 
come with fear, sometimes heedless of the future and again 
mild and cautious under some fresh impulse from outside. 
Thus he vacillated hither and thither, the very opposite of a 
self-contained leader, rather the very figure of a "new Ger- 
man parvenu," an unsteady characterless, noisy personage, with 
never a conception of what "princely attitude" or "royal dig- 
nity" should be. . . . 

He was influenced by expressions such as those of General 
von Lobell: "Wait no longer, let the war come; then the world 
will learn something. In two weeks we conquer France, then 
we turn to strike Russia to the ground, then march on to Bal- 
kan to set up order there." 

The utterances of Bethmann-Hollweg Forster characterizes 
as "true in what he says but false in what he does not say," a 
statement which might be applied to diplomacy generally. Much 
of diplomatic history is summed up by Forster in these words: 
Thus it was; so cry out all documents, so it appears through 
all memoirs, so it burns inextinguishable in the consciences 
of all Germans who had open eyes and had not estranged 
themselves from their best and noblest friends in other nations: 
that the German people is lost, that it does not realize how 
deep it has fallen, and how harsh the punishment will be for 
its moral isolation and the breach of comity of which it has 
been guilty. 

David Starr Jordon. 



By C. W. Saleeby. Dodd, Mead & Co. 239 pp. Price, $4.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $4.20. 

By Merlin Harold Hunter. Harper & Bros. 533 pp. Price, 

$3.25; by mail of the Survey, $3.55. 

By Frederick C. Conybeare. Harvard University Press. 370 

pp. Price, $4.00; by mail of the Survey, $4.30. 

By B. Seebohn Rowntree. Longmans, Green & Co. 176 pp. 

Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

By E. M. Wilmot-Buxton. E. P. Dutton & Co. 219 pp. 

Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

By J. C. Kydd. University of Calcutta. 190 pp. 

By Isaiah Bowman. American Geographical Society. 632 pp. 

Price, $3.75; by mail of the Survey, $4.05. 

By William H. Blymer. The Cornhill Publishing Co. 152 pp. 

Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 


By Genevieve Poyneer Hendricks. The American Red Cross. 

300 pp. Paper. Price, $1.00 postpaid. 
Through a clerical error, this valuable handbook was listed in 
the Survey for September 16 at $1.15. The Red Cross makes 
no charge for postage and it may be ordered of them or of the 
Survey for $1.00 postpaid. 




DR. RENE SAND, secretary of the 
Brussels University Foundation and 
acher of industrial hygiene at that uni- 
:rsity, has been appointed general secretary 
the League of Red Cross Societies, per- 
haps the most important administrative post 
in social work at the present time. Dr. Sand 
has many friends in America because of 
two extensive journeys through the United 
States undertaken by him for his govern- 
ment since the war — in 1918 for an inquiry 
into industrial organization, social medicine 
and civic education, the results of which 
have been published in a government report; 
and in 1919 for a further investigation of 
problems of social medicine at the invitation 
of the United States Children's Bureau. 

THE Ku Klux Klan, Fatty Arbuckle's trial 
for manslaughter, civil war in West Vir- 
ginia, and the bits from the society, sporting 
and theatrical sections of our Sunday news- 
papers make up the general run of news the 
world over, so far as the United States of 
America goes. That at least was the situa- 
tion prior to the war, and it still continues 
to an unpleasant extent from the Antipodes 
to the Arctic Circle. The group of men in 
the foreign press end of the United States 
Information Service during the war, in their 
efforts to interpret what America and Amer- 
icans were doing in the conflict, had this 
borne in upon them. To three of them — 
Ernest Poole, Paul Kennaday and Arthur 
Livingston — is due the establishment of the 
Foreign Press Service as a serious attempt, 
not at propaganda, but at affording a me- 
dium of exchange between American and 
foreign journalists and journals, so that 
there will be a commerce not merely in sen- 
sation but in constructive news and in liberal 
ideas. How far the Foreign Press Service 
has been able to break through the crusts of 
old habits is indicated by a compilation of 
clippings in a recent four-months period. 
Here there are listed scores of papers 
in Western and Central Europe, South 
America and the Far East. Readers, for 
example, of the Miinchener Post, the Bremen 
Weserzeitung, Kolner Tagblatt, La Gasette 
de Liege, La Gazette de Huy, Zeleznichi 
Revue, Berlingske Tidende, II Mozzogiorno, 
the Brazilian American, Iwanaga's Fort- 
nightly, and La Prensa (San Salvadore), 
have, along with the old style news and old 
style sensation, had something to read from 
this new source on how the city of Boston 
turned family doctor, how foreign languages 
are studied in the New York public schools, 
and how young Negroes have become doc- 
tors of philosophy; of Hoover's plans for 
foreign trade, naturalization in America, 
and the significance of the new immigration 
restrictions; of the cost of living and social 
unrest, and of the "rising tide of disarma- 
ment" Much of this matter is credited to 
its magazine sources; the rest goes out as 
digest. The service is non-partisan and is 
lightened by nuggets of interest that have 
no large world meaning but are of a sort 
that provoke attention — the fall of a giant 
tree, the moving of an eight-story building, 
or the strike in the jazz factories. 

THE British government has announced 
that at the end of three years women of 
Great Britain will receive equal right of 
entry and promotion throughout the civil 
service. Equal pay for equal work, has, 
however, been denied. In the same connec- 
tion, it is interesting that the legislative 
council of Bombay has passed a resolution 
giving women suffrage on equal terms to 
men of the Bombay presidency and that 
the Roumanian Senate has passed an amend- 
ment to a reform bill which gives to Rou- 
manian women the communal vote. This 
suffrage amendment is expected to be rati- 
fied by the Chamber of Deputies during the 
autumn session. 

THREE important child welfare conferences 
were held last month in Central and South 
America. Over two thousand people reg- 
istered for the first Congress for Child Wel- 
fare in Brazil held under the auspices of 
the president of the republic, beginning Sep- 
tember 7. The first Central American 
Conference convened in San Jose, Costa 
Rica, September 15, and the Central Ameri- 
can Teachers' Congress met in the city of 
Guatemala the last week of September. The 
programs indicate that keen interest is being 
taken in both Central and South America 
in modern methods of child care. 

SINCE 1906, the New York Bureau of Mu- 
nicipal Research has been one of the fore- 
most stimulants of good government in the 
United States. Its work of national educa- 
tion has largely been taken over by the Gov- 
ernmental Research Conference. Locally, 
many of the principles it first established 
have become commonplaces and others are 
being worked out with and without the aid 
of numerous societies and agencies. The 
bureau announces the end of its work of 
investigation and report. Its training school 
for civic executives, however, will be con- 
tinued by a new corporation, the National 
Institute of Public Administration, of which 
Luther Gulick will be acting director, Clar- 
ence B. Smith, Jr., manager and Raymond 
B. Fosdick counsel. Engineering, public 
health, city planning and financial authori- 
ties of national standing compose the faculty 
for the year. 

THE latest similar organization in the field 
is the Kansas City Public Service Institute 
which in the beginning will lay the emphasis 
of its work on research to furnish informa- 
tion for general educational work. The pro- 
posal for a new city charter will occupy its 
attention for months to come. 

THE principles and technique of care for 
crippled children which, in Germany, was 
regulated last year by national legislation 
is further to be developed by a new national 
society of teachers of cripples. One of the 
matters on which some of the foremost of 
these teachers insist is a better psychological 
training, because the adjustment of the 
handicapped to a normal vocational and 
home life is largely a question of mental 

LANTERN slides on disarmament in sets 
of twenty-two, including cartoons from 
newspapers, quotations of authorities and 
diagrams have been shown in a number of 
moving picture houses in Boston lately and 
can be obtained for short loans from Mrs. 
A. N. Winslow, 215 La Grange St., West 
Roxbury, Mass., in charge of this depart- 
ment of the Foreign Policy Association of 
Massachusetts, or can be purchased from her 
at thirty cents a slide. 

ONCE again having been cast adrift, this 
time from the American Red Cross, the 
Bureau of Foreign Language Information 
has become an independent organization 
known as the Foreign Language Information 
Service. The Committee on Public Informa- 
tion, the Carnegie Foundation, Community 
Service and the A. R. C. in turn have spon- 
sored this admirable organization, which 
helps to interpret America to the foreign 
language press and the needs, thoughts and 
aspirations of the foreign-born groups, as 
expressed in that press, to America. The A. 
R. C. felt that it could no longer afford to 
maintain the bureau and so ceased to be 
responsible for it after August 15. The ser- 
vice will continue to occupy its present offices 
at 15 West 37 street, New York city. 

cently been appointed educational secretary 
of the Marion (Indiana) County Tuberculosis 
Association, has for more than a year been 
executive secretary of the Erie (Pennsyl- 
vania) County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, 
and has carried on a vigorous educational 
campaign against tuberculosis, principally in 
the direction of extending the society's work 
throughout the county, especially in the rural 
schools. Largely through Mr. Sleszynski's 
efforts the Christmas anti-tuberculosis seal 
sale was last year increased over 100 per 
cent in the Erie society. 

"LEFT is Heaven; right is Hell," was the 
one out of thirty thousand mottoes submitted 
to which a prize was given in a competition 
recently held in connection with an accident 
prevention campaign in Yokohama, Japan 
(traffic rules being on the English and not 
the American model). A huge parade was 
staged in which the school children took 
part, jinrikishas and automobiles carried the 
flag of the accident prevention society, and 
every electric light pole was placarded with 
a poster telling of the need for better traffic 

RUTH WHEELER, of Baltimore, chair- 
man of the National Committee on Nu- 
trition, American Red Cross, has been ap- 
pointed professor of nutrition in the college 
of medicine of the State University of Iowa. 
The university has the distinction of having 
appointed the first woman, if not the first 
person, to a chair of nutrition in a medica 
college. Dr. Wheeler will have entire con- 
trol of the food department of the university 
hospitals. She will also conduct researcr 
and be in charge of the courses in nutritior 
to be offered for the medical students, diet 
itians and nurses. 

Tie n 







To the Editor: The Supreme Court of the United States 
requires us to file, for its use in die approaching trial of the 
District of Columbia case affecting the constitutionality of the 
minimum wage law of the District, a large number of copies of 
the original Oregon minimum wage brief, prepared for this 
same Court in 1916 (Stettler vs. O'Hara). 

Will you, as an act of friendliness, print a request that friends 
of the cause contribute their copies, sending them to the address 
given below? Our own supply is too small to meet the require- 
ment of the court. Florence Kelley. 

National Consumers' League, 

44 East 23 street, 

New York city. 


To the Editor: I learn from your report of the Institute 
of Politics at Williamstown [see the Survey for September 1] 
that the institute was intellectually "swank," whatever that may 
mean; that its subject matter gave it flair, which certainly does 
not mean anything; that historians are holding a perpetual wake, 
which is certainly untrue, implying as it does that the past is 
dead and history has nothing to teach us; that the political 
jargon was mainly of another era, that the science of politics 
is a chimera ruminating in a vacuum ; that sociology, ethics and 
economics play in another yard, and a number of other items 
of equal value and importance. 

To me, and I think to many people, the holding of the In- 
stitute of Politics seems a departure of great value, an im- 
portant and perhaps an epoch-making event. Was it not worthy 
of a serious and informing report written at least in the English 
language? Joseph Lee. 



To the Editor: An item on page 406 of the Survey for June 
18 unfairly blames, we believe, electricity as the chief cause of 
fires. The basis of the item is probably the five-year report 
of the National Board of Fire Underwriters. In this report, 
electricity was charged with being the chief cause of fires, but 
I believe even this is questioned by the National Board itself. 
The report gave the loss due to fires of electrical origin at 
$84,086,471 for a five-year period. In the May issue of Safe- 
guarding America Against Fire, the official organ of the under- 
writers, "matches-smoking," is charged with a loss over the 
same period amounting to $91,842,935 or nearly $8,000,000 more 
than the claim for electrical fire losses. 

Prior to the publication of the five-year report of the fire 
underwriters, the Society for Electrical Development conducted 
a careful investigation into the causes of fires with a view of 
ascertaining the relative fire risk of electricity. The findings 
of this report indicated that the fires rightly chargeable to 
electric origin did not exceed 2 per cent of all the fires, in the 
majority of communities. A somewhat less comprehensive in- 
vestigation in respect to the prevalence of fires from matches, 
etc., showed a percentage of nearly 7^ — three or four times 
as many as chargeable to electricity. 

The very marked discrepancies between the figures of the 
two reports are explained by the methods employed in com- 
piling statistics by the two bodies. The compilations of the 
board are based on the adjustment of 3,500,000 insurance claims, 
to which is added an arbitrary 25 per cent to cover unrecorded 
burnings and the destruction of uninsured property. The figures 
of the society cover all fires, whether the property destroyed 
was insured or not, and are the actual calls upon the services 
of the fire departments of the various communities. Further- 
more, the fire records as submitted by the fire departments were 
checked so far as possible by the private records of central sta- 
tions, municipal and state officials, findings of commissions and 
expert investigations and other available sources of authentic 

The difference in the seriousness of the careless use of matches 
and discarding lighted cigarette and cigar butts hazard may 

Towels and Bed Linens 
from "The Linen Store" 

'""TOWELS of every size and texture! 
-■- Small ones of pure Linen, daintily 
embroidered, trimmed with real Lace, 
or Monogrammed! Practical, every- 
day ones of Linen Huckaback ! And 
big, rough ones for a vigorous rub- 
down after an icy shower. 

And Bed Linens just as varied. Of 
pure Irish Linen for the most part, 
in all weights and qualities. You may 
have them with plain hems or hand 
hemstitching — with your own personal 
monogram, if you desire. 

We suggest that this is the time for 
thrifty buying — Linen prices have gone 
very low. Moreover, a generous sup- 
ply of Linens is always a real economy. 

oAn Excellent Qift 

{from the Fall & Winter Catalog) 

Bath set consisting of 2 Towels, 2 Wash Cloths 
and 1 Mat. Monogrammed with three letters. 
Monogram in Rose, Blue, Qreen or Helio. Set 
complete with Monogram. Neatly boxed. $9.00 

Orders by Mail receive Special Consideration 

Rag. Trade Mart 

James McCutcheon & Co, 

"The Qreatest Treasure House of Linens" in America 

Fifth Ave., 34th and 33d Streets 

also be explained in part by the fact that much private property 
is destroyed or perhaps only slightly damaged by fires of such 
origin for which the owners never make claim for insurance, 
appreciating that the loss is due to their own carelessness. The 
fire department frequently responds to fire calls of such char- 
acter and so is cognizant of the burnings, while the owner of 
the property having no claim for damages makes none, and the 
fire is not recorded with the underwriters. 

\ As for the chief single cause being defective wiring, there is 
no way of either substantiating or disproving this claim. Ob- 
viously, any electrical fire is due in some way to defective wiring, 
but there does not seem to be any reason why the majority of 
the fires should be attributed to such a cause. 

Reginald Trautschold. 
New York City. 




RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on four or more 
consecutive insertions. 

Address Advertising 


112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WANTED: For Bernardsville, New 
Jersey, a registered trained nurse for rural 
district nursing. A fully furnished house, 
light, heat, telephone and transportation pro- 
vided. Salary $125.00 per month. One 
month's vacation a year, with salary. Nurse 
must find housekeeper, who may be relative, 
friend or servant. There is also a vacancy 
for an Infant Welfare Nurse. Please reply 
to Visiting Nurse Association of Somerset 
Hills, P. O. Box 45, Far Hills, N. J. 

DIETITIANS for hospital positions in all 
parts of the United States. Write at once. 
Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 N. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

MAN AND WIFE— middle aged ; to care 
for small place in country. Detached livery 
quarters, board and small salary. Perma- 
nent References required. 4008 Survey. 

WOMEN wanted, by Jewish child-caring 
institution conducted on the cottage plan ; 
woman to act as cottage mothers who have 
social background, executive ability and love 
for children; salary $720 to $1,000 per an- 
num, maintenance, laundry, etc., included. 
Address Box J. C. C, 1,358 Broadway. 

WANTED: Working Superintendent at 
Home for the Friendless, in Scranton, Pa. 
References required. Address, 2000 Adams 

HEBREW Orphans Home, Philadelphia, 
Penna., wants a boys' supervisor and a girls' 
supervisor. Apply in own handwriting to 
Superintendent, 12th Street and Green Lane, 
Philadelphia, Penna., stating experience, sal- 
ary demanded, etc. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, Industrial Nurses, 
Secretaries, Dietitians, Matrons, Cafeteria 
Managers, Miss Richards, Providence, R. I. 
Box 5, East Side. Boston Office, Trinity 
Court, 16 Jackson Hall, Thursdays n to 1. 
Address Providence. 

C- O. S., fine at case-work, inexperienced 
at advertising copy writing, published this 
ad. in daily paper: "Respectable, middle- 
aged white woman in urgent need of wash- 
ing and scrubbing." The ad. paid. Secret- 
ary swamped with hilarious letters offering 
to help wash the good lady. Survey Want 
Ads. really pay. And we help write them, 
so the washing is done in private, only the 
job-getting in public. Glad to help you, if 
part of your problem is Help Wanted. Phone 
Mrs. Anderson, Stuyvesant 7490; or write, 
112 East 19 Street, New York. 

SUPERINTENDENT: The Superintend- 
ent of one of Chicago's principal non-secta- 
rian organizations for social service will be 
vacant January first. The Society in ques- 
tion has been in active existence more than 
30 years and has had a steadily growing 
field of work, income and expense. The 
directors wish to engage a capable executive 
with special experience in organization work, 
preferably in' social service. Unusual oppor- 
tunity for further career along these lines. 
Salary $5,000 to start. Age preferred, 30 to 
40. Replies will be held entirely confidential. 
State age, education and experience. 4005 

manent hospital and office positions. Excel- 
lent positions open everywhere. Write today 
if interested. Aznoe's Central Registry for 
Nurses, 30 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

MATRON wanted in a child-caring In- 
stitution in Brooklyn. 401 1 Survey. 

GRADUATE NURSES for all kinds of 
hospital positions everywhere. Write for 
free book. Aznoe's Central Registry for 
Nurses, 30 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

PLACEMENT BUREAU for employer 
and employee: housekeepers, matrons, dieti- 
tians, secretaries, governesses, attendants, 
mothers' helpers. 51 Trowbridge St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

WANTED: Experienced case worker by 
society caring for girls. P. O. Box 2881, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 


TEACHERS wanted for emergency va- 
cancies — public and private schools, 
colleges and universities — all over the coun- 
try. Ernest Olp, Steger Building, Chicago. 


NURSE with industrial and welfare ex- 
perience, trained social worker and investi- 
gator, seeks position. 4007 Survey. 

CHILD HYGIENE and Public Health 
Publicity expert seeks position as an exe- 
cutive. d'Art, 172 West 65th St., New York. 

SUPERVISOR, Matron, woman, institution 
and training school experience, location op- 
tional, finest references. 3996 Survey. 

POSITION desired by woman, with large 
practical experience, as superintendent of 
children, managing housekeeper or any 
managing position. 4002 Survey. 

LADY with years of experience as Matron 
in institutional work, seeks position as super- 
intendent or matron, school or nursery. 
Highest credentials. 4006 Survey. 


EXPERIENCED Latin teacher, law stu- 
dent, three years head master Roxbury 
School, desires tutoring, school or private 
pupils. 4003 Survey. 


vites correspondence. An exceptional op- 
portunity to secure the services of a recog- 
nized specialist in immigrant education with 
ten years' experience directing community- 
wide Americanization, information and legal 
aid; -unifying racial relations; coordinating 
and systematizing existing agencies in any 
phase of community service among immi- 
grants. Executive and administrator; lin- 
guist; forceful speaker. Experienced in 
legislative reference, research, surveys and 
investigations. 3980 Survey. 

STRONG EXECUTIVE, experienced in 
child-caring institutions, broad general and 
university education, two years' experience 
as business head of mercantile house, desires 
position as superintendent or assistant. Best 
of references. 4004 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED well qualified School 
Nurse desires permanent position. Aznoe'i 
Central Registry for Nurses, 30 N. Michigan 
Ave.. Chicago. 

YOUNG WOMAN, college graduate, ex- 
perienced social worker, trained file execu- 
tive, desires position field worker or director 
confidential exchange. Prefer South or West. 
References. 4009 Survey. 

sition as teacher of loom-weaving in school, 
sanitarium or hospital. - 4010 Survey. 

BOYS' WORKER, at present employed as 
Field Scout Executive Boy Scouts of 
America, wishes to make change. Ten 
years' experience. 3993 Survey. 

BOYS' WORKER; ten years' experience 
boys' clubs and playgrounds, desires all- 
year position. 3997 Survey. 

WANTED: Position of Head Worker in 
Settlement or Community House in suburban 
town. Twelve years' experience. Best of 
references. 4013 Survey. 

WANTED: Position as Anaesthetist by 
Graduate Nurse; in hospital or doctor's of- 
fice. Excellent experience. Aznoe's Central 
Registry for Nurses, 30 N. Michigan Ave., 

WOMAN, experienced in case work, in- 
vestigation, teaching and public speaking, 
desires position in or near Philadelphia. 
4012 Survey. 

Please mention The Survey vihen writing to advertisers. 




Listings Hfty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tion!; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Ikditstsial Facts. By Kirby Page. No. 1 of 
Christianity and Industry Series. Concrete data 
concerning industrial problems and proposed 
solutions. A 12,000 word Bummary. 32 pages. 
Valuable for personal study, discussion groups, 
open forums, adult Bible classes. Geo. H. Doran 
Co., New York city. Price, 10 cents. 

Civil. Wai in West Virginia, Winthrop D. Lane's 
impartial, informative, indispensable report on 
Mingo. (Freeman Pamphlet). To read this is 
to fulfil a duty to yourself: to circulate it is 
to perform a public service. B. W. Huebsch, 
Inc., 116 W. 13th St., New York. 50 cents. 

Catechism o* the Social Question. By Rev. 
John A. Ryan, D. D., and Rev. R. A, Mc- 
Gowan, National Catholic Welfare Council, So- 
cial Action Dept. Price, 10 cents; 25 to 50 
copies, 8 cents each; 50 or more copies, 7 cents 
each. The Paulist Press, 120 West 60th St., 
New York City. 

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national peace o 'justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Feace 
12 00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, Secretary and Editor, 612-614 
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AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
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gress Jacksonville. Florida, October 28-November 3 1921 O. F. 
Lewis, General Secretary, 135 East 16 street. New York city. 
J Osborne exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St. New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues. *5. 

Ave New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
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sound sex educalon. Information and catalogue of Pamphlets upon 
request Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 
New York Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector To arouse public interest In the health of school children; to 
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to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
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children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
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organizing Its children's work. C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 22nd 
St., New York. 

York Organized in February, 1919, to nelp people of all communities 
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New York. Miss Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, 
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HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix. vice- 
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Culbert Faries, dir., 101 E. 23rd SL, New York. Maintains free In- 
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secretary; 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — to promote an 
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National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean; 
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National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
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Powlison., gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
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Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.: Associate 
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pres., Boston; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y., 23 East 9th St., Cincin- 
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bureau. Membership, $3. 49th annual meeting, Providence, R. I., 
June 1922. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

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Public Agencies and Institutions — George S. Wilson, Washington, 
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Mental Hygiene — George A. Hastings, New York. 

Organization of Social Forces — C. M. Bookman, Cincinnati. 

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field sec'y; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
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cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l. sec'y.; John R. Shillady, exec, director. 
Fromotes legislation for enlightened standards for women and 
minors in industry and for honest products; minimum wage commis- 
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and packing industries; "honest cloth" legislation. Publications 

■ec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
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fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
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Ella Phillips Crandall, R. N. exec, sec'y; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. 
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Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
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NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
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A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, 
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Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands 
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— H. S. Braucher, sec'y.; 1 Madison Ave., New York Cly. Play- 
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RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvment of Living 
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The war released many repressed and even practically en- 
slaved peoples into the promises of some new sort of freer 
life. The older American formula "government by consent 
of the governed" was broadened into "government by self- 
determination of the peoples concerned." What are the gains 
and losses to civilization by these various developments? 

The Swing Away from Authority. 
-»-♦ Is it true, as some seem to fear, that the peoples of the world 
are in a complete revolt against the older forms of authority? Ddes 
this revolt take the form of overt rebellion and violence, or some 
less obvious form? Is this unrest directed against political institu- 
tions, alone, or against other institutions as well? What others? 
What are the varied forms which unrest and rebellion assume? For 
example, as exhibited in India, in Russia, in Ireland, in West Vir- 
ginia, and in Western Canada among the farmers? 

Is there any ultimate limit to the development of these unrests? 
Does "self-determination" stop anywhere short of complete individ- 
ualism or anarchy? If so, where? Are members of Congress who 
refuse to be bound by their traditional party allegiances and who 
join an independent "bloc" of some sort guilty of any dereliction? 
May a teacher have opinions of his own and still remain in the 
school system? If not, whose opinions should he hold? May a 
preacher hold unorthodox opinions and still hold his pulpit? Is 
there any consistent stopping-place between complete subordination 
to authority and complete liberation from authority? 

O The Liberal State. 

**+ Liberals have long believed that some sort of equilibrium 
could be achieved as between the absolutes of traditional authority 
and the "consents" and "self-determinations" of modern theories. 
What would be involved in such an equilibrium? What would be 
the center of authority in such a state? Or would there be no center 
of authority? What would be the position of the average individ- 
ual in such a state? Of the subnormal individual? Of the very 
capable individual? Would such a state run itself permanently on 
liberal lines? Can "liberalism" be institutionalized as autocracy 
can? Would education be different in the liberal state? In what 
ways? What would the "social virtues" in such a state be? 

^2 Individual Irresponsibility. 

*-'♦ When an individual has achieved complete escape from 
authority, what is left to him? When a state has achieved com- 
plete "self-determination," what remains to be done? Does free- 
dom imply responsibility or irresponsibility? And in what realms? 
If one is irresponsible in certain realms of living, may he claim a 
share with the world in other realms? May all these various 
phases of individual and social relationship be subjects of discussion 
and choice? May an individual choose to be loyal to some phases 
of the community life and to refuse allegiance to other phases? 
Could society endure on a basis of such choosings? Can individual 
intelligence ever become the secure foundations of social order? 
May we assume that individuals will some time be capable of gov- 
erning themselves without external compulsions? 

Harold J. Laski, Authority in the Modern State. Yale University 

Press. Price, $3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.35. 
H. B. Van Wesep, Control of Ideals. Alfred A. Knopf. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 
Norman Hapgood, The Advancing Hour. Boni & Liveright 

Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 
Hilaire Belloc, The Servile State. Leroy Phillips. Price, $1.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $115. 
The Survey, 1920: Aug. 2, p. 578; Oct. 9, p. 59; 1921: Sept. i, 
p. 625; Oct. 1, pp. 10 snd 18; Oct. 8, pp. 40 and 41. 

The books mentioned above may be obtained through the Survey Book 

The Survey, Vol. XL VII, No. 3. Published weeklv bv the Survey Associates 
natter, Marcn 25, 1909. at the post-office. New York, N. Y., under Vhe act 01 

Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-class 
.79. Acceptance tor mailing at a special rate of postage provided 

in Section 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on" June 26. 1918. 




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author of "Married Love" 

and "Radiant Motherhood" 

will make her 

Only Public Appearance 

in America 



Motherhood Clinic for Constructive Birth Control 

Auspices of Voluntary Parenthood League 

Tickets, $1.10 and $1.65 

On sale at Town Hall and V. P. L. office, 799 Broadway 

Three Tuesday Afternoon 
Lectures on 

Five Friday Afternoon 
Lectures on 



Famous Psychoanalyst 

October 21, 28, November 4, 11- 

and 18, 1921, at 3.30 o'clock 

Subscription Tickets $5.50 

Single Lectures $1.25 

(War tax included) 



50 East 41st Street, New York 

Tickets may now be obtained by addressing 


110 West 42nd Street Bryant 4130 

Also on sale at The Beacon Book Shop, 26 West 47th St., The 

Washington Square Book Shop, 27 West 8th St., and 

at Rumford Hall on afternoons of lectures. 



Distinguished Poet and Critic 

Subscription Tickets $3.25 

Single Lectures $1.25 

October 25, November 1 an4 15, 

1921, at 3.30 o'clock 

(War tax included) 

Two Leading Books 

Full Up and Fed Up 

The Worker's Mind in Crowded 

By Whiting Williams 

Author of "What's on the Worker's Mind" 

This record of experiences does for 
the British workman what "What's on 
the Worker's Mind" did for the 

Mr. Williams worked in Glasgow, 
Coventry, and many other cities de- 
voted to great industries. The im- 
pressions which make the book not- 
able cover his contacts with workers 
in all parts of the country. 
Illustrated $2.50 

Four Years in the Underbrush 

By a Novelist of Note 

"... I walked out of the National Arts Club into the 
underbrush of the greatest jungle of civilization. . . . 

"During four eventful years I remained in the under- 
brush — the world of the unskilled working woman of 
New York." 

These are the first words of one of the most absorb- 
ing human documents of recent times. Published Oct. 28. 



Charles Scribner's Sons 

Please mention The Survey when writing to advertisers. 




No. 3 



Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, IS cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; Canadian, 
65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in advance. 
When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 
Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909. at the post office. New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1S79. Acceptance for mailing at a 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1907, 
authorised on June 26, 1918. 



WE had occasion to telegraph our editor the other day. 
The books of Survey Associates were to close October 
I, and thinking he could not bear the strain the editor 
had crossed over the border into Canada the day before. 
Happily, however, at the eleventh hour as result of the stead- 
fastness of many old friends of the Survey, the bookkeeper 
could report the year clear. So we wrote our telegram: 
"Speaking of deficits there ain't any." Then the censor came 
in. "We don't take slang in telegrams," said a feminine voice 
from the Western Union. . . . Conference. . . . Tried it again : 
"Speaking of deficits there isn't any." ... "I tell you we don't 
take slang" — and the telephone clicked. ... So an editor build- 
ing a wharf in the wilds received the following: "Speaking 
of deficits — there is not any." 


WHEN the Philadelphia Public Ledger last week 
through its Washington correspondent, Frederick W. 
Wile, "revealed" the "dangerous" motives of the Na- 
tional Council on Limitation of Armament they stated that 
the organizers of the council "confess" that they did not con- 
sult either President Harding or Secretary Hughes before 
organizing. "Has the administration been consulted as to the 
advisability of maintaining the Public Ledger Bureau in 
Washington so dangerously near the State Department?" 
in reply asked Christina Merriman, executive secretary of 
the Foreign Policy Association, and temporary chairman of 
the council. 

The Ledger's articles charged that the council is planning 
the release of "pro-disarmament clamour, designed to stampede 
even the most progressive delegation into action." In naming 
the affiliated organizations it omitted the American Legion, 
Catholic Welfare Council, Federal Council of Churches, the 
United Jewish Synagogues of America, the International As- 
sociation of Machinists, and the Foreign Policy Association — 
to cite only a few. The Ledger in publishing Miss Merri- 
man's reply deleted specific statements answering the charges. 
The aim of the council, as stated in the Survey for Septem- 
ber 16, is "to make articulate the widespread interest in the 
coming Conference on the Limitation of Armament." 


THE principle of industrial arbitration has been pre- 
served in the printing industry of New York city by 
the decision of the executive council of the International 
Typographical Union to submit to arbitration the current 
wage controversy between the closed shop branch of the New 
York Employing Printers' Association and a number of the 
unions in the printing industry, notably Typographical Union 
No. 6. Negotiations were begun last August by the em- 
ployers' association to extract from the union a pledge to ar- 
bitrate the differences which would undoubtedly arise on 
September 30, when the contract under which the "Big Six" 
works, would become due for readjustment. 

The union demanded a five-dollar weekly wage increase to 
bring its wage level up to that of the newspaper printers. The 
employers insisted upon a ten-dollar decrease, which the union 
considered an unfair proposition to submit to arbitration. A 
strike was threatened until the executive council of the Inter- 
national, assembled in New York for a six-day conference 
on the subject, issued a statement to the rank and file printers 
announcing its decision to adhere to the principle of arbitra- 
tion. This concession marks a real victory for legal procedure 
in the adjudication of industrial disputes. The executive 
council expresses the issues at stake as follows: 

After six days' continuous conference, the executive council 
found itself unable to induce acceptance of the union's demands 
by the employers. It is obvious that if one side possesses the 
right to insist, as a prerequisite to arbitration, that the other 
party must trim its demands under duress the party making 
such demand exposes itself to a similar demand in the future. 
It is the unanimous decision of the executive council that, hay- 
ing accepted arbitration, the union's demand for a limitation 
as to the matters to be arbitrated, except such as might be 
mutually agreed to, is unsound both in logic and in practice. 

Under the existing contract, the basis for determining 
wages involves two considerations : the cost of living and the 
economic condition of the industry. It is probable that the 
Labor Bureau, which represents the union in the arbitration 
proceedings, will, as on former occasions, bring up the ques- 
tion of how the economic condition of the industry is to be 
determined to the satisfaction of the workers. In the past, the 
employers have consistently refused to open their books for 
this purpose, as the bureau has proposed. Most of them are 
now ready, it is believed, to assist in what they deem a fair 
economic survey of the industry. 

Forty-seven per cent of the printing establishments in New 
York employ five workers or less. The task of compiling 
figures from so large a number of frequently badly-kept books 
(or none at all) is enormously difficult. This is one of the 
issues that the arbitrators will have to face. Furthermore it 
is not possible to compel unwilling employers to open their 
books. Another source of trquble is the fact that the New 






York market is by way of being lost in what someone closely 
in touch with the situation has termed "an economic pocket." 
Costs in the city which is now the center of the printing in- 
dustry are so much higher than those in other printing 
centers that a number of important firms have moved their 
plants elsewhere. The nice balance between what labor needs 
and what the market will stand must thus be struck. 

Arbitration proceedings are now about to begin. The 
judges have not as yet been chosen. The present scale holds 
until December first, and in the event that no agreement is 
reached before that time, the new adjustment will become 


AMERICA has heard much of the feeding stations and 
other work to relieve the hunger and misery of children 
of Serbia and countries of the former Austro-Hungarian 
Empire. Now n?ws of the work of native social institutions 
for the "second period of salvation" of the war orphans is 
coming through to this country. Among the most interesting 
is that told of by Stjepan Jobst, managing director of the 
Hrvatski Radisa of Zagreb, Croatia, who has come to America 
to study methods in vocational work 
for children and to gain the cooper- 
ation of Croatians and other Jugo- 
slavs here as well as of Americans 
themselves in enlarging the work 
which the society he represents is do- 
ing for the children of Jugoslavia. 

Public education for children in 
Jugoslavia is provided until twelve 
years of age. After that it is usual, 
especially in Croatia, for boys and 
girls to work on the home farm, for 
Croatia is largely an agricultural 
country. There is no opportunity for 
the boys to learn a trade. As a matter of fact the country has 
no large industries and the opportunities for children to learn 
trades are rare. As a result Hrvatski Radisa plans to organ- 
ize and open collecting stations and homes for the children, 
and to provide model work shops to teach the different trades 
and equipment for physical and vocational training. 

During the past two years the society has had two thousand 
boys under its care. Up to the present time it has had to 
place the boys with employers. They live in their homes 
for a period of three years, in return for which they become 
apprentices in the employers' shops. If clothing is also pro- 
vided the child remains four years with his employer. Boot- 
making, carpentry, blacksmithing and the machinist trade are 
among the trades open at present. 

The society acts as guardian of the children and employs 
visitors who make investigations of the homes and visit the 
children during their period of apprenticeship. 

In addition to placing the children, schools for languages 
(particularly English), gymnastical associations (sokols), and 
a library have been established, and especial attention has 
been given to the teaching of thrift, and to musical education 
by the opening of singing and other musical clubs. Recently 
the society has enlarged the scope of its educational work. 
This has been extended to include lectures on tuberculosis, 
eugenics, the rearing of children, prohibition and the reform 
of schools. These lectures are undertaken as a form of propa- 
ganda to arouse the people to a need of industry and educa- 
tion, if they are to become self-governing. In its educational 
work the society counts on the help of America and other 
countries. It is sending apprentices to the United States, 
Belgium, France, Czecho-Slovakia, and Switzerland, to give 
them an opportunity to increase their technical skill and view- 
point so that they may aid in the building up of their country. 
An interesting phase of the work is the decision of Hrvatski 

Radisa to give particular attention to its emigrants. There are 
about 400,000 Croats in America, mostly of whom are in 
industrial plants and on farms. The society plans to acquaint 
prospective emigrants in Croatia with the standards of Amer- 
ican life and institutions, and with the English language, that 
they may be able to take advantage of the American institu- 
tions and may not easily fall victims to unscrupulous 

In pledging $25,000 to Hrvatski Radisa last week, the 
Croatian Society of Pittsburgh made the first American con- 
tribution to the organization since Mr. Jobst's arrival in this 


GOL. CHARLES R. FORBES, director of the United 
States Veterans' Bureau, who recently completed a 
country-wide inspection of hospitals and training schools 
for disabled soldiers, last week publicly charged that former 
service men in many instances have been placed in sweat- 
shops and "mushroom" concerns which have sprung up as a 
result of the cheap labor available through the present system 
of veteran training. The men are not being given the train- 
ing contemplated by the government, he states, but are, rather, 
being used as a source of cheap labor for the purpose of earn- 
ing profits for the managers of these enterprises. 

According to the present system, the government pays $100 
a month to the soldier in addition to maintenance for his 
family, and a fee to the concern which is theoretically training 
him. It has become common practice, according to Colonel 
Forbes, for the firm employing the veterans to pay them 
something in addition to what they receive from the govern- 
ment. Although such a fee may exceed the amount the firm 
receives from the government, it is less than that "paid for 
similar services to civilians in similar employment." 

Colonel Forbes also questions if even 5 per cent of the 
entire 6,000 veterans, represented as rehabilitated, are actually - ' 
engaged in the work assigned to them by the governmerr 
He says, "They are accepted for certain classes of training i | 
designated institutions and all too frequently are assigned t I 
some other class of work which will make the proprietoij 
more money for himself." He, therefore, proposes to close 
each one of these so-called "mushroom" concerns. He esti- 
mates that there are forty or fifty different types of suck 
organizations in which there are 30,000 of the IOO,000 
veterans now receiving vocational training. "It is nothing 
short of slavery to put men in certain types of these institu- 
tions," is Colonel Forbes' characterization of the practice. 

In general, the present director of the bureau is opposed to 
the contract system which has made this situation possible. 
He does not include the universities and colleges where the 
men are receiving proper training, in his condemnation. To 
offset the contract system he proposes the establishment of 
four national schools for the training of the former service 
men in all phases of their chosen vocations. In addition to 
the schools he also suggests the creation of employment offices I 
and a follow-up system so that a man may be given specialized 
assistance. Graduates of the national schools would be given 
certificates as journeymen under a guarantee of the govern- j 


TWO typographical errors appeared in recent issues ol 
the Survey. The omission of "a" before director in th 
issue for October 1, The Gist of It, page 3, line 24, ij 
misleading. Mr. Bruere is not the director but a member of 
the board of directors of the National Railways of Mexico. 

In the issue for October 8, under Training Visiting Teaclj 
ers, page 56, second column, fourth line from the bottom, trj 
word "four" should read "some" as the Pennsylvania Scho 1 , 
for Social Service is an institution of fourteen years' standin j 

h » 




The neiu chairman of the Central Committee of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross. Mr. Payne succeeds Livingston Farrand, 
M.D., <who resigned last summer to accept the presidency 
of Cornell University. A Chicagoan, Judge Payne fol- 
lowed Franklin K. Lane as secretary of the interior and 
has also served as director of the Shipping Board. It is 
not anticipated that he will inaugurate any immediate 
change in Red Cross policies 


THE American Red Cross has held its first national con- 
vention. People from villages and towns and the rural 
districts were especially in evidence at the meeting held 
in Columbus last week for the conference was called primarily 
for volunteer and chapter members. The gathering, which 
marked the end of the two-years' demonstration period of the 
peacetime program of the organization, did not indicate that 
a radical departure is intended in future policies, but rather 
that there is a swinging away from wartime impulses and a 
settling down to a normal, regular program. 

The enthusiasm among the conference members and the 
large attendance were an indication of the vitality which still 
characterizes the movement. There are, it was shown, about 
3,000 active Red Cross chapters in the country which are 
carrying on work for the sick and disabled veterans, nutrition 
classes and health centers, first aid, nursing and other 
activities. Although the national organization is budgeted 
and financed until July first of next year, the local chapters 
are dependent upon the public for further support. In spite 
of the fact that 8,000,000 members will be sought during the 
Fifth Red Cross Roll Call to be held November 11-24, it will 
therefore be necessary for many of the chapters to raise ad- 
ditional funds. 

Probably the outstanding feature of the whole conference 
was the presentation of the pageant, the Red Cross of Peace, 
which included more than 2,000 persons in its caste, and 
presented the comprehensive story of service down through 
the ages beginning with the time of Christ. 

All through the sessions emphasis was placed upon the 
responsibility incumbent upon the Red Cross for fulfilling its 
obligations to the disabled soldiers. 

England's Unemployed 

London, September 25. 

IN the last six months the shadow of unemployment 
has lain heavily across the face of English industry. 
Men have everywhere been thrown out of work; wages 
have everywhere been reduced ; and not an atom of 
evidence exists anywhere to manifest a real desire on the 
part of the Government to come to grips with the problem. 
In part, indeed, the position is the result of the antagonism 
of opposing theories. "The whole industrial position of the 
country has been weakened," writes the London Times, "by 
a deliberate attempt on the part of both revolutionary and 
evolutionary socialists to graft practical socialism on to an 
individualistic growth." This, at least, goes part of the 
way to explain the wide abyss which separates the mind of 
Mr. Lloyd-George from the mind of the Trade Union Con- 
gress. But it does not explain the somnolence of the former 
during the whole of the summer. It is only now, when the 
temper of the unemployed shows signs of ugliness, that he 
has revealed any disposition to provide the country with a 
policy. And between provision and disposition there is still 
a gulf to be bridged. 

Broadly there are, at the moment, some million and a 
half workers put of employment; half a million more are 
on short time; and another quarter of a million will not 
become entitled to a second period of unemployment insur- 
ance pay until September next. There is no sign of a re- 
vival of trade. The collapsed exchanges of the continent 
fluctuate even more disastrously than a year ago; the Polish 
mark, for instance, which then stood at five hundred to the 
pound, now stands at fourteen thousand. The position here 
is simply that while there may be a trade revival, no plans 
ought to be built upon its coming; and that means an in- 
crease in the number of unemployed during the winter. It 
is an increase the more serious because large numbers of 
them fought for the country during the war ; and they rightly 
insist that they ought to be certain at least of the means of 
existence in return for their services. My impression is that 
revolutionary propaganda is making headway in England for 
the first time since the Armistice. It is not propaganda for 
any considered program. It does not imply allegiance to 
Moscow. It is simply a despairing sense that the utility of 
the present industrial system must have been exhausted, if 
this is its fruit. 

The temper of the workers may be gaged from many re- 
cent incidents. There have been riots at Liverpool and Glas- 
gow. Guardians have been besieged in their offices in Lon- 
don and Manchester by angry men demanding a scale of 
outdoor relief commensurate with the cost of living. The 
Borough Council of Poplar refused to pay its allocated con- 
tributions to the London County Council, and its members 
have gone to prison rather than obey the mandate of the 
High Court that they make the payment. The Borough 
Council of Bethnal Green has just decided to follow the ex- 
ample of Poplar ; and it is unquestionable that in many 
poorer districts where labor is in control the same attitude 
will be taken. Rates, of course, fall upon the occupier ; and 
it is intolerable that the' burden should be light in a rich 
district such as Hampstead and heavy in a poor district such 
as Poplar. The labor mayors of London have invaded the 
Premier's house in Scotland despite repeated refusals and 
evasions on his part; and they have forced him to review the 
whole position in terms he would not for a moment have 
contemplated six months ago. It is not, indeed, too much 
to say that even the Irish situation is, for most people, quite 
eclipsed in importance by the unemployment question. A 
distinguished member of the House of Commons told me 



that in his opinion Ireland would be almost an irrelevant 
issue if a general election took place. 

It cannot be said that the employers as a whole have assisted 
in minimizing the depression. Here and there a great firm 
like Guest, Keen and Nettlefold has set a chivalrous example 
by keeping its works going at a loss rather than set several 
thousand men adrift. But, in the mass, their attitude has 
been one of pure reaction. They see only that the cost of 
production must be reduced ; wages are a large part of the 
cost of production; and they therefore are spending their 
time in forcing reductions in wages which are often, as in 
the case of the miners, quite reckless and wanton. It does 
not seem to occur to them, as Mr. Snowden has pointed out, 
that there is a definite economy in high wages, and that it 
will pay them better to interest the men in their work and 
so insure an increased productivity than to produce in them 
a mood which insures ca' canny and distrust. They rightly 
protest against the crushing weight of taxation; but they 
do not insist on cancelling the orders for four new battleships 
and withdrawing our costly troops from Mesopotamia and 
the occupied territory of Germany. What, on the contrary, 
they do demand is the reduction of expenditure in the one 
obvious economy of education, the closing of school clinics 
and maternity centers. They have secured an inquiry which 
aims at the abolition of the trades boards; and the magistrates 
of Portsmouth have actually dismissed a prosecution for 
violating the Trade Boards Act. I do not think this last 
outrageous demand will succeed ; for when an employer de- 
clares, as the defendant did in the Portsmouth case, that 
fourpence an hour is adequate remuneration, he digs a pit 
into which even the present numb social conscience will see 
that he falls. The employers, in fact, are their own worst 
enemies. They do not see how much of the whole problem 
is a psychological one. They do not attempt to organize, by 
means of insurance, a relative security of industrial tenure, 
the absence of which is the main source of discontent. They 
are utterly indifferent to industrial education. The problem 
of hours of labor does not seem to impinge upon their con- 
sciousness. That the root of labor's slackness (which is, 
I think, undeniable) is an unsatisfied desire to play a part 
in the direction of industry seems beyond their understanding. 

The Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union Con- 
gress and the Executive of the Labor Party have today issued 
a joint statement which is probably as fair an index as could 
be had of the general attitude of labor. They admit that the 
workers must render more efficient service than they are do- 
ing now ; but they point out that reasonable hours and con- 
ditions of unemployment and adequate wages are the only 
means by which that efficiency can be evoked. They insist 
that the problem must be dealt with nationally and not 
locally. "Unemployment in the cotton industry," says their 
manifesto, "is caused by factors which have as little to do 
with the rate payers of Bolton as they have with the rate 
payers of Stoke-on-Trent." That is obvious enough, and even 
non-labor municipal councils have been insistent on pointing 
out the same wholesome truth to the Premier and the ministry 
of health. Their remedies fall under three heads: provision 
of work ; relief works ; maintenance. It is worth while to 
summarize their proposals upon each of these. 

The Labor Party takes its stand upon the natural right of 
every man to have work provided for him. It cannot, of 
course, take any other attitude; and it is probable that no 
party in the state would dare to deny its justice to the 
electorate at large. The manifesto suggests two methods to 
secure this end: First, all government departments should 
anticipate their want of stores and issue immediate orders for 
them. This is an unexceptionable method ; but it is at least 
doubtful whether it would make any vital difference to the 
situation. Second, the government should place orders for 
goods and market them in the distressed countries of Europe 

on long credit. I do not think this plea is likely to succeed 
for three reasons: (a) The press has (quite unjustifiably) 
so destroyed the reputation of government as a trader that 
the opinion of the business world would be adamant against 
its undertaking that function once more, (b) The Disposals 
Board has not yet been able to sell the surplus stores ac- 
cumulated during the war, even at a great loss. It is not 
likely therefore that the treasury would be persuaded to 
undertake a new and complex effort of the kind, (c) Who 
is to bear the contingent loss of such an experiment? The 
credit of Poland, for instance, is worth nothing. If the burden 
fell again upon the taxpayer, he would be utterly crushed be- 
neath an overwhelming load. 

The provision of relief works is essential provided they are 
of genuine public utility. They could be of two kinds : The 
government might usefully undertake the development of the 
electrical power of the country in accordance with the ad- 
mirable report of Lord Haldane's committee. The difficulty 
here is. that Lord Haldane assumed (obviously rightly) that 
the control of electricity should be public; at present, strong 
private interests stand in the way of the adoption of that 
report, (b) There is great need also for the development 
of light railways and canals to minimize the burden of traffic 
on the central roads, and to link up districts which are now 
relatively inaccessible from centers of population, (c) There 
are many municipalities with local schemes in mind. These 
could be undertaken provided the treasury gave financial 
assistance; for it is clear, to take an example, that Poplar 
cannot build new baths with its rates at twenty-one shillings 
in the pound. It would, of course, be important to penalize 
local maladministration of such schemes by a graduated tcale 
of assistance. On the whole, with proper imagination and 
central control, there is a great margin of utility here. 

The problem of maintenance raises issues of the highest 
complexity. The Labor Party, if the claims of its representa- 
tives on local bodies may be taken as an index to its assump- 
tions, wants a scale of maintenance fully equal to the cost of 
living. One recent scale, for example, suggests £3-15-0 for a 
husband and wife, five shillings per week for each child, 
together with a rent and coal allowance. Apart from the 
immense financial difficulties involved, it seems clear that any 
relief which might either tend to perpetuate the habit of un- 
employment or which contains no safeguard against lack of 
effort to obtain work, is socially dangerous. Sir William 
Beveridge has shown that in the trade unions there is a 
definite class of men to whom unemployment pay is the 
normal method of life. They do not, says Charles Booth, 
"get as much as three days' work a week, but it is doubtful 
if any of them could or would work full time for long to- 
gether if they had the opportunity." It is obviously funda- 
mental to prevent this class being parasitic upon the com- 
munity, particularly in a period of special financial strain. 
Any unemployment relief ought therefore to be less than a 
man is accustomed to earn and should be given in connection 
with his effort to obtain work as measured by his relation 
to the labor exchange and the trade union, and dependent 
upon the degree to which he has other sources of income. 
Where, for instance, the father of four children all at work 
and bringing nine pounds a week into the house is temporarily 
unemployed, he ought not to receive relief in the same way 
as the father of four small children with no source of income 
except his own labor. No one who studies the policy and 
speeches of labor leaders can avoid the feeling that they have 
been satisfied to insist upon the principle of maintenance 
without fully exploring its application; above all, without 
properly considering its relation to the present scheme of un- 
employment insurance. 

In my next article, I shall deal with the government plan 
which is now in process of complete revision and is to be 
announced next week. Harold J. Lasiu. 

Vachel Lindsay— A Folk Poet 

Bv Paul L. Benjamin 

VACHEL LINDSAY is a pagan with a puritan 
complex. He is the social reformer stumping his 
state for prohibition. He is the evangelist preaching 
the gospel of beauty. He is the dashing, gallant 
Villon — the minnesinger, the troubadour. He is a modern 
Johnny Appleseed, sowing the winged seeds of song. He is all 
these — and more. He is the singing heart of the common life 
about us, but caught in the prism of a poet's imagination. 
Many of the critics have failed to perceive this note in his 
art. They have hailed him as the jazz poet, the "ballyhoo 
man," "a white Negro minstrel show," "Homer chanting to 
his Greeks." Fundamentally he is a folk poet of America, 
singing of the hearth-fires of Springfield, the cornfields of 
Kansas, the Salvation Army lassies rattling their tambourines, 
the blacksmith aristocracy, their anvil wings of fire. 

This folk side of Lindsay is shown in one of his most recent 
long poems, In Praise of Johnny Appleseed, published in the 
Century for August. The tale of John Chapman, or Johnny 
Appleseed, who was born in New England in 1775 and died 
near Fort Wayne in 1847, is already taking its place among 
the folk stories of the continent. For nearly fifty years he 
went barefoot through the wilderness, "clothed only in an 
old coffee-sack, with holes for his head and arms." He sowed 
orchards behind him for the pioneer children of another gen- 
eration. To the Indians he was a great "medicine man." He 
made his medicine alone, "with the first west flying bees, and 
the first of the west blown wheat." Lindsay's poem should 
be chanted aloud. It has his quaint humor, the flavor of col- 
loquial speech such as the railsplitter Lincoln might have 
heard as a boy, and the Lindsay singing quality, but not the 
exquisite touch that pervades the Chinese Nightingale and 
some of his other poems : 

Johnny Appleseed swept on, 
Every shackle gone 
Loving every sloshy brake, 
Loving every skunk and snake, 
Loving every leathery weed, 
Johnny Appleseed, Johnny Appleseed. 

In a different way and in another medium this folk side is 
brought out in Vachel Lindsay's most recent book, The 
Golden Book of Springfield (Macmillan Co.). In this, to be 
sure, he is also the prophet of a new day, golden shod. It is 
intended as the "review of a book that will appear in the 
autumn of the year 2018, and an extended description of 
Springfield, Illinois, in that year." This book belongs upon 
the same shelf as Shelby M. Harrison's Social Conditions in 
an American City, published by the Russell Sage Foundation. 
It is a companion volume. Indeed, for a long time, the 
Golden Book bore the sub-title, A Comment on the Spring- 
field Survey. As he wrote to Mr. Harrison : "Every Spring- 
field Survey report I read aloud to some Springfield citizen 
about three years ago, and at first my book was just a treatise 
and comment on these readings, but slowly the characters 
emerged, half alive, dim things." Into the Golden Book has 
gone much of the solvent of the survey. "You and I have a 
precisely similar goal," Lindsay writes further, "to give our 
city such an imagination about itself, it will set all other 
cities afire about themselves. A tremendous, long continued, 
psychological pressure is necessary." 

1 The third of a series of articles by Mr. Benjamin on the Social Poets. 
The first. Carl Sandburg, appeared in the Survey for October 2, 1920; the 
seco»d, Robert Frost, in the Subvey for November 27, 1920. 

The Golden Book of Springfield is a description of the 
year 2018 — a quaint, curious book. Here is Avanel on a 
white horse, the League of Nations, Cave Man Thomas, the 
Green Glass Buddha and other equally interesting personages. 
It is a singularly fantastic tale with a Romany strain. Into 
it, Lindsay has poured his emotion, his social philosophy. Set 
in the flow of the story are speeches and visions. Much of 
the book is as dull and heavy as a London fog. It is not one 
to read for sheer enjoyment, but rather one to brood and 
mull over. In many ways we envy the Springfield of 2018. 
Little children do not live stunted or dwarfed lives; men and 
women can enjoy the sweet fruits of labor. Here, for in- 
stance, is the preacher talking in the cathedral : 

Springfield has no tenements, but until the life of the United 
States outside of Springfield has its larger hours of leisure 
and more green clear spaces in which to cultivate codes and 
fine observances between boy and girl, the custom of selling 
the young girls to the slaughter will leap over the double Gothic 
walls and invade these groves and parks we call Springfield. 

In his private writings, however, and in intimate con- 
tacts, Lindsay, the hater of injustice, Lindsay, the torch-bear- 
er, Lindsay, the robust American, is best seen. Probably this 
love of people, this scorn for sham and pretense, this uncanny 
understanding of life, is a pattern of his own mingling with 
crowds or of tramping the long stretches of the Kansas prai- 
rie. His own life has given him' a deep sympathy for folks. 
I can see him as he tells of it, chatting at the Cliff Dwellers, 
one of Chicago's literary clubs, or striding under the night 
stars. At first glance he looks the wholesome farmer, but 
upon closer observance one feels subtly that here is a sensitive 
individual with a passionate love of beauty. There are gray- 
ish eyes flecked with blue, a forehand that bulges above them, 
sandy hair. His is the face of a dreamer. When in con- 
versation among friends his face is animated an 1 aglow. His 
voice is now raucous and now possesses a deep, vibrant qual- 
ity. There is something solid and substantial and yet elusive 
about him — a robust Puck, born in a middle western town. 

"All the doors were closed to me in New York," he once 
said to the writer. "I was buffeted and beaten. No maga- 
zine would publish my work. I could not even secure an 
opening on a newspaper. But I found that there were people 
who would not let me go hungry — that was out on the open 
road. Yes, the open road is a symbol to me of opportunity 
and of the unfolding of life." 

He was probably speaking of that period in his life when 
he was delivering tickets for the West Side Y. M. C. A., 
New York, three days a week and lecturing on art in the 
association building or studying the rest of the time. Charles 
F. Powlison, general secretary of the National Child Wel- 
fare Association, who was religious work secretary at the 
West Side Y. M. C. A. at the time, tells how Lindsay came 
to him one day and said in a hoarse voice, "I want to break 
into literature." "All right," replied Powlison, "but it will 
be necessary for you to do something out of the ordinary to 
attract attention." 

Out of that came Lindsay's first trip as a wandering min- 
strel. Later came his tramps across Illinois, Missouri, Kan- 
sas, up and down Colorado, and into New Mexico, wearing 
yellow corduroys, a fancy sombrero and an oriflamme tie, 
and carrying his Gospel of Beauty — the creed of "that vain 
and foolish mendicant Nicholas Vachel Lindsay" — and his 




little booklet, Rhymes to Be Traded for Bread, in the little, 

shabby oil-cloth pack. In the Gospel of Beauty, he says with 

the quaint flavor that is so much Lindsay: 

I come to you penniless and afoot, to bring a message. I 
am starting a new religious idea. The idea does not say "no" 
to any creed that you have heard. . . . After this, let the de- 
nomination to which you now belong be called in your heart 
"the church of beauty" or "the church of the open sky." 

Here we also find that religious fervor which lights up so 
much of Lindsay's work. The reason for living "should be 
that joy in beauty which no wounds can take away, and that 
joy in the love of God which no crucifixion can end." 

Out of such experiences has come the Lindsay with his 
social gospel, with his staunch, almost dour independence, with 
his dreams which can shatter towers of ivory. He has funda- 
mental faith in the blacksmith democracy. "On the anvils 
of our Springfield blacksmiths," he writes, "are being ham- 
mered out new Damascus blades far keener and more supple 
than of old, the blades of a new democracy, alert, devout, 
patriarchial, artistic, American." His grounds this faith in 
the hearths and firesides where at least an older generation 
has gathered about the family circle for prayer. He believes 
that in a hundred years children nurtured around those fire- 
sides will rule by the power of their dreams alone. 

It was to be expected, therefore, that the poems which he 
himself considers to hold in solution his theory of American 
civilization are the triad — The Proud Farmer, the Illinois 
Village, and On the Building of Springfield (General Wil- 
liam Booth Enters into Heaven and Other Poems, Mac- 
millan Co.). In their simplicity they have a Whittier-like 

For example, this opens the Illinois Farmer: 

O you who lose the art of hope, 
Whose temples seem to shrine a lie, 
Whose sidewalks are but stones of fear, 
Who weep that liberty must die 
Turn to the little prairie towns, 
You higher hope shall yet begin 
On every side awaits you there 
Some gate where glory enters in. 

He can also out-Rand the Rand School in his fiery denun- 
ciation of injustice. He wars against the money-mad ma- 
chines and the monotonous routine which enslaves men to 
endless uniform motions. He thinks that free speech is "far 
more destructive of tyranny in high places than any other 
theory or complicated device." This social philosophy is 
fused in his poem, The Leaden Eyed: 

Let not young souls be smothered out before 
They do quaint deeds and fully flaunt their pride. 
It is the world's one crime its babes grow dull, 
Its poor are ox-like, limp and leaden-eyed. 
Not that they starve, but starve so dreamlessly, 
Not that they sow, but that they seldom reap, 
Not that they serve, but have no gods to serve, \ 
Not that they die, but that they die like sheep. 

Lindsay is an indefatigable worker. The Golden Book 
was rewritten some fifty times. He carries around with him 
for months poems which are labored over until the copies 
become tattered with much use. He reads them to the man- 
in-the-street for his criticisms. He sends them to his poet 
friends. Part of his creed of beauty is a desire for an ar- 
tistic America. In order to help to bring that to consum- 
mation, he prefers to appear before high school students. He 
has sworn off going before women's clubs because they gene- 
rally refuse to act as patrons for the high schools and the 
colleges. Naively he says: "I prefer hostesses who do their 
own work, and who also read. Almost any college profes- 
sor's wife is this sort, but the women's clubs hate such people 
with a deadly hatred." He is scathing of the husbands, whose 

"only idealism is to keep wives like these supplied with tea, 
poets, and servants, while they, themselves, as good business 
men, keep on looking like planks of the Republican platform, 
every minute, and attending peppy business men's banquets." 
But fortunately, Vachel Lindsay the poet is something 
more than Vachel Lindsay the social reformer. The arresting 
thing in a study of his poetry is his amazing versatility, rang- 
ing from the chanting of General William Booth Enters into 
Heaven, to the sheer abandon of the Kallyope Yell: 

I am the Gutter Dream, 
Tune maker, born of steam, 
Tooting joy, tooting hope, 
I am the Kallyope; 

the fantasies of the Potato Dance and the Queen of Bubbles, 
the tang of the Santa-Fe Trail and the lyrical beauty of other 
poems and passages. For a long poem the Chinese Nightin- 
gale is one of the most sustained that has come from an Amer- 
ican poet in many a day. In the Santa-Fe Trail, the bird 
called the Rachel-Jane, not to be outdone by the snarling and 
brawling of the automobile horns, sings in a hedge at the 
side of the dusty road : 

Love and life, 

Eternal youth — 

Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet, 

Dew and glory 

Love and truth, 

Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet. 

But perhaps his biggest contribution to American poetry 
is his emphasis upon a singing art. Harriet Monroe, editor 
of Poetry, in the introduction to Lindsay's volume, The 
Congo and Other Poems, writes that the first section "is 
especially an effort to restore poetry to its proper place, the 
audience-chamber, and take it out of the library, the closet. 
In the library it has become, so far as the people are con- 
cerned, almost a lost art, and perhaps it can be restored to 
the people only through a renewal of its appeal to the ear." 

The Congo begins : 

Fat black bucks in a wine-barrel room, 

Barrel-house Kings, with feet unstable, 

Sagged and reeled and pounded on the table, 

Pounded on the table 

Beat an empty barrel with the handle of a broom, 

Hard as they were able, 

Boom, boom, Boom. 

Probably his most popular short poem and one of those 

upon which his fame may most securely rest in the future is 

Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight. A lank, bowed figure 

is pacing up and down near the old court house with the 

moving stanzas as their message for a war-torn world : 

He cannot rest until a spirit-dawn 
Shall come; — the shining hope of Europe free: 
The league of sober folk, the Worker's Earth, 
Bringing long peace to Cornland, Alp and Sea. 

It breaks his heart that Kings must murder still, 
That all his hours of travail here for men 
Seem yet in vain. And who will bring white peace 
That he may sleep upon his hill again? 

It is this mastery of the forms of his art that ranks Vachel 
Lindsay among the greatest living American poets. And 
through it all he is the apostle of the common man, the bearer 
of dreams in his hands. The words of Lindsay, the torch- 
bearer, have meat for the heresy-hunters of today: 

We cry for the light. It is our symbol and hope. Greatly 
to the annoyance of all those ladies and gentlemen who would 
rule us while only nominally consulting us, there is the same 
torch-fire to be found in the Declaration of Independence and 
the Emancipation Proclamation. Every corporation that would 
rule a city hates those documents and fears them. They insist 
on the flag, but never on the documents. But there is that 
which baffles them forevermore, this vision of torches, rising 
from the hearthstones of devout cottages, while the censors 
of the angels are swinging. 





Conducted by 

Did Labor Prosper during the War: 


ECONOMISTS generally agree that alterations in com- 
modity prices usually precede changes in wages. In a 
period of rising prices the cost of commodities moves up- 
wards first; the rise in wages follows. Likewise the down- 
ward trend in prices begins before a similar movement in 
wages. It is held that, partly because of this phenomenon, 
a period of rising prices induces business expansion, for al- 
though wages are advancing they are not doing so as rapidly 
as prices, and this enables the business man to make unusual 
profits. This is especially true in those branches of trade 
where the wages bill forms a relatively large part of the cost 
of production. It is, perhaps, less important to determine 
whether or not such periods afford marked opportunities to 
reap rich harvests in business, than to determine their effect 
upon the condition of the worker. Did labor benefit by the 
prosperity that accompanied the war or was its position less 
advantageous than before? 

One of the best sources of wage statistics is The Labor 
Market Bulletin issued monthly by the New York State 
Industrial Commission. The data here given are average 
weekly earnings as reported* by 1,648 representative firms 
with over 475, o<x» employes and a weekly pay roll of over 

There is some disadvantage in confining one's attention to 
the statistics of a single state and on this basis attempting to 
draw general conclusions, but in the case of New York this 
objection is reduced to the minimum, because of the magnitude 
and variety of its industrial activity, and also because manu- 
facturing conditions there may be considered as typical. 

In conducting a study of this nature attention has often 
been confined to wage rates rather than to earnings. How- 
ever, it takes but a moment's reflection to see that wage rates 
are inadequate as an index of the worker's income since they 
do not show the effect of short time or over-time, both of 
which are reflected in statistics of actual earnings. 

The most accurate measure of living costs would be an 
index number representing a complete family budget. Al- 
though attempts have been made to construct such an index 
the results are not altogether satisfactory. On the whole 
it may be said that the index of retail food prices, published 
monthly by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
reflects changes in the cost of living with considerable ac- 
curacy. This is true because in the average household the 
expenditure for food is the largest item, and because in the 
Labor Bureau index only those articles are included that en- 

ter into the budget of a typical American workingman's fam- 
ily. This does not give us a perfect barometer of living 
costs, but at the present time it is the best available and is 
the one used in this analysis. 

In order to indicate at any given time the relation of wages 
to necessary living costs we have constructed what may be 
called a welfare ratio. It is the ratio of wages to the retail 
price of food. An arbitrary starting point is taken from 
which to measure changes in wages and prices. As shown in 
the accompanying table this point is June, 1914, a represen- 
tative month in manufacturing and a time when conditions 
were normal as contrasted with the period of industrial ac- 
tivity and depression that followed. 

Whenever this number is less than iOO it indicates that 
wages are lagging behind the cost of living, and, consequently, 
that the worker is not as well off as he was when our in- 
vestigation started, in June, 1914. And the lower this num- 
ber the less favorable is his position. The reverse, of course, 
also holds true: the higher the number the more favorable 
is the situation of the worker. 

If one examines this table the following situation is re- 
vealed: For the entire 6 months reported in 1914, wages 
range below the cost of living. The lowest mark is 9 points 
below, and the average for the period 7 points below. 

In 1915, wages range below the cost of living in 6 months 
out of the 12, the greatest difference being 6 points. In 
the remaining 6 months, wages and living costs are on even 
terms in 2 months, and in advance, by a margin of 1 point, 
in 4 months. The average for the year shows wages trailing 
by 1 point. 

Also in 1916 wages are behind living costs for half of the 
year. The maximum deficiency in any month is 6 points. 
In 2 months wages and living costs are on a par, while in 
4 months wages are in the lead, the greatest excess being 2 
points. For the year as a whole wages average 1 point be- 
low the cost of living. 

The most marked contrast appears in 191 7. In every 
month wages have increased less than have living costs. In 
May and June this difference is as much as 17 points. The 
average for the year is 12 points below. 

In 1918 one finds a similar story. The statistics indicate 
that for the entire 12 months wages are behind living costs. 
The greatest difference noted is one of 18 points. The aver- 
age for the year is 6 points below. 

Seven months of 191 9 show wages behind living costs. 


(Index numbers with June, 1914, as 100) 




March . . . 
April .... 


Tune .... 







for year 


•o X 

O v 



99 108 


100 100 

103 96 




98 105 93 

41 *o X 














101 102 




T! X 














114 115 




O 4J 




129 147 


•o x 
° *! 



« r.-~ 




160 170 94 


•a x 

« t.,5 















185 188 98 



•a x 




fa J5 




'a v 














































•a x 
fc .5 






In I month they are on even terms, in 4 months they are in 
excess. Wages range from 6 points below living costs to 4 
points above. The average wage deficiency for the year is 
2 points. 

The year 1920 tells a different story, for wages lead living 
costs in every month. The greatest difference is one of 24 
points, and the average excess for the year is 8 points. 

The first three months of 1921 show a continuation of the 
trend of 1920. Wages exceed living costs by 25, 32, and 
34 points, respectively. 

Let us sum up this rather detailed analysis. Of the 81 
months under review from June, 1914, to March, 1921, 
wages are behind the cost of living in 49 months, which is 
60.5 per cent of the total ; they are on even terms in 5 months, 
which is 6.2 per cent of the total, and exceed living costs in 
27 months or 33.3 per cent of the total. 

In view of these figures, one is justified in asking how the 
"silk-shirted" mechanics and other evidences of the orgy of 
spending among the working classes are to be explained. The 
answer is twofold. In the first place the reckless extrava- 
gance of a relatively small but favored group has been given 
such wide publicity as to convey the impression that the situ- 
ation was representative of the working class as a whole. In 
the second place, for a time a general recklessness in expen- 
diture did take place, although it was not justified by the re- 
lation of wages to living costs. To the average man a dollar 
is a dollar in spite of its depreciated value. If wages rise 
rapidly a feeling of prosperity overcomes him, his expenditure 
assumes new forms, and it is only after a lapse of time that 
he realizes his course is leading to bankruptcy. 

It is necessary to bear in mind that even from the view- 
point of welfare our table does not tell a complete story. 
Workers as a whole benefited by the increased numbers em- 
ployed. In many families all members were engaged in full 
time work, and the wages paid the less efficient were con- 
siderably more than they could have obtained in a time of 
normal demand. Neither does the table show that in the 
recent stage, when living costs are declining more rapidly 
than wages, employment is scarce. Those who are employed 
are certainly benefiting by the readjustment, but the total 
number employed has considerably decreased. This probably 
means a reduction in the total family income, and in some 
measure offsets the advantage of declining prices. 

Our statistical material is not sufficiently inclusive to en- 
able us to make deductions with mathematical exactness; 
but such evidence as there is points to the conclusion that 
the worker, if he did not suffer, at least did not prosper, in 
the late industrial boom. Edward Taylor Bullock. 

Currents in Industry 

THE old picture of the typical English Quaker as the 
embodiment of the middle-class virtues is no longer a 
true picture, according to an article in a recent number of 
The Constructive Quarterly, by Herbert H. Horwill. There 
is just now among the Friends, he says, not only a wide- 
spread discontent with the old social order, but an intense 
mental (and spiritual) activity in planning for a new one. 
Confronted with the great fundamental problems rising out 
of the war, the Quakers appointed in 191 5 a Committee on 
War and the Social Order and subsequently held a confer- 
ence of the Society of Friends to consider the "implications 
of the Christian testimony in relation to existing social con- 
ditions." The series of "messages issued at the close of the 
conference advocate no one specific social program but revive 
some of the old ideals of the Society of Friends, which, if 
faithfully adapted and acted upon, would soon introduce a 
new era," says Mr. Horwill. 

Many schemes have been promulgated by individual 
Quakers in the spirit of these "messages." Among the most 
notable are Malcolm Sparkes' plan for national industrial 

parliaments accepted as the basis of the new Building Trades 
Council and the state bonus plan drawn up by Dennis Milner 
"based on the claim that the state is under obligation to 
provide a minimum of economic security to every individual," 
this to be effected by "distributing equally among all persons 
some fixed percentage of the national income, say 20 per cent, 
to be raised by tax on all incomes, to be collected at the 
source." Another scheme on a much larger scale, being 
translated into reality, is New Town, "a proposal in agri- 
cultural, industrial, educational, civic and social reconstruc- 
tion." An adequate description of the aims of the experiment 
upon which a book has been written is obviously impossible 
here, but the spirit of those back of it is expressed in a passage 
from the recent Conference of All Friends quoted by Mr. 
Horwill : "As nations and individuals we have been thinking 
too much of possessions and power, too little of service and 
mutual helpfulness. The one thing that matters in our 
whole social structure is human personality, yet often we lose 
this essential fact in abstractions. We speak of a nation as 
'the enemy,' we talk of a group as 'labor' or 'capital' and we 
forget the men and women who make up the group and who 
are the only realities there, each of them different, yet each 
of them bearing the impress of the Divine and capable of a 
new birth into a new social order." 

THE economic loss caused by industrial accidents in the 
United States amounts to $1,000,000,000 yearly, according 
to estimates submitted by the secretary of the National Safety 
Council to the recent convention of the International Asso- 
ciation of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. The 
wage loss approximates $853,000,000, it was stated, and other 
costs — surgical, hospital and administrative expense in connec- 
tion with compensatable accidents — further add $161,000,000 
to the bill. A report of a committee of the American En- 
gineering Council shows that eye accidents are a leading 
source of avoidable national waste. The total number of 
industrial blind is estimated at 15,000 or 13.5 per cent of the 
total blind population, and the eye is said to be involved in 
10.6 per cent of all permanently disabling accidents. 

ALTHOUGH wages are on the decline, food prices have 
again begun to rise. The retail food index issued by the 
Department of Labor shows an increase of 4.3 per cent in 
the retail cost of food to the average family in August as 
compared with July. The index is compiled from returns 
from fifty-one important cities in this country. 

THE Packers and Stockyards Administration which was 
recently created under the Packers and Stockyards Act has 
begun the work of collecting information as to the designa- 
tion of the stockyard companies that will come under the 
jurisdiction of the new law, as well as the personnel of the 
commission men and others who are subject to the law's pro- 
visions. About seventy stockyards in as many cities will be 
subject to the rulings of the new unit which is a sub-divi- 
sion of the Department of Agriculture. 

"DURING the past ten years California has witnessed a 
complete transformation in the living conditions of her migra- 
tory laborer." To readers of the late Carleton Parker's ex- 
pose of the conditions under which the casual laborer until 
recently was forced to live, this statement by R. Justin 
Miller, a member of the California Commission of Immi- 
gration and Housing, before the American Public Health 
Association meeting in San Francisco in September, is wel- 
come. The indiscriminate nature of the crowds of people 
brought together in the crudely constructed camps; the ex- 
treme irregularity of employment; the complete lack of sani- 
tary facilities of any kind ; the absence of the primary es- 
sentials of decent living led finally to a crisis in the Wheat- 
land Hop Riots of 1913. Since the regulation of conditions 




under the Labor Camp Sanitation Act of 1913, and especially 
since the administration of the act has been transferred from 
the State Board of Health to the Commission of Immigra- 
tion and Housing, regular camp inspections have averaged 
more than a thousand a year. 

If the physical improvement of conditions, with the result- 
ing comfort of the worker on the one hand and the greater 
labor efficiency secured by the employer on the other, were 
the total results which had been secured, the Commission of 
Immigration and Housing would be entitled to the highest 
commendation. As a matter of fact, however, an inestimably 
greater result has been . . . secured, [Mr. Miller says]. Labor 
camps in California have proved a new and substantial 
basis for citizenship on the part of a class heretofore scarcely 
considered in the problem of government. 

With camps having proper sanitation the lower type of labor 
and the agitator are eliminated, Mr. Miller adds. Campers 
of today aid the inspectors by giving notice of bad condi- 
tions instead of nursing their grievances and indulging in 
violent outbursts that accomplish nothing. 

AVERAGE weekly earnings in manufacturing industries of 
the state increased seventeen cents from July to August, ac- 
cording to a report by Henry D. Sayer, industrial commis- 
sioner of New York State. The rise, in the average, despite 
the decline in wages in several industries, may be attributed 
to the increase in the volume of manufacturing and the ac- 
companying increase in working time in several industries. 
The discharge of the less important and lower paid workers 
and the retention of the better class of workers in many in- 
dustries still on the decline, was another factor. 

The increase of twenty-eight cents in average earnings 
from July to August occurred entirely in up-state factories; 
the New York city average declined seven cents. The aver- 
age increase does not represent a gain all along the line. 
Some industries showed wage reductions; others, less work- 
ing time; vacations, inventories and repairs, and lack of de- 
mand for their products (seasonal in some cases, and not 
in others) were causes of lowered working time in other 
industries. The report, culled from a tabulation of statistics 
from 1,648 statements of representative manufacturers in 
the state, shows that the average factory worker earned 
$25.43 a week during August. 

SAVINGS of $750,000 a day and a "40 per cent pick-up 
in effectiveness" are easily possible in the men's ready-to- 
wear clothing industry, the value of the output of which is 
fixed at a low estimate at about $600,000,000, according to 
a statement by the American Engineering Council's Com- 
mittee on Elimination of Waste in Industry. Management, 
labor and the public share responsibility for this enormous 
waste. "The most fundamental cause of waste is the tradi- 
tional fear-inspired sales policy which expresses itself in wide 
varieties and its attendant make-to-order basis of manufac- 
ture," the report states. Small lot manufacture is said to 
waste one-fifth of all the operative's time. Another leading 
cause of waste is the practice of bunching production into 
two short periods in the year. This practice in eight leading 
houses in New York, Chicago and Baltimore lead to an 
average production over a period of three years, of only 69 
per cent of the possible maximum and an 80 per cent loss 
of efficiency in the depths of extreme slack seasons. The 
committee suggests that each manufacturer limit the num- 
ber of styles, bridge the slack seasons by manufacturing for 
stock and adopt "vigorous selling methods backed up by ef- 
fective national advertising." Among the other sources of 
inefficiency are the slow progress away from the long-dis- 
credited but widely persistent sub-contracting system, and 
ill will of the workers, holding over from the days of bad 
working conditions and frequently-recurring seasons of un- 
employment. Cooperation between the manufacturers and 
the operators and especially between the manufacturers and 
the retailers is essential to any improvement of conditions. 

The Labor Press 

THE profound changes in labor conditions in Japan dur- 
ing recent years are attributed by Charles Edward 
Russell, in the American Federationist for September, to the 
influx of democratic ideals and the growth of Japan as an 
industrial nation. Twenty years ago, according to Mr. 
Russell, one man in twenty in Japan had the ballot. The 
worker was a coolie who labored thirteen or fourteen hours 
a day; and the general outlook for labor presented a dismal 
aspect indeed. In the last few years, however, the govern- 
ment no longer hangs the worker who dares to protest against 
conditions as he finds them ; but rather it is inclined to lend 
a somewhat anxious ear to his demands. Another symptom 
of the trend of things is the wide extent of the nationalization 
of Japanese industries. The railroads, the iron and steel, 
ammunition, salt and tobacco industries are all under whole 
or partial government supervision, and government monopoly 
of the sugar industry has been proposed. 

THE labor press has protested violently against the decision 
of Judge Landis of the United States District Court as 
arbitrator in the building industry in Chicago. The New 
Majority maintains that his assertion, in the award, that the 
cost of living had declined 20 per cent was based on figures 
compiled by "a notorious 'open shop' organization," and that 
the truth of the matter is that the cost of living has fallen 
only 12 per cent and is now once more on the up-grade. Judge 
Landis' attempt to prevent jurisdictional disputes by compiling 
a new wage scale, based upon the skill required and the 
danger and frequency of unemployment involved in each 
process, is severely criticized because of the necessary confusion 
which must arise from having the building mechanics and 
laborers divided into twenty different groups with twenty 
different wage rates. This, it is maintained, is a retrogression 
rather than a step away from jurisdictional disputes. The 
abolition of the minimum wage scale and the fixing of a 
maximum scale is considered another evidence of partiality. 
The provision that non-union men could be hired if con- 
tractors applied to the unions and men were not furnished 
within forty-eight hours, made strike action in protest against 
the decision impossible, according to the labor editors, and the 
hope of the builders, they say, lies in a re-hearing. 

THE All-American Cooperative Commission finds what 
would seem to be just cause for comment in the statement 
of Representative Sydney Anderson, chairman of the Joint 
Agricultural Commission of Inquiry recently appointed by 
Congress, that, "in general, thirty-seven cents of the con- 
sumer's dollar represents the cost of producing the article 
and the cost of all the materials that went into it." The 
remaining sixty-three cents goes to the middleman for his 
services in bringing the article from the farm or factory to 
the ultimate consumer. Mr. Anderson says: "This includes 
not only profits, but such overhead expenses as advertising, 
salesmanship, delivering and other special 'services.' " 

Senator Ladd, of North Dakota, according to the bulletin 
of the commission, has estimated that the farmer receives 
only thirty cents of every dollar paid by the consumer for 
farm products, while the middleman's share is seventy cents. 
Mr. Anderson believes that the exactions of middlemen can 
be reduced only through cooperative organization of producers 
and consumers. He says: 

After all; the producer and the consumer are the largest 
factors in the problem. They are the most numerous, but 
they are at the same time the least influential, because the 
products and the selling power of the one and the buying 
power of the other are unorganized. If we can find a way 
to organize the products and selling power of the consumer, 
we will have taken a long step in the solution of the problem 
of distribution. 

The commission is now waging a campaign to eliminate 



useless middlemen and bring together the farmer-producer and 
the organized city consumer. 

Striking instances of successful cooperation are cited by 
the commission in recent reports. The furniture workers of 
Great Britain are reported to have joined the builders referred 
to elsewhere in this issue in the formation of a national co- 
operative guild. They have declared that "it is possible to 
work industry on a no-profit basis; that labor must be the 
first charge on industry; and that cooperative production is 
as practical and scientific as the present system is sordid." 
The possibility of producing furniture on a cooperative basis 
has been demonstrated to be a practical success by the large 
factory of the English Cooperative Wholesale Society at 
Pelaw. Those fostering the new enterprise hope eventually 
to include every factory in the country by a gradual process 
of expansion to be achieved "not so much by the refusal of 
the well organized workers to make furniture for profit- 
seeking concerns, as by the fact that they can produce more 
and better and cheaper furniture than can these competitors." 
British workers, according to the commission, may now have 
their houses built by the cooperative building guild, furnished 
by the furniture makers' cooperative guild, equipped to last 
detail by the various factories of the Cooperative Wholesale 
Society, and insured by the Cooperative Assurance Society, 
all on a non-profit basis. 

Employers' Press 

THE abandonment in England of the government's organ- 
ized building policy has brought about what G. D. H. 
Cole has described in the Journal of the American Institute 
of Architects for September as an "appalling condition of 
affairs" from the point of view especially of housing reformers. 
Local authorities, except in a few instances, will not be in a 
position to supply funds for the construction of houses for 
workingmen out of the local treasuries. Thus, building in 
the future will be largely in the hands of private contractors. 
The building guild will have to think hereafter not so 
much in terms of big public contracts as of jobbing work for 
private purchasers, says Mr. Cole. 

Although the guilds have hitherto done a certain amount 
of private work — the Manchester Guild, for example, has 
recently carried out £10,000 of plumbing work in small con- 
tracts — they have regarded the erection of workingmen's 
houses by the community as the most pressing problem of the 
building industry. Under the former contract with the 
Ministiy of Health all work was carried out under the so- 
called cost-price form of contract, which meant that the 
guilds charged the cost price on each piece of construction, 
plus a lump sum of £40 to cover the cost of "industrial 
maintenance." Obviously, under such an arrangement the 
payment of any form of surplus to the guild, or of a sum in 
excess of the regularly established rate of wages to any 
worker, was impossible. The private purchaser, however, 
must always know definitely in advance his maximum liability 
for the job to be done. Hence guilds are faced with the 
necessity of adopting a new basis of contract-making to suit 
the new conditions. 

The private builder's method of quoting a lump-sum price 
for the job pocketing the surplus if the actual cost worked 
out at less than estimated, or standing the loss in the event 
of the estimate being exceeded, was considered by the guild. 
The adoption of this course would have placed the guilds 
on a "profit" and "loss" basis, and so has been unanimously 
rejected as utterly contrary to the principles for which the 
guilds stand. No alternative has as yet been adopted na- 
tionally by the guild movement, but the public is confronted 
with the very interesting prospect of the National Building 
Guild and its regional councils and local committees with 
their big reorganization, entering into actual competition with 

the private contractor for construction work of every kind. 
Further opportunity, under perhaps more trying circum- 
stances, will thus be offered to judge of the practicability of 
a scheme of working arrangements by which many, especially 
in England, are placing so much store. "The more varied 
conditions under which the building guild, and the other 
guilds which are just beginning to spring up in related in- 
dustries, will be working in future should afford," according 
to Mr. Cole, "the opportunity for a still more convincing 
demonstration of the superiority of free service to wage labor 
as a means both to higher production and to better craftsman- 
ship and to coordination of the work of hand and brain." 

A STATEMENT from the Association of Railway Execu- 
tives places the sum of the wages paid by railroads in the 
United States during the first six months of this year at 
$1,457,010,151. That is 54.44 per cent of the gross oper- 
ating expenses of the roads. This compares with $1,707,- 
770,598, or 62.29 P er cent, during the corresponding period 
last year. The total net operating income of the railroads 
during the first half of this year was $174,062,167. On the 
basis of. the first six months — balancing an increase in the 
number of employes in the second half of the year against the 
reduction in wages which went into effect July 1 — the rail- 
road wage bill for 1921 is estimated at $2,914,000,000, or 
$1,175,000,000 more than the total wages paid in 1917. The 
report states further that figures from the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission show a gradual decrease in the number 
of workers employed on the railroads during the first four 
months, but that this decrease was partially counteracted by 
increases in May and June. 

"FOR ten long months consumers of steel have been 'out 
on strike' against longer paying war prices for steel, and 
Wall Street still stubbornly demands that war prices shall be 
paid." So says John R. Dunlap, editor of Industrial Man- 
agement, in a protest against what he deems an inhuman and 
unnecessary tie-up in the steel industry, planned "in cold 
blood" by Wall Street interests. Over a million steel work- 
ers have been summarily discharged and supplies have been 
cut off in order to force steel consumers to continue to pay 
war prices "precisely as they forced Director General Hines, 
against his vigorous public protest, to pay the exorbitant price 
of $47 per ton for steel rails and all other steel equipment in 
proportion. That has cost the railroads and the tax payers 
hundreds of millions of dollars — and the profits sheets of 
the steel companies prove it conclusively." Meanwhile, Mr. 
Dunlap continues, the general public is suffering from the 
unemployment situation aggravated in this way. Mr. Dunlap 
declares that the steel combination, from the time of its 
formatiop "maintained prices high enough to yield them net 
earnings equal to exactly 78.6 per cent of the total labor cost 
of their entire product — even including with direct labor 
costs all the princely salaries paid to the officers of the cor- 
poration and all the salaries paid to officers and salesmen of 
its numerous subsidiary companies." 

Figures published in the Iron Age for September 22 give 
a somewhat different collection of statistics. They state that 
"finished steel . is now 37 per cent above its 1913 average; 
building materials are still 98 per cent above their 191 3 level; 
'all commodities,' comprising the nine groups studied by the 
United States Department of Labor, are 52 per cent above 
191 3. The only items below steel now are farm products 
and some of the non-ferrous metal — practically all b~ing raw 
materials. . . . Steel prices are lower today with relation 
to inescapable costs that they were before 1914." The writer 
of the article maintains that steel manufacture is harder hit 
by the existing abnormally high freight rates than any other 
commodity because of the necessity of assembling, by railroad 
transportation, raw materials for its manufacture. 






Conducted by 

Some Factors in Poverty 

A WAVE of unemployment such as the present one al- 
ways places a heavy burden upon family welfare 
agencies. For months they have been facing the situa- 
tion now brought out in the unemployment conference in 
Washington. Replies to a questionnaire sent to these organi- 
zations throughout the country give some indication of the role 
which unemployment and other problems have been playing 
in destitution. 

Frank J. Bruno, general secretary of the Associated Chari- 
ties of Minneapolis, points out that the first result of the 
slacking up of employment is not to throw upon the societies 
a load of able-bodied unemployed but "of relatively unemploy- 
able." "The physically handicapped, the elderly, the bad tem- 
pered, the industrially inefficient, and the man who is work- 
shy" are, he says, the first to be let out. He states further 
that in the "series of years ending in the winter of 1914 and 
191 5 when work was never plentiful enough to absorb all 
workers, the margin of saving in money and in physical health 
and strength which the average worker could accumulate was 
small and when unemployment hit him he succumbed more 
promptly than in the present period, which follows a series 
of years of steady work and fair wages. I believe," he con- 
tinues, "for the series of years ending with the winter of 191 4- 
191 5 there was a certain rough but steady ratio between total 
unemployment and the unemployment reaching social service 

Evidence, moreover, indicates that many families have been 
carrying themselves over the unemployment crisis with savings 
accumulated during the war years. Mr. Bruno states for ex- 
ample, that "in spite of the too easy criticism of buying silk 
shirts and automobiles by the manual labor group there has 
been a real increase in thrift which is available to bridge over 
an unemployment period." Lawson Purdy, general secretary 
of the Charity Organization Society of New York city, com- 
ments that "the unemployed as a class had laid by a good deal 
of money for a rainy day," and that "they were in a position 
to obtain help from tradesmen, relatives, and friends to a de- 
gree not heretofore possible." It has been the experience of 
the Cambridge (Mass.) Welfare Union that the wage earn- 
ers "have met the situation with marked self-respect and with 
real earnestness to help themselves to the limit." 

Social agencies do not exist for the purpose of relieving the 
distress due to the incidence of unemployment. The Montreal 
Council of Social Agencies, in commenting upon the decision 
of the Family Welfare Association of its city some months ago 
to give no more relief from the funds of the society to unem- 
ployed men even though they were married men and families, 
hits the nub of this situation with the statement that much 
unemployment is not inevitable, "but would yield to a better 
organization of industry ; and much of the suffering due to the 
unemployment that is inevitable would yield itself to a better 
community provision for such misfortune." John B. Daw- 
son, former general secretary of the Charity Organization So- 
ciety of Montreal, carries this a step farther. "I protest," 
he says, "against the idea that is so prevalent in many quar- 
ters that the inevitable results of a needless maladjustment in 
industry should be shuffled off onto the shoulders of the chari- 
table agencies of the community." 

The replies from the organizations indicate, however, that 
unemployment is simply one of the complex causal factors in 
poverty. This is summed up in the statement of the Asso- 
ciated Charities of Cleveland that "the one thing we are sure 
of, regarding the causes of poverty, is that there is not any 
one cause and that in each family we deal with there is usually 

such a combination of reasons for their unfortunate plight 
that it takes considerable study upon our part to get at the 
root of the difficulty." 

An analysis of the cases handled by the organizations for a 
year shows that in their experience sickness was beyond ques- 
tion the predisposing factor in poverty. In Cleveland, 53 per 
cent of the families cared for by the Associated Charities came 
to the organization through sickness, death or some physical 
or mental disability. In Philadelphia, sickness and various 
forms of disability are the outstanding factors, with tuber- 
culosis and venereal disease predominant. Although the 
Charity Organization Society of New York city does not keep 
account of the number of persons who are affected by the 
various factors of dependency, a table showing the amount of 
money spent for relief during the last three fiscal years of the 
society shows a steady increase in the amount spent on relief 
for persons whose dependency was immediately due to death, 
sickness or desertion. In 191 8, this was 86 per cent of the 
total amount spent on relief; in 1919, it was 89 per cent and 
in 1920 it rose to slightly over 91 per cent. Anna G. Wil- 
liams, general secretary of the Social Service Bureau of Den- 
ver, writes that "there is no question in our mind that the 
problem is sickness." Of 1,007 families handled by the Char- 
ity Organization Society of New Orleans sickness is cited as 
a contributing cause of distress in 443 cases. Physical dis- 
ability characterized 1,182 of the 1,706 problems presented to 
the Social Service Bureau of Houston, Tex., during 1920. A 
study of the first thousand families under the oare of the 
Associated Charities of Washington shows that some form of 
illness or old age affected 15 per cent of these families. Some 
other physical disability, however, affected 616 of the same 
families, or 61 per cent. In Washington, it was found that 
tuberculosis was the immediate factor in dependency for 10 
per cent of the families under the care of the Associated Chari- 
ties; in New Orleans, for 192 out of 1,007; in Memphis, for 
72 families out of 480 in which there was some physical dis- 

Further analysis of the cases indicates that serious contrib- 
uting factors in poverty, in addition to sickness, other physi- 
cal disabilities and unemployment, are desertion and non-sup- 
port, and widowhood. Trailing these are old age, mental dis- 
abilities, maritial difficulties and industrial adjustments. 
Other causal factors given in sporadic instances are moral 
behavior, intemperance, lack of education and the assimila- 
tion of the foreign-born. 

The work of the Associated Charities of Minneapolis cen- 
ters about two problems — the non-support and the desertion 
group, and the illness group. Widowhood, accute illness and 
desertion are the chief factors for a condition "below the sub- 
sistence level" in the United Charities of Chicago. The As- 
sociated Charities of Cleveland lists sixteen primal reasons 
for application for help, the principal ones of which are 
widowhood, 40. 1 per cent; sickness, 26.5 per cent; desertion 
and non-support, 14.6 per cent; and mental disorder, 7.5 per 
cent. Unemployment, sickness and various forms of mental 
disability, and desertion and non-support were by far the out- 
standing problems handled by the Philadelphia Society for 
Organizing Charity. 

The little stress placed at the present time upon intemper- 
ance as a contributing factor in poverty is one of the interest- 
ing points brought out by replies to the questionnaire. Stock- 
ton Raymond, general secretary of the Family Welfare So- 
ciety of Boston, states that "one fact stands out above all 
others. Intemperance, under prohibition, has been a decreas- 



ing factor in the work of the Family Welfare Society." It 
has thus been possible for the organization "to undertake a 
great amount of constructive and preventive work instead of 
wasting time in trying to alleviate suffering which could not 
fail to exist under such an evil as licensed liquor selling." 

One of the most marked developments among family wel- 
fare agencies has been an increase in the amount given for 
relief. Although the increase in cost prices has played a part 
in this, fundamentally it seems to be due to a better concep- 
tion of adequacy in relief giving. The relief given by the 
Associated Charities of Minneapolis has shown a rising 
cresendo of $26,424.19 in 191 8, $41,080.28 in 1919, and 
$54,566.13 in 1920. Lawson Purdy states that in New York 
city "there had been with us as elsewhere a very great in- 
crease in the amount of relief given." Amelia N. Sears of 
the United Charities of Chicago writes that the increase in 
relief given by that organization is a result of the increased 
cost of living, the establishment of a higher standard of 
family care and the burden of caring for widows on the 
waiting list for mothers' pensions and widows receiving in- 
adequate mothers' pensions. This last group cost the society 
$100,000 in two years. It is the experience of the Charity 
Organization Society of New Orleans that their phenomenal 
rise in relief work during the last few years has been the re- 
sult, not only of increased prices, but of the "growing opinion 
that adequate nourishment is apt to prevent sickness, and our 
society, as well as other relief agencies, has been giving ma- 
terial relief more abundantly and freely than before." Al- 
though the Family Welfare Society of Boston is not primari- 
ly a relief agency, Stockton Raymond states that it has been 
compelled during the last few years to secure large sums for 
relief, accounted for both by the increase in prices and "a 
tendency toward more adequate relief." 

A consummation wished for by many social workers is 
the use of their case technique for the solving of human prob- 
lems where dependency may not be the chief note. Karl de 
Schweinitz, of Philadelphia, has predicted that social work- 
ers may some day even hang out their shingles. Be that as 
it may, a new type of person is coming for service to some of 
the organizations. This tendency is not yet so pronounced 
as to be more than a straw in the wind. Frequently it is the 
responsible type of workman whose savings have been de- 
pleted. C. M. Hubbard, general secretary of the St. Louis 
Provident Association, writes that "there has been a slow, 
almost imperceptible rise in one type of family handled. Peo- 
ple are coming to us not only for relief but for service. A 
lawyer recently referred to us a young couple who had ap- 
plied to him for a divorce. He felt that the difficulty could 
be settled by a family agency rather than by the divorce 
court." Lawson Purdy adds that "comment has been made 
that in certain parts of the city the type of people seeking our 
advice has been distinctly higher than in the past." "Lately 
there has been a change in the type of client," states Mabel 
Tibbott, general secretary of the Welfare Association at Fort 
Dodge, la., "in that more of the self-respecting, usually in- 
dependent class have sought the special sort of assistance 
needed from us." From Canada we hear that the Charity Or- 
ganization Society of Montreal has not only been finding a 
change in the kind of person coming to it but is also encourag- 
ing the change. In a given month only one-fourth to one-third 
of the families cared for by the Associated Charities of Cleve- 
land received material relief. In an endeavor to give some ex- 
planation for the change which has taken place there, Anna B. 
Beattie states: "It may be due to the fact that social work is 
given a wider publicity and those families not in dire financial 
distress come to know that they can get the social service they 
need from a family agency. It may be that organizations 
such as ours are doing better work and spending more time 
on family and social readjustments other than purely economic 
ones." P. L. B. 

In Hospitals under Government cafoe 

olUirs a'-Year' 


ex-ser nan 




Statistics of Giving 

IN the course of an investigation to determine approximately 
how much money is now being given in this country for 
philanthropic and religious purposes, information was collected 
from the financial federations of thirty-four cities. Nearly 
six and two-thirds million people in these cities raised over 
eighteen and one-half million dollars, with an average per 
capita contribution to these federations of $2.8 1. This, how- 
ever, does not measure the total amounts actually contributed 
in these cities. Few of the federations included all of the 
charitable and philanthropic organizations of their localities. 
From statistics gathered concerning the amount of giving to 
non-federated philanthropies in these cities, I should estimate 
that it would probably be sufficient to bring the average per 
capita contribution to approximately $4. This, it should be 
borne in mind, is exclusive of all contributions to churches and 
other strictly religious bodies as well as direct gifts to the 

It has been the experience of many of these cities that the 
federations have increased the amount of giving. This in- 
crease can be measured in part by definite statistics of con- 
ditions before and after the inauguration of financial feder- 
ations, and in part by the estimates of men who have been 
closely in touch with the situation in each locality for a 
period of years. In Akron, O., this increase amounted to 380 
per cent, in Rochester, to 200 per cent, in Louisville, to 150 
per cent, in Cincinnati and Des Moines to over 100 per cent, 
and in St. Paul, to 70 per cent. One of the accomplishments 
of the federations has been greatly to increase the number 
of contributors. 

What proportion of the total has been given by the 
wealthy? Only a few cities have classified their contributors 
by the amount contributed, but the statistics from Akron, 
Plainfield, N. J., the Oranges, N. J., Louisville, Rochester 
and Minneapolis are significant. For these cities a study was 
made for both the contributions over $100 and those over 



$i,ooo, covering the percentage which those contributing these 
sums formed of the total number of contributors as compared 
with the percentage which these gifts formed of the total 
amount raised. This study clearly showed that the chief 
support of the federated philanthropies, at least in these 
cities, still comes predominantly from the wealthy. Thus, 
although the contributions of $lOO and over formed in every 
instance less than 7 per cent and in three cities less than 
2 per cent of the number of contributions, they comprised 
from four-ninths to nearly four-fifths of the total amount 
raised. While the contributions of $1,000 and over formed 
but a small portion of the number of contributions — being 
less than 1 per cent of the total number in every instance and 
in Akron falling as low as two one-hundredths of I per cent 
— the amount of their contributions ranged from approxi- 
mately one-quarter, as in Plainfield, to over one-half of the 
total amount contributed in Minneapolis and Rochester. 

The expenses of administration rarely, if ever, run above 10 
per cent of the amount contributed. In Louisville, where the 
central body did a great deal of work, the expense is 9.4 
per cent; in Dayton, O,, 5.9 per cent; in Erie, Pa., 2.0 per 
cent; in Minneapolis, 2.3 per cent; in Cleveland, 3.3 per 
cent; in Rochester, 5.5 per cent; in Rome, N. Y., 2.4 per- 
cent ; and in the Oranges, 7.4 per cent. 

The figures as a whole furnish statistical proof that financial 
federations have widened the bases of support of local charities, 
have increased the sums given and have cut down the ex- 
penses of raising funds. Paul H. Douglas. 

The University of Chicago. 

TIONS IN 1920 

Total Per Capita 

City Contributions Population Gifts 

Denver, Cal $134,000 256,000 $ .52 

South Bend, Ind 60,000 71,000 .85 

Cedar Rapids, la 75,ooo 4^,000 1.63 

Des Moines, la 201,000 126,000 1.60 

Louisville, Ky * 338,000 235,000 1.90 

Emporia, Kas 3,000 11,000 .27 

New Bedford, Mass. ... 130,000 121,000 1.07 

Bay City, Mich 70,000 48,000 1.46 

Detroit, Mich 2,454,000 994,000 2.47 

Flint, Mich 78,000 92,000 .85 

Grand Rapids, Mich. . . . 197,000 138,000 1.43 

Kalamazoo, Mich 22,000 49,000 .45 

Lansing, Mich 59,ooo 57,000 1.04 

Saginaw, Mich 428,000 62,000 6.90 

Minneapolis, Minn '1,073,000 381,000 2.82 

St. Paul, Minn 550,000 235,000 2.34 

Kansas City, Mo 800,000 324,000 • 2.16 

St. Joseph, Mo 45,000 78,000 .58 

Plainfield, N. J 108,000 28,000 3.86 

The Oranges, N. J 335,000 100,000 3.35 

Buffalo, N. Y 370,000 507,000 .65 

Elmira, N. Y 22,000 45,ooo .49 

Jamestown, N. Y 92,000 39,000 2.38 

Rochester, N. Y 1,165,000 296,000 3.94 

Rome, N. Y 89,000 26,000 3.42 

Akron, 1,220,000 208,000 5.67 

Cincinnati, 1,980,000 401,000 4.69 

Cleveland, 4,370,000 797,000 5.48 

Dayton, 459,000 153,000 3.00 

Middletown, 1,025,000 24,000 42.71 

Oklahoma City, Okla 60,000 61,000 .66 

Erie, Pa 346,000 93,000 3.72 

Parkersburg, W. Va. . . . 40,000 20,000 2.00 

Milwaukee, Wis "162,000 457,000 .35 

$18,560,000 6,609,000 $2.81 

») 1921. 

») 1918-19. 

The federations, with the exception of Cleveland, Cincinnati, Minne- 
apolis and Rochester, appropriated their funds exclusively for local pro- 
jects. The fund in Middletown, O., was devoted, not to the mainte- 
nance of existing institutions, but to buildings and capital improvements 
in various civic enterprises. 

The Bar Adopts Legal Aid 

THE action of the American Bar Association at its recent 
meeting in Cincinnati in amending its constitution, by a 
unanimous vote, to provide for a standing committee on legal 
aid work will prove of enduring importance. Those who are 
familiar with social work in the United States know that the 
relatively young group of agencies called legal aid organi- 
zations afford the best means, thus far developed, for securing 
to the poorer persons in the larger cities the legal advice and 
assistance which they need and to which they are entitled. 
Social workers also know that an efficient legal aid organi- 
zation gives them a measure of cooperation in solving prob- 
lems which involve a legal aspect which is more helpful, 
more expert, and more sympathetic than they 'have ever been 
able to obtain elsewhere. For such reasons it has become a 
matter of importance that the legal aid organizations should 
become firmly established and well recognized everywhere. 

What is not so generally recognized is that the legal aid 
movement has existed in this country without being responsible 
to any suitable guardian. It grew up, one might say, without 
parents and remained an orphan until this year. It developed 
as a result of local impulses. Each society was controlled by 
some kind of local body, as a board of directors, an organized 
charity, a director of public welfare, but the work as a 
national undertaking came under the leadership of nobody. 
The legal aid societies, being keenly aware of this difficulty, 
made certain efforts to supply the need by organizing them- 
selves into a national alliance but this was as weak as the 
Articles of Confederation in our national history and met 
the same fate. The natural leader for this work was ob- 
viously the organized bar, but with certain minor exceptions 
the bar as an organized body took no interest in the legal 
aid work. Many individual lawyers and judges gave great 
assistance but the profession in its organized capacity did not 
understand and therefore gave no heed. 

Legal aid work was therefore in a precarious position and 
the war demonstrated that some better and more permanent 
form of relationship 'was imperative. Legal aid work has 
been called the work of young lawyers and so it was. With 
the outbreak of war many of the legal aid attorneys left their 
work for the army. The whole movement suffered a setback 
which has not yet been overcome. There was no properly 
responsible body to provide in the emergency the needed 
leadership and support. As a result there was lost one agency 
for public service which possessed the confidence of plain 
people in the larger cities all over the country and which 
therefore could have rendered unique assistance to the gov- 
ernment and the American Red CrOss in explaining to en- 
listed men their rights under the Allowance and Allotment 
Act and the Civil Relief Act. Had the legal aid organizations 
been kept strong and given proper leadership it is reasonable 
to suppose that the exploitation of legal advice to soldiers, 
sailors and their dependents would have been eliminated, or, 
better still, prevented. This statement is justified by the 
record of what the Boston and New York legal aid societies 
were able to do despite their handicaps. 

Now that the American Bar Association has set the stand- 
ard and has taken legal aid work in under its shield it is 
reasonable to predict that legal aid work will pass safely 
through this crisis in its career. The action of the Bar 
Association is not a transitory thing. That body amended 
its constitution so that its legal aid committee should be 
recognized as one of its permanent committees appointed as a 
matter of constitutional requirement each year. The fostering 
of legal aid work thus becomes a recognized bar association 
activity, ranking in importance with grievance committee 
work, efforts to reform procedure, selection of judges, and 

s0 on * Reginald Heber Smith. 

Boston, Mass. 

Labor in Literature 

THE last of the books listed 
is the first in interest and in 
importance. The Labor In- 
ternational Handbook is one of the 
most notable expressions of the 
most mature trade union movement 
anywhere to be found. It is a co- 
operative effort produced under the 
editorial direction of R. Palme Dutt 
of the Labor Research Department. 
The contributors are all well known, 
Norman Angell leads the columns, 
and after him one finds such names 
as R. Page Arnot. H. N. Brails- 
ford, Erskine Childers and R. W. 
Postgate. Many of these writers 
are far more radical than is the 
ordinary British trade unionist. 
Childers is one of the most ir- 
reconcilable of the Sinn Feiners. 
Others have inclined toward com- 
munism. The significant thing is 
that the British laborites have been 
able to use their scholarship and 
to disregard differences of per- 
sonal opinion in the creation of one 
of the most useful of extant in- 
ternational handbooks. That is 
important. It testifies to the intel- 
lectual vitality of the British Labor 
Party. The scope of the book and 
its admirable scholarship bear fur- 
ther witness to the seriousness of 

the British trade unionist's interest in international affairs. The 
peace treaties, international government — including the League of 
Nations — economic conditions after the war, Russia, Ireland, 
India and Egypt, problems of racial conflict, the constitution of 
the British Empire, British foreign policy, international social- 
ism, international trade unionism, and international cooperation 
are the chief subjects presented. Nowhere else is it possible to 
find in such brief compass so inclusive and so competent a 
presentation of the affairs so germane to the interest of the 
responsible citizens of every country. 

Frank Watts, lecturer in psychology at the University of 
Manchester, is the author of the admirable Introduction to the 
Psychological Problems of Industry. In this book Mr. Watts 
sums up simply and lucidly the wealth of psychological research 
bearing upon industry. With competent scholarship he applies 
the method of the psychologist to a number of the outstanding 
industrial problems. He discusses the more familiar questions 
such as fatigue and efficiency, vocational selection and scientific 
management. He is, however, most interesting in his resolution 
of the greater problem of unrest to psychological terms. It is 
not possible within the limits of this review to quote any of the 
illuminating passages of his chapter on this subject. The theory 
he sets forth is, however, a fine statement of the procedure the 
late Carleton Parker followed in his classic study of the hop 
workers of California. Any one wishing to understand some 
of the realities behind the present class struggle will find stimu- 
lation in Mr. Watts' book. 

Professor Hazard of Cornell University has compressed a 
decade of investigation into The Organization of the Boot and 
Shoe Industry in Massachusetts befoie 1875. As the title in- 
dicates, her study is narrowly restricted. That has not, how- 
ever, detracted in any way from the interest and the significance 
of the book. This is an example of the kind of research which 
is sorely needed in the United States if the backgrounds of 
American industry are ever to be understood. 

Professor Knight's treatise on Risk, Uncertainty and Profit 
is one of the essays in economics accorded the Hart, Schaffner & 
Marx prize. It is a study in economic theory. Mr. Knight 
distinguishes between risk, which is calculable, and uncertainty, 
which is not, and devotes his attention to tracing the relation 
of these factors to industrial production and to social progress. 
Although abstract his work is related intimately, but not always 

By Frank Watts. Macmillan Co. 240 pp. Price, 
$5.00; by mail of the Survey, $5.52. 


By John R. Commons. Macmillan Co. 425 PP- 
Price, $300; by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

before 1875 

By Blanche Evans Hazard. Harvard University 
Press. 293 pp. Price, $3.50; by mail of the 
Survey, $3.70. 


By Frank Hyneman Knight. Houghton, Mifflin 
Co. 381 pp. Price, $3.00; by mail of the Sur- 
vey, $3.20. 

By Samuel Gompers and William English Wall- 
ing. E. P. Dutton Co. 265 pp. Price, $2.00; by 
mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

By Leo Pasvolsky. Macmillan Co. 312 
Price, $2.25; by mail of the Survey, $2.40. 


By Morris Hillquit. Hanford Press. 151 
Price, $ .50; by mail of the Survey, $ .60. 

By R. Palme Dutt. Labor Publishing Co., Lon- 
don. 320 pp. Price, 12s. 6d ; by mail of the 
Survey, $3.50. 



explicitly, to many of the current 
proposals for social change. Prob- 
lems as far apart as those presented 
by consumers' cooperation, guild 
socialism and unemployment insur- 
ance are all simplified by an accur- 
ate separation of the uncertainty 
and of risk. His book ought ac- 
cordingly to be useful to many who 
will not agree with all his con- 
clusions but who will find in his 
painstaking work light to throw 
upon their own more practical 

Industrial Government is a col- 
lection of studies made under the 
direction of Prof. John R. Com- 
mons. During the summer of 1919 
a number of students from the 
University of Wisconsin visited 
factories which showed character- 
istic forms of industrial govern- 
ment. The visits and the inquiries 
made at that time afforded the 
material which went into this book. 
The students responsible for the 
writing of the various chapters are 
credited with their work. In this 
Professor Commons differs from 
some other industrial historians of 
note who do not deem it desirable 
to mention specifically the work 
done by their assistants. This 
generous treatment is in accord with sound literary tradition. 

The value of the chapters describing different experiments 
made by industrial managers varies quite as much as do the 
experiments. Professor Commons' own conclusion from the com- 
posite study is in part summed up as follows: "Capitalism can 
cure itself, for it is not the blind force that socialists supposed; 
and not the helpless plaything of demand and supply, but it is 
management. And the greatest self-cure that it needs today is 
security of the job, for it is the insecurity of jobs that is the 
breeder of socialism, of anarchism, of the restrictions of trade 
unionism, and a menace to capitalism, the nation and even 
civilization." The book has interest for those who want to 
know what was going on in the minds of representative in- 
dustrial managers during the summer of 1919. It needs as a 
companion volume the story of what is passing through the 
same minds today. 

Out of Their Own Mouths is the formal history of the 
attitude of President Samuel Gompers of the American Feder- 
ation of Labor toward the bolshevist experiment in Russia. 
With the collaboration of William English Walling, Mr. 
Gompers presents the record of testimony to bulwark his well 
known opposition to sovietism. 

Leo Pasvolsky, author of The Economics of Communism, is 
also not a communist. His book, however, has more of the 
aspect of an inquiry and less that of the debater's brief which 
perhaps Mr. Gompers' position made necessary. The Economics 
of Communism is a thoughtful discussion of the economic or- 
ganization of Russia under the Soviet Government. The fact 
that Mr. Pasvolsky seems to carry an open mind even to that 
vexed issue detracts in no wise from the force of his conclusions 
or from the grace of his argument. 

Morris Hillquit, the well known Socialist leader and historian 
of socialism in the United States, is the author of a small 
volume attempting to analyze the current of socialist theory, 
From Marx to Lenin. Mr. Hillquit is perhaps the most dis- 
tinguished of the parliamentary Socialists in this country and 
his opposition to the kind of revolutionary theory which found 
expression in the Moscow government is not new. After tracing 
the wanderings of the revolutionaries of various faith he arrives 
at the hope that the international solidarity of Socialists as it 
existed prior to the World War may be restored. 

William L. Chenery. 

The Season's Books 



E never shall rest con- 
tent until every child has 
his chance in home, 
school and public library to browse 
among the best books and thus 
draw himself out to new strength 

and new vision." Frederick G. Melcher, chairman of the Chil- 
dren's Book Week Committee, states this as the very essence of 
the movement for more and "better" books for children. The 
third week in November has become the annual occasion for 
focusing attention of the public on children's reading. So it is 
that at this time of the year parents, women's clubs, churches, 
children, bookstores, libraries, story-tellers, authors and illus- 
trators of children's books all unite on a common ground, the 
reading welfare of the child. 

Though the mothers and fathers are the ones most vitally in- 
terested, the library's part is a large one, called upon as it is by 
all the groups and organizations throughout the village, town or 
city for advice as to "what books for the home." Lists are com- 
piled and given out, exhibits prepared, programs suggested and 
source material obtained. The contribution of the women's clubs 
is the drawing of the mothers and teachers into a more discrim- 
inating study of the book field for children. The November 
programs of the clubs in the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs practically all touch upon the subject of the child's reading. 
The churches during this period emphasize the power of books 
in the enrichment of home life and the schools help the children 
to take an active part in their own Book Week. In one state this 
month, 16,000 children are each writing a composition on books 
and the state board of education is issuing prizes. 

But what is there in the 
autumn output to open up to 
the boy or girl any of the 
avenues toward civic life ; any 
understanding of the national- 
ities with which we have been 
brought into closer contact 
since the war; of the Negroes, 
neighbors of the children of the 
South; of the problems of 
health, sanitation, disease; of 
war and peace, of the neighbor- 
liness of nations; of the rela- 
tion between employer and 
worker and the makings for 
harmony in industry? 

There are a number of such 
books this autumn, interesting 
in their subject matter and em- 
phasized by their illustrations. 
The output, indeed, seems to 
grow larger each year. Miss 
Alice M. Jordan told of such 
books last year in the Survey 
for November 27. This year, 
especially interesting is the 
tendency to put the Negro in a 
different light before the chil- 
dren of this generation, and 
particularly to have the Negro 
children learn to know the 
heroes of their own race and to 
see their own dnrk skinned fel- 
low creatures in the illustra- 
tions of the stories whether 
they be fairies or "really true" 
folk of history. The starting 
of a magazine for Negro chil- 
dren [see the Survey for April 
2] was one of the achievements 
of 1920 and this year brings 
Mrs. Haynes' Unsung Heroes, 


By Marian Cutter 



One of Hendrik van Loon's illustrations for 
book, The Story of Mankind 

the first book of its kind to be 
published for children. 

Health organizations have pro- 
duced a large literature for chil- 
dren, obviously propaganda, but, 
especially in the plays, they have 
formed a method of getting across in appealing fashion the story 
of fresh air and sunshine, and cleanliness and good habits as a 
future investment. 

The Child Health Organization and the National Tuber- 
culosis Association have taken the lead in publishing intriguing 
health stories for children — some of which have proved so popu- 
lar that not only have thousands of copies been distributed but 
also there has been a large sale. The most recent of the publica- 
tions in this field is Happy's Calendar for 1921-1922 written by 
Cliff Goldsmith, illustrated by Jessie Gillespie and published by 
the Child Health Organization. It goes Poor Richard's Al- 
manac one better in its clever nonsense rhymes and its droll 
illustrations. For instance, here are some of the apt sayings of 
"Happy": "Sleep with your windows open and your mouth shut"; 
"green apples are the fruit of all evil"; "cry over spilled milk"; 
"eat your wild oats now"; "forget lolly-pops — if you must eat 
paint, eat good paint"; "the quality of bean soup is not strained"; 
"when it rains, wear tires." 

The health play is having a wide vogue. The Magic Oat 
Field and the Wonderful Window, by Eleanor Glendower 
Griffith, also published by the Child Health Organization, are 
illustrations. They wave a fairy wand, summoning elves and 
witches and other sprites from never-never-land to their assis- 
tance. The field of the grade reader has further been drawn 

upon by the Child Health Or- 
ganization. The Story of Rosy 
Cheeks and Strong Heart by 
J. Mae Andress and Annie 
Turner Andress is intended as 
a health reader for the third 
grade. In it are such charac- 
ters as the Grimy-joes, Sir 
Cleanliness, Fairy Fresh Air 
and Daddy Exercise. 

Among the most outstanding 
of the season's books with a 
social message are the follow- 

The Story of Mankind, by 
Hendrik van Loon (Boni and 
Liveright) traces briefly the 
important steps in the advance 
of social progress from prehis- 
toric times to our present 
civilization. Those who are ac- 
quainted with Ancient Man, 
published last year, already 
know the able and direct way 
in which Dr. van Loon brings 
vital topics in their proportion- 
al value within the grasp of the 
child's intelligence. The story 
tells about the beginnings of 
early civilization ; of Greece's 
experiment in self-government, 
and the origin of the theater 
in Attica; of the life of Jesus 
of Nazareth, the rise of the 
church and the spread of Mo- 
hammedanism; the feudal sys- 
tem; chivalry; of the medieval 
city and medieval self-govern- fo- 

ment and trade; of the age o'° / .00 

expansion, when people bec? A '^ n ^ 

"no longer contented v~ tr 

the audience and sit sf"' ' m forked" 




the emperor and the pope told them what to do and what to 
think"; of the mercantile system; of the great reaction, when 
"they tried to assure the world an era of peace by suppressing 
all new ideas," when 'they made the police-spy the highest func- 
tionary in the state and soon the prisons of all countries were 
rilled with those who claimed that people have the right to gov- 
ern themselves as they see fit"; of the growth of national inde- 
pendence which was too strong to be governed in this way; 
and of colonial expansion and war. 

"And the moral of the story," says Dr. van Loon, "is a simple 
one. The world is in dreadful need of men who will assume 
the new leadership — who will have the courage of their own 
visions and who will recognize clearly that we are only at the 
beginning of the voyage, and have to learn an entirely new system 
of seamanship." 

The book is profusely illustrated with maps and sketches 
made by the author, who explains that these were "drawn for 
children and their ideas of art are very different from those of 
their parents." There is also an excellent historical reading 
list for children. 

Elizabeth Ross Haynes has written for children, and 
especially for Negro children, a group of stories about the 
lives of well known men afnd women of African blood — 
Unsung Heroes (Dubois and Dill) — who achieved the regard 
of their fellowmen through service or natural talent and hard 
work. The book tells of the work of Harriet Tubman in free- 
ing her people from slavery during the Civil War; of Sojourner 
Truth, who helped to win suffrage for her sex; of Booker T. 
Washington and his great educational work among his people, 
and of other Negro men and women who overcame the handi- 
caps of their birth. The book was inspired by reading the life 
of Frederick Douglass, whose epitah has been written in his 
own words: "Do not judge me by the heights to which I may 
have risen, but by the depths from which I have come." 

Jack O'Health and Peg O'Joy (Charles Scribner's Sons) is a 
fairy-tale by Beatrice Slayton Herben, M. D., which binds to- 
gether a group of health rhymes and jingles written by the chil- 
dren of Public School Fifteen in New York. One of these is 
the story of a naughty germ: 

Once there was a naughty germ 

That had no place to go, 
But soon it found a hollow tooth 
And there began to grow. 

Other germs soon thought they'd call, 

And in that tooth did stay, 
No toothbrush e'er disturbed their rest 

Nor drove those germs away. 

So in that selfsame hollow tooth 

Their mischief was begun; 
But oh! at last the dentist came 

And then how they did run! 

So brush your teeth with dental cream, 

And to the dentist go; 
'Twill help to keep the germs away 

And save your teeth, you know. 

Modern Physiology, Hygiene and Health, by Mary S. Havi- 
land (J. B. Lippincott Co.), will be particularly useful to teach- 
ers. Miss Haviland, who is the research secretary of the National 
Child Welfare Association, has carefully planned the three vol- 
ume series, two volumes of which have now been published. The 
method chosen to arouse the child's interest in healthy living is 
the simple telling of facts through informal talks with Paul 
and Ruth. Each chapter is 'a complete incident with its unit 
of information, and at the close questions and suggestions are 
grouped unter the headings, Things to Remember and Things 
to Think About. The primer is entitled The Most Wonderful 
House in the World, and covers the mechanical working and 
hygiene of the body. Book One is called The Play House and 
in the play house built just for Paul and Ruth they discover 
how many things should be considered in building and keeping 
a home. Book Two, which will deal with hygiene, will be pub- 
lished in the spring. 

The Old Mines Secret, by Edna Turpin (Macmillan Co.), 
ies the thought of community cooperation for the good of the 
village during the war. It is written for girls from eleven 
v een years of age. 

Plays and Games 


By Helen Ferris. E. P. Dutton & Co. 266 pp. Price, $2.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 

This book, by the author of Girls' Clubs, is an invaluable store- 
house, not only of information but of inspiration as well, for 
any one who is looking for help (and who, at one time or an- 
other, is not?) in suggestions either for a party or for an enter- 
tainment to raise money. 

Specifically, Miss Ferris gives definite directions for stage 
"stunts" such as The Man Who Shops for His Wife; adapta- 
tions from popular newspaper cartoons such as Oh, Man! and 
Powerful Katrinka; piano stunts; take-off movies; magician bur- 
lesques; various popular songs acted or adapted; tableaux; an 
amateur circus; minstrel shows. That the material given is 
thoroughly servicable and practical may best be proved perhaps 
by the fact that, because our office boy asked to borrow the book 
for an evening party, this review is somewhat belated. 

Besides the party stunts will be found chapters helpful to 
girls clubs, Girl Scouts, Americanization groups, etc., that wish 
to demonstrate in some dramatic and popular form their own 
organization activities. There are helpful chapters on publicity 
and one on Putting the Program On and Over, and an excellent 
list of sources where further suggestions as to programs may be 

But valuable and suggestive as the various stunts and pro- 
grams are in themselves — and it is very evident that they are the 
product of a rich and varied practical experience — the book 
makes an equally valuable contribution in its emphasis on the 
qualities of imagination and creative adaptiveness — the intangible 
values that make recreation what we social workers are so fond 
of characterizing as "constructive." 

Those of us who are so busy doing things that we have no 
time left for passing on useful information concerning things 
done cannot be too grateful for a writer like Miss Ferris who 
has assembled for us all such necessary material in an attractive, 
orderly and best of all, an inspiring form. 

Ethel Hobart. 


By Rita Benton. The Writers' Publishing Co. 143 pp. 
Price, $2X>o; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

The essential quality of a play to be given by children is sim- 
plicity — of action, of setting, and of emotional appeal. This 
is equally true of plays suitable for acting by the more un- 
sophisticated of our foreign-born residents, whose love of dra- 
matic expression is frequently difficult to gratify with a play 
which will convey the impression of reality. For workers with 
either of these groups, this volume will prove a joy. Miss 
Benton's settlement experience is evident in the eight plays in it, 
all adapted from stories or poems, which have been acted by 
children with the simplest of settings and costumes, and with 
a minimum number of rehearsals. There is nothing, however, 
in the themes or in the treatment which would limit them to 
child actors alone, and the peasants, medieval kings and beg- 
gars, and the arabs who make the characters of the majority 
of the plays, are equally suited to older players. The plays 
are varied in subject and in dramatic quality, but all of them 
have a simple, direct dramatic appeal which makes them dis- 
tinctly "plays that will act" and not merely pleasant reading. 
The book contains brief but adequate" stage directions and ex- 
cellent photographs which are better than many pages of cos- 
tume description. Agnes Murray Chamberlayne. 


By George O. Draper. Association Press. 143 pp. Price, \ 
$1.00; by mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

This is a well arranged handbook of over three hundred games! 
to be used in directed recreation. Games, grouped according! 
to the ages of the players, for school room, school yard, fori 
home and church, sociables, athletic meets and festivals arel 
described in English that is easy to follow. The compiler has J 
been successful in finding games for which the equipment foil 
playing is simple. A convenient volume for the play director I 



By Charles Baudouin. Dodd, Mead & Co. 349 pp. Price, 

$3.50; by mail of the Survey, $3.70. 

By Wilfrid Lay. Dodd, Mead & Co. 337 pp. Price, $2.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

By Andre Tridon. Alfred A. Knopf. 160 pp. Price, $2.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

By Knight Dunlap. C. V. Mosby Co. 173 pp. Price, $1.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

By A. T. Schofield, M. D. E. P. Dutton & Co. 120 pp. Price, 

$1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

By Stewart Paton. Charles Scribner's Sons. 465 pp. Price, 

$7.50; by mail of the Survey, $7.90. 


By Charles S. Myers. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 175 pp. Price, 

$1.75; by mail of the Survey, $1.85. 

By Frederick Tracy. Macmillan Co. 246 pp. Price, $3.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $3.15. 

By C. B. Burr. F. A. Davis Co. 269 pp. Price, $2.00; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.10. 

By Charles Piatt. Dodd, Mead & Co. 290 pp. Price, $2.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 

Professor Baudouin, in his description and analysis of the 
work of the so-called New Nancy School, under the leadership 
of Prof. Emile Coue, has given us a very thought-provoking 
book. Without any necessity for a full and uncritical acceptance 
of the Freudian doctrines, the unbiased student and observer 
sees in a judicious application of the principles brought to light 
by the psychoanalysts a very worth-while addition to existing 
means for influencing human thought and behavior. 

It is very difficult to make a psychoanalytic treatment avail- 
able for the thousands of children and adults who would be 
benefited by it because they cannot afford the time nor the ex- 
pense involved in this procedure. At Nancy, some of the funda- 
mental principles of Freudian psychology are employed in a much 
more practical manner than is possible through a strict psycho- 
analysis. The patient is shown by means of some rather simple 
experiments the power and worth of auto-suggestion, and is 
trained in the use of this power for the guidance of his own 
conduct and in overcoming certain debilitating nervous symptoms. 
The place of the 'unconscious, a storehouse of energies and pos- 
sibilities as well as the source of certain inhibitions and draw- 
backs to mental health, is fully emphasized. 

The procedure as practiced by Professor Coue ought to prove 
particularly useful in free clinic practice where the time ele- 
ment is such an important factor. By means of a very simple 
experimental procedure, an attempt is made to get the patient, 
rid this applies to very young children, to realize more fully 

e latent powers within him and in this manner to achieve a 

eater conscious control of his instinctive trends. The book 

ould be read by all interested in mental medicine. The trans- 
ition, by Eden and Cedar Paul, is unusually well done. 

In his new addition to his series of expositions of psycho- 
analysis, Man's Unconscious Spirit, Lay attempts to explain 
the spiritualistic movement on the basis of Freudian psychology. 
Why an entire book was needed to achieve this end, in view of 
the author's printed books, does not appear from the text. 

Tridon has again written a book reflecting his really remark- 
able journalistic abilities. Like his other books, Psychoanaly- 
sis, Sleep and Dreams makes no claim for originality in the field 
of psychoanalysis. 

Both Lay and Tridon will probably continue to be needed 
by the psychoanalytic movement as long as the "scientific psy- 
chologists" persist in an attitude toward this movement such 
as is reflected by Professor Dunlap's book, Mysticism, Freudian- 
ism and Scientific Psychology. MacCurdy has adequately dealt 
with this childish outburst of peevishness on the part of Pro- 
fessor Dunlap in the last issue of Mental Hygiene, and we 
will not enter into a discussion of the book here. As an example 
of how cheaply personal "scientific discussion" can become, 
the book takes first rank. 

In The Mind of a Woman, Dr. Schoffield summarizes his 
views on the differences between the sexes in a very readable 
and entertaining way. From the point of view of the modern, 
emancipated woman the book is apt to be a disappointment, 
especially because of its leaning toward sentimentality. 

Professor Paton has written a very learned and valuable 
book, Human Behavior, which deserves much more adequate 
treatment than the mere mention which we are obliged to give 
it here. We fear, however, that the usefulness of this book 
will be unnecessarily limited because of the learned language 
employed. It is to be regretted that such an able expositor as 
is Professor Paton in conversation should have allowed his 
professorial erudition to lead him into the writing of a book 
which is quite beyond the mental grasp of the average individual. 
It is the common average man who needs some insight into the 
principles of human behavior, and it is a pity that this depend- 
able book is apt to have such little attraction for him. As long 
as professors will persist in writing books which are quite in- 
accessible to the average man, practical psychology will remain 
to be exploited by laymen, and by the same token will be fre- 
quently misrepresented. 

Myers furnishes a fair and sympathetic survey of the contri- 
butions to the psychological aspects of efficiency in industry un- 
der five headings: movement study, fatigue, selection, incentive, 
and unrest. It is a very large and important subject and neces- 
sarily dealt with in this small volume in a too generalized and 
cursory manner. Nevertheless, for a rapid orientation in this 
field, the book serves a good purpose. 

The Psychology of Adolescence represents an attempt to fur- 
nish a survey of the field of adolescence and is designed as a 
reference book for educators and religious advisers. Through- 
out the book, the aspects of religion and moral principles are 
largely stressed: a presentation of this kind will no doubt meet 
a need among the class for whom it was written. As a scien- 
tific presentation of the psychology of adolescence it leaves much 
to be desired, even failing in a number of instances to quote re- 
liable scientific data. 

The fifth edition of Dr. Burr's very practical compendium 
on psychology and psychiatry for nurses and attendants, en- 
larged, will undoubtedly be favorably received. The book has 
served a very useful purpose in the past. 

Dr. Piatt has written a very sane and readable summary of 
the well known facts of psycho-biology. While not as pro- 
found and erudite as is Professor Paton's book on the same 
subject, it is much more practical in its composition and make- 
up, and ought to be widely read. Bernard Glueck. 


By Viscount Bryce. Macmillian Co. Two volumes, 508 and 
676 pp. Price the set $10.50; by mail of the Survey, $11.00. 
Here are the results of years of toil in the study of the people's "/ 
rule, including many journeys and protracted stay in foreign'' 
lands as well as the most comprehensive survey on the litera' 
in this field that has ever been attempted. For this magn"'* • 



piece of work Lord Bryce has laid under obligation to him the 
whole world — except politicians who like to talk at large with- 
out taking the trouble of inquiring how measures or methods 
they propose or oppose have worked elsewhere. The author's 
attitude throughout is conservative and judicial in spite of the 
fact that his sympathies often lie with experiments in demo- 
cratic procedure or extensions of democratic rule, that, though 
they have failed because of minor flaws or accidental circum- 
stances, seem to him worth further consideration. His attitude, 
moreover, is always realistic and concerned with evidence rather 
than arguments, though sometimes his imagination and logic 
supply convincing reasons for success or failure which it would 
be difficult to deduce directly from the facts recorded. 

The plan of the book is, briefly, a section dealing with con- 
siderations applicable to democratic government in general; a 
detailed study of democracy in Athens, Spanish America, France, 
Switzerland, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zea- 
land; an examination and criticism of democratic institutions 
in the six last named countries; a synthesis of findings concern- 
ing all of them ; and general reflections on the present and 
future of democratic government suggested by this survey. 

If there is any chief lesson from these studies, it is perhaps 
that democratic institutions have succeeded to the extent to 
which it has been possible to devise machinery giving a maxi- 
mum of concrete responsibility to large numbers of citizens. As 
a general rule a republic is best served which provides oppor- 
tunities by which its public spirited citizens may by stages as- 
sume larger and more difficult offices and where the govern- 
mental functions are sufficiently decentralized to permit of the 
widest participation of citizens in public affairs. 

Unfortunately, Lord Bryce nowhere comes to grips with 
the more fundamental question of what are the most desirable 
limits of the political organization of society. He has apparent- 
ly little or no comprehension for the strength of the present 
world movement in favor of a more functional exercise of au- 
thority — the separation, for instance, of police control from 
economic and educational controls now advocated in many coun- 
tries and by many writers. Taking a purely political view of 
social organization he deplores — without sufficient justification, 
it seems to the present reviewer — the multiplication of parties 
and other tendencies to interrupt the smooth working of the 
political machine. As a result of this limitation he sometimes 
is unable to suggest any solution for problems and difficulties 
which he himself discloses — such, for instance, as the trend for 
legislators and office holders to become more and more the dele- 
gates of their constituency or party rather than representatives 
expected to use their own judgment. Again, disregarding the 
enormous amount of voluntary international agreement on a 
non-political basis, he underestimates the possibilities of open 
discussion and argues elaborately for the retention of secret 

Not all of Lord Bryce's information is up-to-date or de- 
rived from altogether unbiassed sources. Thus, deploring the 
''over hasty grant of full political as well as private civil rights 
to the emancipated slaves" of the United States, he throughout 
exhibits but slight comprehension both of what the Negro has 
actually contributed to American life and of the change of sen- 
timent toward him both South and North. He certainly is 
misinformed when he affirms that, in the United States, "the 
tyranny of the majority which disheartened Tocqueville in 1830 
is not now visible at times of unusual strain, when national 
safety is supposed to be endangered." Has he ever tried to 
wear a straw hat in New York before or after the recognized 
season — not to speak of expressing a sentiment favorable to the 
Non-Partisan League in Minnesota or to Japanese land settle- 
ment in California? 

The limitation of his outlook makes Lord Bryce pessimistic 
in regard to some of those problems of democracy which only 
a much broader sociological approach can dissolve. Thus he 
says that "attainments in learning and science do little to make 
men wise in politics." Is not this like stating that no amount 
of learning in classic literature makes a good engineer? The 
truth of the matter is that with a more functional political or- 
ganisation of society — or, what comes to the same thing, the 
Taking up of the political state as we know it today — a closer 
tion would be established between knowledge and the exer- 
control. He is pessimistic also in declaring that a re- 
-lutocracy is not impossible — a conclusion likewise in- 

spired by the unproved assumption that political authority neces- 
sarily comprises every kind of social authority. 

So much for criticism. But it would be doing a bad turn 
to the student of democracy to leave him with the impression 
that these flaws detract from the essential value of the work 
under review. For it has the supreme merit of being the first 
in its field to enable a valid comparison and judgment of those 
political systems on which for a long time to come those both 
of the older and the newer republics are likely to be modeled. 
The author refutes the fairy tale of the imponderability of hu- 
man nature which leads many sociologists to teach that nothing 
can safely be predicted concerning the trend of social progress. 
While the same combination of circumstances that has given 
rise to certain institutions, to certain successes and failures, 
can never return, there are inescapable natural laws in the 
working of political principles and methods which apply every- 
where and at all times. To have shown this, even though 
within a strictly limited field of study, is, perhaps, the chief 
merit of Lord Bryce's effort. B. L. 


By Lilian Brandt. The Frontier Press. 153 pp. Price $2.00, 

How Much Shall I Give, by Lilian Brandt, is a unique con- 
tribution to the subject of contributions. It is a notable and, 
so far as I know, the first scholarly, thoughtful, comprehensive 
presentation of the fine art of giving. 

Miss Brandt quickly dismisses the theoretical answers of 
economics and ethics as affording little practical help. She 
then analyzes the considerations which actually induce people 
to give and those by which people now decide how much to give; 
she considers how much we know as to the amount which, as 
individuals and as groups, we actually do give. She then per- 
sonally conducts the reader through the answers of the past — 
the Babylonians and Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, the 
Hebrews, the people of the Middle Ages — the recent past and 
the present, bringing us up to the days of the financial feder- 
ations and community chests. It is astonishing to find how 
constant a factor in human life giving has been from the earliest 
periods. It is somewhat reassuring to find that the habit was 
developed so very early in human society and has persisted under 
all changes, even though the best minds have not succeeded in 
evolving any consensus of opinion upon it. Possibly the author 
may seem to some to detain us too long in the medieval ages, 
but it is done in a charming style. She then considers Our 
American Ideals, such as they are, and what there is of them. 

The last chapter is entitled The Question Answered, but 
most readers will find the answer, as the author anticipates, "a 
hard saying." They will have hoped to find either some mathe- 
matical scale or some concrete suggestions by which to approach 
a mathematical determination of what their support or total 
contributions ought to be. What they are told is that they 
must study the needs and agencies of their localities and that 
each should give "such a part of his income as his informed 
intelligence, guided by a sincere concern for the common welfare, 
dictates." Find out the facts, think hard and be public-spirited 
— this is, in substance, her answer. 

Miss Brandt's book was submitted in a competition for two 
prizes offered by the American Economic Association on sub- 
stantially the question stated in its title. It did not receive 
either prize, though it received favorable mention and was rated 
number 3, as the chairman of the Committee on Awards ex- 
plains in an introductory note. It is interesting that the prize 
winners did undertake some calculations by which one might 
arrive at a mathematical determination of his duty in the matter 
of giving. I fancy, from a summary of the prize essays con- 
tained in an advertisement at the of the volume, that they would 
leave one even more bewildered. Nevertheless, I must confess 
to a sneaking wish that Miss Brandt had gone further in in- 
dicating how, having got the facts, having achieved a public spirit, 
one should proceed to substitute a satisfying basis for a 
haphazard guess in determining for how much or how little 
the checks shall be drawn, if at all. For most people the 
practical question, as it arises, is probably this: How much 
of that portion of income not required for present needs should 
be laid aside for my future rainy day, and how much of it 




KING and 
Under the auspices of 
the National Bureau 
of Economic Research, 
on institution which 
is composed of nine- 
teen directors who 
represent a variety of 
economic interests and 
points of view. 


As Chief Industrial 
Commissioner and as 
Chairman of the Gov- 
ernment Arbitration 
Committee under the 
British Munitions of 
War, Lord Askwith 
has been settling the 
most important Brit- 
ish labor disputes of 
the last twenty years. 


Chairman of the Board 
of Directors of the 
A. E. G. (German 
General Electrical 
Company) . From his 
early youth, Walter 
Rathenau has been 
thrown with captains 
of industry and the 
great thinkers of Ger- 
many. He is regarded 
as one of the most 
liberal and influential 
social thinkers as well 
as a man of action. 



Author of "Letters 
of a Chinese Official," 
etc. Publicist and de- 
lightful essayist. 


Founder of the mod- 
erate Socialist party 
in Germany. 


Author of "European 
Cities at Work," etc., 
former Commissioner 
of Immigration, Port 
of New York. 


Special investigator 
for Federal Reserve 
Board, franchise ap- 
praiser Michigan Tax 
Commission, tax ex- 
pert of the New York 
Trust Companies As- 
sociation, Professor of 
Political Economy, 
University of Michi- 

The Income of the United States 

A brief summary of an exhaustive statis- 
tical analysis of the income of the United 
States for each year 1910-1919. It is in- 
tended for the use of the citizen, in deter- 
mining the adequacy of the nation's pro- 
duction to meet the living needs of the 
population. In this purpose, the size of 
the surplus over the minimum amount 
necessary to support life is given especial 
attention, for it is from this surplus that 
taxes, new investments and higher stand- 
ards of life are drawn. The changes in 
the distribution of income brought about 
by the war are also estimated. 

(Probable Price, $1.50) 

Problems and 


This book deals with the conditions which 
have specially caused the unrest in indus- 
try in the last twenty years and makes 
practical suggestions for the amelioration 
of the struggle between capital and labor. 
It is illustrated by anecdote and hitherto 
unpublished details. ($5.00) 

The New Society 

This brief book does not accept socialism, 
or democracy, or any of the other catch- 
words which people mistake for social 
goals. Dismissing all dreams of a social 
Utopia, it formulates practical programs 
which will distribute the manual and in- 
tellectual labor of the world, adjust in- 
dustry and government so as to get rid 
of lifelong and hereditary barriers, and 
keep distinctions of class in a constant 
state of flux. ($1.60) 

Handbooks on International 

"Causes of International War," 

G. Lowes Dickinson 
"Patriotism and the Super-State," 

J. L. Stocks 
"Nationalism," G. P. Gooch 

"Diplomacy Old and New," 

George Youn? 
"Economic Imperialism," L S. Woolf 
"The Workers' International," 

R. W. Postdate 

"Unifying the World," G. N. Clark 

(Each volume $1.00 net) 

My Years of Exile 

"Highly readable and almost a Who's 
Who in the history of European Social- 
ism." — N. y. Evening Post. ($4.50) 

Denmark: A Cooperative 

An account of Denmark as a democratic 
commonwealth, governed largely by 
farmers in which cooperation has been 
carried to a higher point of development 
than in any other modern state. ($2.00) 

Profits, Wages and Prices 

"There has been endless discussion of all 
these matters, but nowhere else so com- 
prehensive a presentation of essential 
facts joined with clear and suggestive 
analysis." — Professor O. M. W. Sprague 
in the New York Evening Post. ($2.00) 

Please mention The Suxvby 


Under the 
Direction of 

F. J. McConnell, 
D. A. Poling, 

G. W. Coleman, 
N. Van Der Pyl, 
A. W. Taylor, 
J. McDowell, 
Mrs. F. Bennett 


Professor of Law in 
Harvard Univirtitj 


Fellow of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, late 
member of the Brit- 
ish Coal Industries 


Author of "The Evo- 
lution of Animal In- 
telligence," Professor 
of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of California. 


Author of "The Prob- 
lem of Sovereignty," 
"Authority in the 
Modern State," etc. 




Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 
"One of the sincerest 
democrats that aris- 
tocracy has ever pro- 
duced." Boston Trans- 

Public Opinion and the Steel 
Strike of 1919 

Ten years ago public opinion began to 
break against the twelve-hour day, but 
until the publication a year ago of the 
Interchurch World Movement Report on 
the Steel Strike (cloth, $2.50; paper, 
$1.50), public opinion did not know that 
over 100,000 workers in the steel industry 
still rise in the dark, work twelve hours, 
go home in the dark, isolated in the steel 
plants from family and nation. These 
sub-reports are the basis for the first 
book, and reveal the attitude of pulpit, 
press, police and other public agencies to- 
ward the workers during the great steel 
strike of 1919 and since. 

(Probable price, $2.50) 

Freedom of Speech 

"A book with which every judge and 
every lawyer should be familiar as a 
matter of professional routine ; every 
newspaper editor should know it by 
heart. This calm, scholarly, sane exposi- 
tion of very recent history sounds like a 
clear bell in a moral fog." — New York 
Evening Post. ($3-5°) 

The Acquisitive Society 

A book on the moral basis of unrest. 
"Destined to be regarded as a classic 
masterpiece upon its subject. The treat- 
ment is at once profound and brilliant." 
— Dickinson S. Miller, in the New Re- 
public. ($1-5°) 

The Trend of the Race : A Study 
of Present Tendencies in the 
Biological Development of Civil- 
ized Mankind 

This volume makes available to the lay- 
man the latest results of scientific study 
in regard to the various forces which are 
at present modifying the direction of 
human evolution. ($4-°°) 

The Foundations of Sovereignty 
and Other Essays 

An attempt at the reconstruction of polit- 
ical theory in terms, not of decayed in- 
stitutions and traditional ideas, but of the 
actual institutions and needs confronting 
us today. ($3-5o) 

Collected Legal Payers 

"These papers bring the touch of romanc 
to philosophy. Should have a tremendo 
appeal to the thoughtful reader, an'' 
not entirely for lawyers." — Bostr 


token writing to advertisers. 


should I devote to the present rainy day of my neighbors on 
this globe? Are there not some standards which would help one 
in arriving at an answer? Miss Brandt seems to think not, 
and she ought to know, for she has thought more about it than 
any one else appears to have done. I wish she would think 
again on that question of saving and giving. Maybe she will 
write another book on that. It also would deserve a large 
sale. Homer Folks. 


By Gilbert Ried. Dodd Mead & Co. 332 pp. Price, $3.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 
This volume is particularly pertinent and timely to the great 
debate upon which the United States and indeed the nations are 
entering. Confessedly China holds the center of the stage and 
she may be the key character in the drama that is to be enacted 
in the coming months at Washington. 

To the student who wants facts, as many pertinent facts as 
possible, and who wishes to see those facts in the light of a cor- 
rect historical background, and of impartial judgment and of 
goodwill to all parties concerned, this book can be unreservedly 
commended. As the author says of himself, and a reading of the 
volume shows, he is "pro-Chinese, rather than pro-Japanese or 
even pro-American." To the writer, the author seems to be 
pro-justice rather than partisan to any nationality. 

Particularly important for the average American is the first 
chapter, entitled Foreign Encroachments. The author shows how 
Great Britain and Russia, France and Germany and lastly Japan 
and even the United States have dealt China blow after blow. 
All but the United States have shared in shearing off her terri- 
tory, in gaining naval rights, concessions and spheres of influence, 
in exploiting her natural resources, in infringing on her sover- 
eignty, in interfering with her autonomy and administration and 
too often in resorting to intrigue and to promises that are not 
fulfilled. It is a distressing story that will cause deep humilia- 
tion to every reader who would like to believe that nations of 
the West are fair and honorable in their international relations. 

The story of America's relations with China contrasts sharply 
with that of other countries. The way, however, in which we 
made promises in connection with the war and then failed to 
carry them out at Paris is not calculated to increase our self- 

"In the main," writes the author, concluding his introductory 
sketch of the many encroachments on China, "through the last 
two decades, Great Britain's preponderating influence was pass- 
ing to Japan. To both, Germany was the great competitor, and 
next came the United States with Russia and France receding in 
matters of trade but still active in matters political. . . . China's 
unfortunate position today and the new crisis in her political 
existence, are involved in the events of previous years, wherein 
China was made to bend to the will of stronger powers." 

Throughout the volume the author is thoroughly fair to Japan 
in spite of his strong interest in China. 

One hesitates to criticise a work so fair and so full of ac- 
curate information. It appears, however, to the reviewer, that 
the author has hardly given the reader adequate knowledge of 
China's own share in the responsibility for her present political 
chaos and pitiable plight. It has been largely due to the ignor- 

"Social Aspects of the Jewish 
Colonies of South Jersey" 

by Philip R. Goldstein, Ph.D. 

A Thesis submitted to the University of Pennsylvania in 
fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of "Doctor 
of Philosophy." Price, $1.25 

Write to author 

c /o Jewish Welfare Board 

149 Fifth Ave., New York City 

ance and incompetence and corruption of her own statesmen and 
diplomats that she finds herself in her present predicament. And 
even now her claims for restitution by the Powers of their many 
rights and concessions, her demand for the withdrawal of foreign 
soldiers and police and her clamor for the abolition of extra 
territoriality, cannot be seriously considered by the governments 
of other lands because of the nature of her laws and her adminis- 

Every American will sympathize with China's young leaders 
who desire to have China take her rightful place among the 
great nations. But it is clear that a new type of Chinese admin- 
istrators, rulers and diplomats must arise; new methods must be 
adopted and great reforms must be put through in China's in- 
ternal life and social order, before she will be adjusted to the 
international life of the world and be ready to take her place as 
one of the, equal nations of the earth. Sidney L. Gulick. 


By Mary S. Haviland. Small Maynard & Co. 296 pp. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the survey, $2.15. 
Miss Haviland, research secretary of the National Child Wel- 
fare Association, has summarized the principles of the character 
training of children in a very able and readable manner. Be- 
sides being an accurate statement of many of the well known 
guiding lines to be followed in educating the individual for the 
business of living, the book has the merit of being written in 
plain and understandable English and of being rich in illus- 
trative examples which help very much in objectifying the text. 
In view of the many worthless, frequently carelessly written 
and occasionally misleading books on the subject of child train- 
ing which constantly appear on the market, it is particularly re- 
freshing to come across a dependable, common-sense statement 
of the subject, and the reviewer unhesitatingly recommends 
Miss Haviland's book to all who are interested in the education 
of our youth. Bernard Glueck. 


By James H. Snowden. 122 pp. The Abingdon Press. Price, 
$.75; by mail of the Survey, $.85. 

A brief discussion of the general problem of education, includ- 
ing its objectives and the means by which those objectives may 
be attained. The conception of the objectives of education is 
quite definitely modern, at least in most respects; but the un- 
derlying psychology is almost as definitely belated. Professor 
Snowden separates the mind into its three ancient parts, intel- 
lect, feeling and will, and proceeds to plan the education of 
each in turn. ' He does permit them to meet for a paragraph 
in "the unconscious," but that seems to be a concession to cer- 
tain superficial movements in the field of psychology. 

As an illustration of the belated quality of the psychology in 
this little book, the discussion of the subject of education and 
expression may be cited. Here is the whole, crux of modern 
educational discussion. Nothing is so much a touchstone of the 
psychological point of view of a writer as his handling of this 
factor. Professor Snowden's whole viewpoint is revealed in 
the first sentence of this discussion: "Education develops the 
power of expression." For the best modern educational theory, 
expression is the most effective factor in the educational pro- 
cess: "No education without expression." For Professor Snow- 
den it is the final outcome of education. J. K. H. 


By Philip R. Goldstein. The League Printing Co. 74 pp. 
Price, $1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

Many surveys are conducted in frigidly objective manner by out- 
siders. This is a record of the efforts made by Jewish immi- 
grants to get out of the congested cities "back to the soil." It 
is refreshing to have here not mere hearsay, but the results of 
personal studies made by a man who identified himself with the 
life of the Jewish colonies that were founded originally in 1882 
by the fugitives from Russian tyranny. Dr. Goldstein served 
during the past six years as resident director of the educational 
and cultural activities instituted there a decade ago by the Jew- 
ish Chautauqua Society. 

The writer has produced a reliable source-book for students 




An Introduction to the Science of 

By Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess 

This volume defines and illustrates the principles of soci- 
ology. It represents the investigation and thought of many 
leading scholars in the fields of psychology, anthropology, 
and sociology. If one would understand the social structure 
•f his time he should read this book. $4.50, postpaid $470 

Rural Community Organization 

By Augustus W. Hayes 

The author's purpose is to arrive at the proper local unit 
which lends itself to comprehensive community organization 
together with the forces to be organized and co-ordinated 
within the unit. $150, postpaid $1.65 

Funeral Management and Costs 

By Quincy L. Dowd 

The author presents a scientific, authoritative work on the 
important but neglected problem of burial. Without fear 
or favor the book deals with funeral extravagances and 
•emetery profiteering. It offers suggestions based on the 
ascertained facts for a constructive program of burial, pub- 
Kc management, and control. $3.00, postpaid $3.15 

Rural Organization. Proceedings 
of the Third National Country Life 

This volume contains the inspiring addresses of the presi- 
dent of the conference, Kenyon L. Butterfield ; Lorado Taft; 
C. J. Galpin ; R. R. Moton ; and others. Every person in- 
terested in rural life will find it exceedingly valuable. Mr. 
Taft's lecture alone is worth the price of the book. 

$2.50, postpaid $2.65 

Some Newer 
and Social 

Problems, National 

Vol. XV, Papers and Proceedings of the American Socio- 
logical Society. $200, postpaid $2.15 

Evolution, Genetics and Eugenics 

By Horatio H. Newman 

While this is not a book on sociology it will prove of in- 
terest to social workers. It has been prepared to meet an 
increasing demand for an account of the various stages of 
evolutionary biology condensed within the scope of a volume 
•f moderate size. $3-75, postpaid $3.90 

Education for Social Work 

By Jesse Frederick Steiner 

The unusual demand for social workers during the pa§t 
few years, together with the increasing recognition of the 
importance of professional standards in social work, has 
directed attention to the necessity for more widely extended 
training facilities that would be easily accessible to work- 
ers in all sections of the country. It is to throw light on 
this problem in the field of social work that this study was 
undertaken by the writer during his period of employment 
by the American Red Cross as National Director of Edu- 
cational Service. Paper; $1.00, postpaid $1.03 

Madeline McDowell Breckinridge 

By Sophonisba P. Breckinridge 

An inspiring biography of one of the truly great women 
of modern times. It is more than a biography; it is a 
fascinating history of social progress in Kentucky and espe- 
cially in the city of Lexington. $250, postpaid $2.65 

Proceedings of the National Con- 
ference of Social Work, 1920 and 1921 

The publications of this organization are written by spe- 
cialists, men and women who are authorities in the various 
branches of social improvement. $3-5°, postpaid $3.65 

The Press and Politics in Japan 

By Kisaburd Kawabe 

The purpose of this book is to show the influence of 
the press upon the political life of Japan, to indicate the 
process by which a state has made remarkable progress 
mainly through the development of communication, as a 
result of the modern printing press. The author studies 
politics from the social-psychological standpoint, and at- 
tacks the problems primarily from the side of the under- 
lying forces and processes instead of outward forms and 
structures. $2.00, postpaid $2.15 

The American Journal of Sociology 

Albion W. Small, Editor 

Discusses in a scholarly and scientific way the social, 
religious, political, economic, and ethical questions of our 
modern society. It gives thoughtful consideration to cur- 
rent problems. Subscription price, $3.00 

Order from your dealer or direct. 

Our new fall catalogue sent free upon request. 


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Chicago, Illinois 

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A Book with a Distinct 
Message for Our Own Day 


Mendenhall Lectures 

DePauw University 



Dean of Yale Divinity School 

A study in reconstruction with certain ancient 
leaders of biblical history as the outstanding 
figures, and the present situation of the world, 
as the aftermath of the war, as the chief point 
of application. 

Price, net, $1.25, postpaid 


150 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Handbook of Social Resources of 
The United States 

A descriptive directory of nation-wide agencies con- 
ducting Social Service, Health, Education, Community 
Welfare, Americanization, Employment, Recreational 
and Related Activities. 

300 Pages of Text Fully Indexed 

Price $l 


National Headquarters: Washington, D. C. 


This is an inexpensive booklet full of suggestions for the teacher 
and community worker among children. Graded games and sug- 
gestions for community activities make the book of very practical 
value. Published by Community Service (Incorporated), One 
Madison Avenue, New York City. Price, $.25. 

Improve your appeal literature 

It must be better than "job printing." I am helping many, by planning and 

rinting things (in my own shop) that people read. ^ Ask about my system of 

•ciftcations, which (i) improves style, (l)reduces cost, (3)simplifies routine. 

Everett R. Currier, 27 East 31, New York. Mad. Sq. 8891 


Please mention The Survey 

of social movements in America. It won for him last June 
the Ph. D. degree granted by the faculty of the graduate school 
of the University of Pennsylvania, June, 1921. 

The Jewish colonies, the writer declares, constitute a part 
of the common rural problem of the American people. He 
urges participation in the program of rural reform proposed 
by the National Country Life Association, and fostered by 
state and federal authorities. What Goldstein has done in 
South Jersey reveals what he and others may and should do 
in a nation-wide movement to further the development of the 
thousands of Jews now on farms throughout this country. 

Henry Berkowitz. 


By Mr. and Mrs. E. Haldeman-Julius. Brentano's. 251 

pp. Price, $1.75; by mail of the Survey, $1.95. 
Dust, like Poor White by Sherwood Anderson, drives home 
a real understanding of how the industrial Middle West grew 
out of the soil. Its industry was financed from the capital 
stored up from the fabulous dollar wheat of the years follow- 
ing the Civil War. And the brains which built factories and 
ran them, laid out suburbs, sifted soft-coal smoke over the green 
and white old towns and banked easy profits behind the tariff 
wall were largely farm brains. 

The leading characters are true Mississippi Valley types. 
They had, to be sure, the traditional shrewdness of the 
New England farmer who in his turn had developed industry 
out of agriculture. But the westerners, perhaps from a richer 
soil, grew a broader vision, a greater ambition. They wanted 
to raise bumper crops, to drive fast horses, to own pure-bred 
cattle, to build the biggest factory. Above all, they wanted to 
make money, and they did. 

Dust is one of the outstanding books which picture the newer 
parts of the country in the new way. It shows with relentless 
understanding how a hard boyhood, a life of grinding toil en- 
case a man finally in a shell through which he cannot break 
to any warm human relationship. The big barns dwarfing the 
drab little farmhouse, the electric lights in the stables dimming 
the oil lamps in the kitchen, the man's competence as a farmer 
and his complete failure as a husband are all drawn sharply 
against his consuming ambition to become rich. His wife is 
thwarted, his son sacrificed. His lungs are full of the dust of 
the prairies. Finally mind and spirit are choked with it too. 
Dust shows throughout the trained versatility of its authors, who 
are equally at home as editorial writers in the Appeal to Reason 
and as essayists in the Atlantic Monthly. They have done some- 
thing entirely new in the world in writing on Kansas with none 
of the conventional Kansas trappings — the bleeding, Governor 
Allen, the industrial code and Carrie Nation. A. P. K. 


By Charles Cestre. Gamier Freres, Paris. 342 pp. 
Professor Cestre of the University of Paris recently spent a 
year in the United States during which he visited a number of 
industrial establishments in different sections of the country. 
The present book embodies the observations which he made 
during that tour of inquiry. His attention was concentrated 
largely upon the experiments which have been undertaken by 
the more progressive employers. The field covered by scien- 
tific management, personnel relations and the more marked 
developments of welfare work chiefly interested him. In the 
work of industrial engineers he feels that American managers 
have made a distinctive contribution to the productive forces 
of the world. This is a tendency that he sees cleaving the old 
class struggle which is perhaps a more familiar phenomenon 
in European industry than it is in the United States where 
trade unions are anti-socialist. The American worker has in 
his own sphere, says Professor Cestre, the characteristic trait 
of the nation for which American philosophy has created a 
word — pragmatism. The American worker is, in his observa- 
tion, practical; his theories are modified to conform to reality. 
This factor as well as the recognition by employers of the 
value of working out sound human relations in industry ap- 
pears to the author to offer useful suggestions to France. His 
book is interesting to Americans in that it presents, with the 
objectivity possible only to alien eyes, a careful picture of re- 
cent tendencies in this country. William L. Chenery. 
when writing to advertisers. 







By J. D. Beresford. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 357 PP- P«ce, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 
In the introduction to the American edition of this novel — 
which aroused a great deal of interest in England — Mr. Beres- 
ford denies that his description of the civil war given in the 
book is in the nature of a prophecy. Indeed, what he has done 
is to show how in a typical community revolution would come 
about and manifest itself should present tendencies of class war, 
of disrespect for Parliament and traditional political procedure, 
of intolerance and frivolity be permitted to take their course. 
Since the novel is written in a most realistic way, such an as- 
sumption leads to the description of situations which the reader, 
the author's protestation notwithstanding, will regard as pre- 
diction of events based on a study of only half the tendencies 
at work to shape those events. A number of similar novels 
have come from England in the last two or three years; none 
so well written as this one nor so convincing in characterization 
of principal characters. But Mr. Beresford has merely added 
a more distinguished failure to the failures that have gone be- 
fore. The magnificent social and ethical teaching of his book 
has been squeezed into the form of fiction until it has lost the 
splendor of its appeal. In this form, it is inevitable that the 
lesson it leaves most strongly in the reader's mind is not that 
of confidence and faith but of pessimism and bitterness. B. L. 


By Pierre Hamp. Translated by James Whitall. Harcourt 

Brace and Co. 206 pp. Price, $1.60; by mail of the Survey, 

This is a most moving, albeit dispassionate, book. Without 
being merely photographic, the author divests his stories of all 
interpretation. There is no extravagance of words, sentiment, 
or even of the sordid that mars much realism, in the twenty- 
two short stories which make this volume. If it is possible 
to pick the best of them, Gracieuse, though no more nearly 
perfect than many others, displays most completely in its brief 
length Hamp's range of literary abilities. This is the story 
of the gay little funeral-wreath maker. "On Sundays she set 
forth all covered with funeral ribbons, and there was a pink 
cord drawn through her dun-colored chignon, and it shook 
when she laughed her little bird-like laugh. The wind played 
with the tufts of hair at her neck that were too short to be 
held in place by her comb. And she had a red ribbon tied round 
her neck. Children in the street stroked her white belt, and 
untied the blue ribbon bows at her nimble feet." And at the 
end, there having been an end to this, "Graciecse sang her 
mother's hopeful words, 'Ca ira! Ca ira!'" 

Hamp, once a pastry-cook, is the chronicler of his own class, 
the apostle of justice and work, as he tells in the story of Fat- 
Month, the oven-man. Although his satiric pen is bitterly en- 
gaged in a proletarian struggle, his sympathies are obviously 
with the unfortunate, with whom they amount indeed to a 
genius of comprehension, and for the portrayal of whose griefs 
he has developed an art comparable in ruthlessness and beauty 
to that of de Maupassant or Tchekov. 

Marion Clinch Calkins. 


By Quincy L. Dowd. University of Chicago Press. 295 pp. 
Price, $3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.15. 

The vagaries, the superstitions and the extravagances of funerals 
are severely criticised in this new book of funerals and the cus- 
toms of burials. 

The volume is the result of years of study, observation and 
investigation. The author, apparently a minister, started from 
his own observations of the excesses and the exploitations of 
funerals and extended his inquiry into the subject by travels and 
by questionnaires sent to United States consuls in many civilized 
and semi-civilized countries. The method of the inquiry is ad- 
mirable, though the equipment of the author to use the col- 
lected material is not ideal. 

There is probably little new in the book and the regrettable 
weakness of the author in the use of his material further les- 
sens the value of its findings. But the picture of funeral ex- 
cesses and exploitation of defenseless relatives is cumulatively 
created by numerous instances here and abroad, in themselves 

In Four Volumes 




Volumes I and II now ready 
Volumes III and IV published Spring 1922 

A chronicle of life in England drawn in its essentials 
from the pages of the world-famous Punch — a history 
of the Victorians written by themselves. "Will not alone 
give almost infinite amusement to the casual reader but 
als,o provide indispensable information to even the most 
serious minded student." — N. Y. Tribune. The illustra- 
tions — over 500 in the four volumes — represent the best 
work of Punch's artists. 

As requests for the first edition will be filled in order of 
their receipt we suggest that you mail your order (to your 
bookseller, if convenient) at once. Order by set only. 
Volumes I and II will be sent you at once. Volumes III 
and IV next Spring/ Remit for the entire set with order 
($20) or for two volumes now ($10) and for two in the 
Spring ($10). 



"Brilliant, satirical sketches of London places and Lon- 
don people. Mr. George knows his London intimately, 
and loves it well. He runs you around from Mayfair to 
Whitechapel, taking in the pubs, clubs and the 'alls on the 
way . . . and all the time he is telling you stories in the 
'That reminds me' vein. When it is all over you will ex- 
claim: 'What a night!'" — Philadelphia Ledger. $4.00. 



A novel that brings home a too-often forgotten truth — 
life is something more than falling in love- Friendships, 
ambitions, work, have to be taken into account. The hero- 
ine of this novel has a happy, satisfying romance, but her 
life is full to overflow with more than that. $1.90. 



The daughter of the famous historian and critic, John 
Addington Symonds, writes this fascinating romance of 
the Alps and of Italy. She pictures skillfully the intense 
power of environment over certain natures, centering the 
interest in a beautiful and beauty-loving heroine. $190. 



Research has proved that the French Revolution — usu- 
ally considered purely from a political standpoint — also 
effected a great economic change. This book deals with 
the peasant risings, which finally produced a complete 
agrarian reconstruction. Any one at all interested in 
economics, especially students wanting a supplement to 
college texts, will find the volume of great value. $2.75. 

Write, mentioning the Survey, for a free 32-page illus- 
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Why Has Marxian 
Socialism Collapsed 
In Russia? 

Prof. John Graham Brooks: 

"This volume contains a great deal of penetrating criticism 
of Marxian theory and much more effective criticism of that 
army of disciples who have outdone and so often undone 
their master. This book is to be heartily recommended." 

A. M. Simons, Author and Marxian Scholar: 

"The most important contribution to Socialist theory of 
the last twenty years." 

The Social Interpretation 

of History By Maurice William 

A Refutation of the Marxian Economic Interpretation of 

Robert Rives LaMonte, Author and Economist: 

"It contains more real thought than anything I have read 
in a decade." 

The Survey: 

"The book should be read carefully by both Socialists and 

Albert Sonnichsen, Author and Student on Co-operatives: 
" 'The Social Interpretation of History' as a basis for our 
co-operative movement gives us the beginning of a social 


62 Vernon Avenue, Long Island City, New York 
$3.00 at bookstores — $3.15 by mail — 432 pages 


With, an introductory note by Frank A. Fetter 

Reviews current practice, motives and 
ideals, with their historical backgrounds 

153 + XIV pp. ; 3 diagrams 

Price $2.00 

'A penetrating and timely discussion, 
. . . interesting not only to pro- 
spective givers, but to board mem- 
bers and social- workers. No one 
who is trying to face his community 
obligations can afford to miss "it. 
I predict for it a spirited sale and 
feel that I shall be doing people a 
distinct service by inducing them 
to buy it." — Sherman C. Kingsley : 
Philadelphia Welfare Federation. 


A compact review of the field since 1900 


About 60 pp. Paper cover Price 50 cents 


iVest 21 Street 

New York 

Please mention The Survey 

a contribution to our sentiment, if not to our exact knowledge 
of the subject. 

The author's point of view is two-fold: that the state should 
control burial places, and that so far as possible cremation 
should supercede burial in the earth. His citations from Euro- 
pean experience of the value of state control of burial places 
are not as convincing as they might be because in the first place 
the universal plan of classifying burials according to rank and 
economic status of the dead, which perhaps makes such control 
and supervision possible, would instantly be repudiated in this 
country. It is the passionate conviction and intent to translate 
that conviction into the reality that democracy means equality 
which is largely responsible for the lavish display of the poor 
and of the near-poor at funerals. The correction of that un- 
fortunate aspect of a highly desirable conviction will not be 
effected by state regulation of cemeteries. The further criti- 
cism of the overseas governmental regulation is that it does not 
cover the items which give the opportunity for extravagance: 
the casket, ornamentation, and celebration. 

As for the author's argument in favor of cremation there is 
little in the modern aspect of the subject to use against that 
method of disposal of the dead body. His figures do not indi- 
cate that, relatively to the population as a whole, cremation is 
making much headway, although, relatively to itself, it seems 
to be gaining fast. Frank J. Bruno. 


By William McDougall. Charles Scribner's Sons. 218 pp. 
Price, $1.75; by mail of the Survey, $1.90. 

Professor McDougall is afraid that America is not sufficiently 
alert to the dangers that lurk in the "melting pot." He finds 
statistics that prove (to himself) that Anglo-Saxon civilization 
is threatened in its vital physical bases through the over-hasty 
efforts to assimilate large masses of other white groups and the 
large Negro element in our population. He seems to see the 
American nation "dancing gaily down the road to destruction," 
and he sees in this "the greatest tragedy in the history of man- 
kind." But he can use his statistics in fearful and wonderful 
ways. Is the case for "white supremacy" and the "great race" 
so bad that statistics have to be manhandled in order to pro- 
tect an argument? This book has a large array of valuable 
facts and arguments; but its sincerity will be questioned by 
many, since certain parts of it are so obviously propagandist 
in character; and its permanent usefulness is not likely since 
some of its arguments are obviously dictated by temporary con- 
ditions. J. K. H. 


By Edward Cary Hayes. D. Appleton and Co. 354 pp. Price, 
$3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.25. 

This is a good book through which to get that long look ahead 
which is needed by everyone engaged in the business of im- 
mediate reforms. It pleads for a plan of social agreement on 
the basis of the objective, scientific study of men's capacities 
for better behavior. Its general tone is hopeful and encourag- 
ing. At times, to be sure, the author seems to forget that his 
is the ethics of but a single school and that the "reason" which 
he quite properly exalts as a method of socialization leads other 
thinkers to formulations different from his own. But thi? will 
not detract from the chief usefulness of the book, its warm 
plea that the making of character be kept in mind as the para- 
mount justification for all social effort and that "character is 
to be formed not by miraculous agency but by intelligent utili- 
zation of the tendencies of human nature." 

Henry Neumann. 


By Savel Zimand. H. W. Wilson Co. 260 pp. Price $1.80; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.00. 

There have been several small volumes of late attempting to 
set side by side the main principles and programs of the great 
movements that animate and divide the progressive forces of 
Europe and America — notably Bertrand Russell's Roads to Free- 
dom and Victor Gollancz' Industrial Ideals. Mr. Zimand has 
attempted and very successfully carried through a task at once 
more limited and more comprehensive than that of either of 
these authors. His descriptive summaries and bibliographies 
provide a more concrete introduction to trade unionism, the 

vihen <writing to advertisers. 

iu RVEY FOR OCTOBER 15, 192 1 


, national industrial coun- 
.alism, guild socialism, syn- 
.i than any other book; and 
ices are strictly up-to-date. He 
.what colorless, because absolutely 
se causes, and by the omission of 
vhich, though remotely interesting to 
,.ily accessible to the ordinary student of 
cial movements and therefore would be an 
r than a help to the reader to whom the book 
.essed. The differences and shades of difference 
and program of diverse groups and parties in 
..s surveyed are admirably though briefly described, 
only hopes that the publishers will follow the precedent 
tney have established with other of their publications in issuing 
revised editions whenever time and circumstance may render 
this one inadequate, and that a rapid sale will make this re- 
vision possible at frequent intervals. B. L. 


By Elwood Street. A. C. McClurg & Co. 161 pp. Price, 

$i.oo ; by mail of the Survey, $ 
This book, written with "a feeling of tremendous humility," is 
called by its author a "little guide book which strives to de- 
scribe for wayfarers through the land of life one of its pleasant- 
est routes." Many who read the guide book will be led to fol- 
low the route, for the style is clear and graphic. It would make 
a serviceable manual for classes, especially in Sunday schools. 

The opening chapters, Why? and Whence? are stimulating, 
but the chapters which follow have so broad a scope that the 
treatment is necessarily condensed and sketchy, though a read- 
able style is maintained. Nearly the whole field of modern 
charity is touched on, and it is surprising that so small a book 
can do so much so well. The final chapter, Whither? is as able 
as the opening chapters, and the whole book, though of little 
value for professionals, is of substantial value for amateurs. 

Frederic Almy. 

By several writers. Edited by Mrs. Enid Eve. William 
Wood & Co. 194 PP- Price > $3-oo; by mail of the Survey, 

This is a carefully prepared outline of visiting nurse and medical 
inspector duties, as conducted in England — interesting, but not 
always applicable to conditions in this country. The history of 
the development of public nursing and inspection is briefly cov- 
ered. The legal and statutory requirements and regulations 
are given in detail, also quarantine regulations. There is a 
chapter on infectious diseases, detailing early symptoms and 
general treatment. Another chapter on the tuberculosis visitor 
gives in simple outline many workable suggestions. 

For the social worker, visiting nurse, and public health offi- 
cial, the manual is of interest as describing the comparable work 
in another country. H. W. Cook, M. D. 


By F. B. Pearson. Charles Scribner's Sons. 142 pp. Price, 

$1.25; by mail of the Survey, $1.35. 
This is a volume of the Vocational Series, which includes also 
The Engineer, The Newspaperman and The Ministry. It is 
written by a former superintendent of schools of Ohio, and 
presents in brief range the main arguments for the vocation of 
the teacher. A book of inspirations, dealing with some of the 
"compensations" which the teacher finds in a world that must 
have him but does not greatly care for him. 


By John R. Commons. Ginn and Co. 823 pp. Price $4.00; 

by mail of the Survey $4.30. 
This book edited by Professor Commons, who is now the dean 
of industrial students in this country, is an assembly of articles 
by a large number of writers who deal with various aspects 
of industry. It is designed as a source book for students and 
contains excellent material. Security in industry, the labor 
market, labor management, labor unions and industrial law 
are the large topics under which a variety of data is presented. 
The writers included are widely representative and the contri- 
butions well chosen. 


It Is Useless 

To put people on their feet if they have not the 
strength to keep standing. Health and energy must be 
put into the young people of today to give them cour- 
age and endurance for tomorrow. Augusta Rucker, 
M.D., long interested in prevention rather than cure 
has prepared for the use of leaders — 

Ten Talks to Girls on Health 

by Augusta Rucker, M.D. 

A series of simple, sensible talks designed to arouse 
the interest of girls in the essentials of health. The 
talks are straight-from-the-shoulder advice on such 
subjects as Food, Teeth, Exercise, Drugs, Love and 
Health, and World Health. The captions are at- 
tractive — A Bad Food Tube; the Source of Blues and 
Failure; The Feet on Which We Stand or Fall. 

Price, Boards, $1.00 

Other Books on Health and Recreation 

Ice Breakers 

by Edna Geister 

No library is complete without this fun-making, play-plan- 
ning little volume which holds the key to the success of 
every conceivable kind of a party. Price, $1-35 

Ice Breaker Herself, The 

by Edna Geister 

Miss Geister has helped thousands of people all over the 
country to break the ice. In her new books she tells us 
how she learned to do it and outlines her methods, — which 
have always made parties of old, young or indifferent, social 
events. Price to be announced 

Health Inventory 

This is an inventory of an individual's health which may 
be made by the individual herself. Price, 15 cents 

Health and the Woman Movement 

by Clelia Duel Mother, M.D. 

"This book not only destroys many long established theories 
as to what women cannot do, but it sets forth a constructive 
form of health building, based upon simple abdominal 
muscular exercise, which if followed should eliminate the 
health problem from the woman movement for all time." 
The Public Price, 60 cents 

Any movement with a membership of 1 10,000 young 
girls is of interest to the social worker. October 1st 
will be the publication date of: 

The Girl Reserve Movement 

A complete manual of the girls work program of 
the Y. W. C. A. with suggestions for activities, recrea- 
tional, educational, religious, and a survey of the ele- 
ments of adolescent psychology. A reference book 
which is already in great demand by teachers and lead- 
ers of girls. Price, $2.00 

Everywhere or 

The Womans Press SKlteS^" 

Please mention The Survey -when writing f» advertisers. 


1 r 

m t-rvX. 





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education, desires position where experience, 
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salary. Intervale 7301 or 4019 Survey. 

BOYS' WORKER, experienced director of 
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available, New York City. 4020 Survey. 

DIETITIAN seeks post. Long experience. 
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nized spec- 
ten years' ex 
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phase of community . 
grants. Executive and 
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wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
write Literary Bureau, 509 Hannibal, Mo. 


After November first, four (4) backward 
girls under 12 to instruct and care for ia 
home in country. References given. 4017 



L. I. 

An attractive 13 room residence with garage 

on plot 110x208. Fine place for large family. 

Only fifteen minutes from Penn station, yet 

country surroundings. 

Price $35,000.00. 




Five rooms and sleeping porch, lot 50 by 200 feet, 
within 8 miles of New York. Price $1,600. 


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zj RV EY FOR OCTOBER 15, 1921 


weekly xnser- 
t hout the month. 

a Peace of Justice. "World Peace 
and H<»w c» Get it Now" and "Protection War 
!nd H C L " by Viola Mizell Kimmel, and 
"The Only Means," by Leo Tolstoy. The three 
for 25 cents postpaid. The arguments are un- 
answerable; the logic irresistible. Order now. 
Vio7a Mizell Kimmel, Publisher, Creighton, 

Happy's Calendar. A nonsensical school calendar 
of which Dr. L. Emmett Holt says: "This non- 
sense is the best kind of practical sense in 
health matters. Its teaching is adapted not 
enly to children but to grown-ups. <-hiia 
Health Organization of America Penn Terminal 
Bldg., New York City. Price, 25 cents. 

Health Game for Children. Adapted from the 
rhymes i- the Child Health Alphabet Book 
Child Health Organization of America, renn 
Terminal Bldg., New York. Price, 25 cents. 

InDCsntiAi, Facts. By Kirby Page. No. 1 of 
Christianity and Industry Series. Concrete data 
concerning industrial problems and proposed 
solutions. A 12,000 word summary. 32 pages. 
Valuable for personal study, discussion groups, 
open forums, adult Bible classes. Geo. H. Doran 
Co., New York city. Price, 10 cents. 

Civil Wai in West Virginia, Winthrop D. Lane's 
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Birth Control, First American Conference on. 
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Charities and Correction, New Yokk State 
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Richard W. Wallace, Room 431, The Capitol, 
Albany, N. Y. 

Child Hygiene Association, American. New 
Haven. Conn. Nov. 2-5. Gertrude B. Knipp, 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

Civil Service Reform Leacue, National. De- 
troit. Nov. 15-16. Harry W. Marsh, 8 West 
40 St., New York city. 

Country Life Association, American. New Or- 
leans. Nov. 10-12. Kenyon L. Butterfield, 
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Dietetic Association, American. Chicago. Oct. 
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Champaign, 111. 

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T. Todd, State Industrial and Agricultural 
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Farm Bureau Federation, American. Atlanta, 
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Industrial Relations Conference, Pennsyl- 
vania. Harrisburg, Pa. Oct. 25-27. Fred J. 
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St., New York city. 

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Public Officials op Charities and Corrections, 
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Public Ownership League and Cooperating Or- 
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Sanitary Association, New Jersey. Lakewood, 
N. T. Dec. 9. Dr. Charles W. Craster, Dept. 
of Health, Newark, N. J. 

Social Welfare, New Tersey Conference for 
Trenton, N. J. Oct. 25-27. S. G. Dunseath, 
21 Washington St., Newark, N. J. 

Social Welfare, Texas Conference of. Houston, 
Tex. Oct. 24-26. Elmer Scott, 416 Dallas 
county State Bank bldg., Dallas, Tex. 

Social Work, Kentucky State Conference of. 
Lexington, Ky. Oct. 20-22. Raymond A. Hoyer, 
61 Kenyon bldg., Louisville, Ky. 

Sociological Society, American. Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Dec. 27-29. E. W. Burgess, 58 st. and 
Ellis ave., Chicago. 

Southern Cooperative League for Education 
and Social Service. Chattanooga, Tenn. Nov. 
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Women, National Council of. Philadelphia. 
Nov. 10-16. Mrs. Philip N. Moore, Nat'l 
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Women's Clubs, Conference of New Mexico 
Federation op. Roswell, N. M. Oct. 25-27. 
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Please mention The Survey when writing to advertisers. 

Help Russia £vj o . 

After seven years of war and revolution Russian children 
are the heirless victims of famine and disease. Food not only 
saves lives hut carries a message of international friendship and 
good will. 


Has Never Refused Food 
Xo the Hungry 

Tnese Russian children appeal to you for kelp. 

Friends (Quakers) Lave supplies in Samara, the heart of the famine area, for 25,000. But 
250,000 in that district alone need additional food. Millions of children in the Volga region 
need food and clothes. 

Distribution is made regardless of Politics, Class, Race, or Religion. 

Friends have full responsibility over distribution of all supplies entrusted to their care. 

Herbert Hoover says: "The efforts being made by the American Friends Service Committee 

to secure charitable subscriptions for their work of famine relief in Russia have my fullest 




Charles F. Jenkins, Treasurer, 

20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dear Friends : Enclosed please find 

relief of the starving in Russia. 



-Dollars for the 

■ i ,- ■■ ■ mm 

OCT 2 3 \f)i\ 

OCTOBER 22, 1921 


Differentiation — Casuals of the Northwest — The Railroad Strike 
New York's Amendments— A Union of Textiles— Out of Work 
—Social Waste in Ohio— The Blanket of Silence 

The Temper of the Coal Miners . Heber Blankenhorn 105 
A Pioneer in Public Health . . . Homer Folks 106 
Mr. Hoover's Hand .... William L. Chenery 107 

The Labor Spy in West Virginia Winthrop D. Lane 110 
Birth Control Arthur Gleason 113 


Housing Legislation in Illinois . . . W. F. Dodd 115 

A Home Ownership Experiment . Nancy Woods Walburn 115 

A Churchman's Protest . . . . . F. C. Green 116 

Community Buildings — "Constructive Ventures"— Once upon a 
Time— The Negroes of Buffalo— Garden Suburb of Ypres 


Is the Juvenile Court Passing ? . . Henry W. Thurston 119 

Salvaging the Child P. L. B. 120 

Juvenile Court Dynamics— Child Welfare Abroad 


15 Cents a Copy 


$5.00 a Year 





ERS— itlss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. 
Emerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Organization to promote development of social work 
in hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

Andrews, sec'y.; 131 E. 23rd St., New York. For adequate public 
employment service; industrial safety and health laws; workmen's 
compensation; unemployment, old age and health insurance; mater- 
nity protection; one day's rest In seven; efficient law enforcement. 
Publishes quarterly, "The American Labor Legislation Review." 

WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field 
director; David H. Holbrook, executive director. 130 E. 22d Street, 
New York. Advice in organization problems of family social work 
societies (Associated Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

National Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, 
director, 130 East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of 
professional social workers devoted to raising social work stand- 
ards and requirements. Membership open to qualified social 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knlpp, sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. 
Urges prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; ma- 
ternal nursing; Infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre- 
school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU — An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession of 
community leadership. Address our nearest office — 

Tribune Building, New York. 

123 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 

716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field, pres.; C. J. Galpin, ex. sec; E. C. Lindeman, Greensboro, N. C, 
field secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 

Cooper, sec'y.; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ Is the Advocate of Peace, 
$2.00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 612-614 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers In delinquency. Next Con- 
gress Jacksonville, Florida, October 28 — November 3, 1921. O. F. 
Lewis, general secretary, 135 East 15 street, New York city. 

J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues. $5. 

Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of 
sound sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
request. Annual membership dues, 12. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

New York. Dr. D. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, di- 
rector. To arouse public interest In the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children in the forming of health habits; 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public health 
workers and health literature for children; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding 
prove standards and methods In 
children and to make available In 
results of successful effort. The 
with any agency, with a view to 
organizing its children's work. C. 
St., New York. 

AMERICA — A league of agencies 
of child welfare problems, to lm- 
the different fields of work with 

any part of the field the assured 
League will be glad to consult 

assisting it in organizing or re- 

C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 22nd 

York. Organized in February, 1919, to nelp people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps In 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will. If desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 

New York. Miss Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, 
ex. sec'y. Promotes Social Betterment though Religion, Social 
Welfare, Education and Civic Co-operatU. J# S., Canada and 


EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser. exec, 
■ec'y. A public service for knowledge about human Inheritances, 
hereditary inventory and eugenle possibilities. Literature free. 


'9 A "r C ? nstituted °y 30 Protestant denouw^. 

Macfarland Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St New „,^ 

Tinn mm ^ Si ° n ^? th £ Church and Socla ' Semce^Rev.' Wort M 
Tippy, exec sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y • Ajrne. 
H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian 

nres MP p° N INSTITUTE-^. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenlx vico- 

TratnsfndfanS^egro^utr Seither^ltaKor f^ V8 ~ 
school. Free Ulustratedliterature. e DOr * Govern «»ent 

Cu1bert N #ar , ie^ T d|- To? E^XsL N^V,? AB ^° "EN-John 
dustrial training c asses and 7>mni , n ™ W » T ?. rk - Maln *ains free In- 


OrId ^nm 8 ^'*!! , 1 * £0« THE ADVANCEMENT OF COL- 
fec'y° 70 F°«h ATe N^w J ™° re ^ PreS - : ? ames Weldon John?on. 
comm^f^ %^^^SZ^&£^£%&%2S re' 


?o U hn,J aSga . rt ' ?T e f ; Mrs - Robert £ Dickinfon treas • vJgf v" 
mercfal , so^^ y -^ 2 fn^ eSt J^r < l Bt -' New York - Composed of non-com: 

™££S%^%J28&£?~* and assist travelers - « al " 

AsVo2.A A rVoN^ A «n D T °f -J" 6 . YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance nhv- 

n£n' 8 S5 ,a > J t ntellectua1 ' "oral and spiritual Interests of young wo - 
ZZ:*t< S l U(ient - clty> town &na country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries board ine housi. 
Lt^ 00 ™ an ? ^feterias; educational classes; Nmploy^fnt- Mbft 
study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. Umcial Na t'onal 

wSng?o X n, C D. iV C. ° fflCe8, m * Massa chusetts Avenue, N.W., 
General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C S P 
Department of Education— Rev. James H.' Ryan, Exec Sec'v 
Bureau of Education— A. C. Monahan, Director. *' 

Department of Laws and Legislation— William J Cochran 

A Pa Lapp ° f S ° C,al Actlon -*>lrectors. John A Ryan and John 

^"si^f^^ws^r.^ 01 ™*-- justin Mcarath: 

X e^ al Se^ C M,chael C J th S ^tery en - PreS,dent ' R * Chm ° nd Dean > 
nVnTEx^^'y ! M a ,ss Agne^ 0men RTg; r r ,dent - "* M ' ChMl °- 
"mX^TEjS?^ * W ° men ' WMhlngtoB. »■ C.-Dean. 
Bureau of Immigration— National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

M A U ONA . L CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— Owen R Lovelov aec'v • 
wtuw 22 , nd St " ^t w Tork ' m««»trial. agrVcuTtural ^Tnvestt^tTons' 
dTe°s k h^» 

SSlSff&ffifc * 2 ' ,5> i10 ' ,25 ' and ^<»o= •-ri'dTSter^; .42. 

Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and nub * 
affecting he M?* 1 -^, vteu »"««» the Principal and condition. 
lliT^^ok ^birc e, hfafth d aVe U n C c a eL° n an f d C aiI dr ch']id SSEK 
c^Id P we I /?a^e 0m a m m U p t aJgn 8 ? ,t e y tc. 0r ^'^ "" ,c - ^ « hK 

™ a .H er . I k. James ' P res -: Dr. Thomas W. Salmon med dlr- Associate 
^'ri'w^&V*' ^"kwood E. Williams and Dr. V.'v. S 
P^nhllWn m-JSSTR' "f C y: 379 Sevent « Avenue, New York City. 

™1^ J^lL mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re- 

l^^ocietlT^Ml^J^l Ser T. ,ce ' backward chfldren!' survey.. 
state societies. Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

£ot? - 'A?? St ?? ; W \ H - Parker > Sen. sec'y., 23 East 9th St., Clncln- 
,, \ u l0 : Y eneral organization to .discuss principles of humanitarian 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceeding., 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 4>th annual meeting, Providence, R. I.. 
June 1922. Mam Divisions and chairmen: 

Children— J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction— Louis Robinson, M. D. Philadelphia. 

Health— Donald B. Armstrong, M. D. New York. 

Public Agencies and Institutions— George S. Wilson, Washington, 

The Family — Frank J. Bruno, Minneapolis. 

Industrial and Economic Problems— John Shlllady, New York. 
The Local Community — George C. Bellamy, Cleveland. 
Mental Hygiene — George A. Hastings, New York. 
Organization of Social Forces — C. M. Bookman, Cincinnati. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America — (Temporary 




NESS— Edward M. Van CleVe, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22nd St.. New 
York Objects: To furnish Information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures, publish literature of movement— samples free, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley. gen'l. sec'y.; John R. Shillady, exec, director. 
Promotes legislation for enlightened standards for women and 
minors In industry and for honest products; minimum wage commis- 
sions, eight hour day, no night work, federal regulation food 
and packing Industries; "honest cloth" legislation. Publications 

jec'y 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
itudy and concerted action In city, state and nation, for meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seek, the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

Ella Phillips Crandall. R. N. exec, sec'y; 370 Seventh Are.. New Tort. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing to 
flevelop standards of technique; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse " subscription 
included in membership. Dues, 13.00 and upward. Subscription J3.00 
j)er year. 

Charles J. Hatfield. M.D.. Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education. Institutions, nursing problems and other 
ohases of tuberculosis work. Headquarter* for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoor Life," "American Review 
of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social aervice among Negroes. 

, Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, secy, 

'27 E 23 St New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 

people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston. 
Illinois To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality. Scientific Temperance 
Instruction Americanization, and other allied fields of endeavor. 
Official publication, "The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

Robins pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government In the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor." 

— H S. Braucher, sec'y.; I Madison Ave., New York Cly. Play- 
ground neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

•entation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
Improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence the Eugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. II. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvment of Living 
Conditions— John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E, 22nd St., New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education. Statistics, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
dies, Library, Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public In practical and Inex- 
pensive form some of the moat Important results of Its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
iouth: an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
Couth; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
on the Tuskegee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 
Logan, treas.; A I. Holsey, acting sec'y., Tuskegee, Ala. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. — A non-commercial cooperative organ- 
isation without shares or stockholders Incorporated under the mem- 
bership law of the State of New York. Robert W. deForest, pros.; 
John M. Glenn. Henry R. Seager. V. Everit Macy. vice-presidents: 
Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y-treas. Publishers of The Survey, weekly, 
and the Survey Graphic, monthly. Editorial staff: 

Editor, Paul U. Kellogg 

Civics, Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker 

Social Forces, Edward T. Devine 

Industry. William L. Chenery 

School and Community, Joseph K. Hart 

Family Welfare, Child Welfare, Paul L. Benjamin. 

Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw 
Cooperating Subscription (membership) JIG. 112 East 19 Street. 

New York City 


Conducted by 


The world is weary of war, and would like to disarm. 
Peoples everywhere are largely convinced of the inutility of 
violence and would like to find ways of settling their differ- 
ences reasonably and in confidence and order. There is 
an intense longing for statesmen, or worldsmen, big enough 
to see through problems and wise enough to find solutions 
that will win back the world to the hopes of peace. Are 
such longings general, today, or merely held by optimists? 

1 Various Types of Hopes Now before the World 
♦ A century ago the faith of the world was firmly grounded 
in the all-sufficiency of political action: "Free peoples" were to 
settle all social problems by strict adherence to "parliamentary 
forms." How much of that faith still exists? To what extent have 
individuals, groups or peoples given over that doctrine and com- 
mitted themselves to some other, e. g., to belief in "direct action"? 
To what extent have people become disaffected of all hope of order 
or control and committed themselves to "drift," or general hope- 
lessness? Has any religious hopes, such as "millennialism," or the 
"second coming of Christ," or the "end of the world" taken its 
place in the programs of individuals or groups? Is there any 
political significance to the programs of the advocates of "birth 
control"? What other plans for the solution of the present prob- 
lems of the world are being advocated? 

2 The Reputed "Abdication of Government" in Some 
♦ Regions 
Is it true, as claimed by some, that "government has ceased to 
function" in some parts of the world, or in some areas of the 
United States? For example, in West Virginia? What is at the bot- 
tom of these charges? And if government has ceased to function, 
what is at the bottom of its failure? Have we developed actually 
irreconcilable antagonisms in our economic and civic life which are 
too big for peaceful solution? Have some industrial factors be- 
come bigger than the state itself ? Is it because our governmental 
officials are incapable of understanding the issues involved? Do 
they lack capacity? Do they lack courage? Do they lack will? 
D» they lack executive ability? Is it because they are selected on 
wrong bases? Would actual, occupational representation in the 
legislatures and in congress seem more, or less, likely to succeed 
in understanding and solving these problems? What does the fact 
of the calling of unofficial conferences made up of occupational 
representatives suggest as to the utility of such representation? 

3 The Services of Statesmen 
♦ What real services do our present types of statesmen serve? 
Do statesmen represent or present any convincing programs? Are 
they helping or hindering in the solution of the world's problems? 
Would the world be worse off without them? Do our statesmen 
know people? World problems? The advances in world know- 
ledge? What possible substitute could be found for them? 
References: * 

Brooks Adams, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma. 

millan Co. Price, $2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 
J. A. Hobson, Problems of a New World. Macmillan Co. 

$2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 
H. G. WeJls, The New Machiavelli, Duffield & Co. Price, $2.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 
A Gentleman with a Duster, The Mirrors of Downing Street. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. Price, $2.50; by mail of the Survey, 
E. G. Lowry, Washington Close-Ups. Houghton Mifflin Xo. 

Price, $3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 
W. D. Lane, Civil War in West Virginia. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. 

Price, $.50; by mail of the Survey, $.55. 
The Survey, Nov. 15, 1920, p. 115. This issue, pp. 107, no. 


The books mentioned above may be obtained through the Suavev Book 

The Survey, Vol. XL VII, No. 4. Published weekly by the Survey Associates, Inc., lryE. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second claf 
matter. March 25, 1909, at the post-office. New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3} 1.879. Acceotance tor mailing at a special rate of postage prov 

tor in Section 1103. Act «f October 3, 1917, aphorized on June 26. 1918. ' 



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It must be better than "job printing." I am helping many, by planning and 
printing things (in my own shop) that people read. Q Ask about my system of 
specifications, which (1) improves style, (a) reduces cost, (3) simplifies routine. 

Everett R. Currier, 27 East 37, New York. Mad. Sq. 8891 


THE SURVEY'S special issue on "Three Shifts in Steel, the Long 
Day and the Way Out," presenting the results of investigations car- 
ried out for the Cabot Fund into the excessive hours of labor in the 
continuous processes in steel-making, their human consequences and the 
forces for change. Articles by John A. Fitch, Whiting Williams and 
S. Adele Shaw. 

25 cents a copy TTTU QTT1M7FV I 12 East 19 St 

20 cents by the hundred IDE, 3Ur». VE. I New York 

Why Teachers Use the Survey 

Take Unemployment — the most pressing social problem of our times — 
world-wide yet localized in every city and town. School and college classes 
which use the Survey have had these articles the past three weeks: 

UNEMPLOYMENT— Compensation and Pre- 
vention. By John R. Commons, professor of 
economics, University of Wisconsin. In The 
Survey for October 1. A description of the Huber 
bill, now before the Wisconsin Legislature, which 
would insure working men and women against unem- 
ployment just as they may be insured against fire, acci- 
dent and death. Gives the background of unemploy- 
ment insurance in Great Britain and the Continent. 

The President's Unemployment Conference, with 
the complete Emergency Program adopted September 
30. By William L. Chenery, editor of The Survey's 
Industry Department. In The Survey for October 
8. To be followed by articles on later sessions. 

Faeing Unemployment Again, the Social Studies 
Column in The Survey for October 8. By Joseph 
K. Hart, editor of The Survey's Department of 
School and Community. Gives the current references. 

England's Unemployed. By Harold J. Laski, au- 
thor of "Authority in the Modern State" and The 

Survey's London correspondent. A brief statement 
of the situation in Great Britain. To be followed by 
a discussion of the government plan for meeting un- 

Unemployment is only one of a score of social prob- 
lems on which The Survey gives consecutive, first- 
hand information in the fields of Industry, Civics, 
Health, School and Community, Child Welfare and 
Family Welfare. No other magazine specializes on 
these vital subjects. No textbook can keep up-to-date 
in a rapidly changing society. 

In sending us an order for 165 three-month student 
subscriptions, Prof. W. G. Beach of Stanford Uni- 
versity, California, says: "After my experience last 
year I am more than ever convinced that The Survey 
can be of very great use with university classes." 

Mr. E. E. Church of the High School, Fairmont, 
W. Va., writes: "I am much pleased with The 
Survey, and consider it very practicable to any class 
in sociology — in fact, practically indispensable." 

Ask for Special 
Student Rates 


112 East 19th Street 
New York City 





No. 4 



Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Manacing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 15 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; Canadian, 
65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in advance. 
When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 
Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y ., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1907, 
authorized on June 26, 1918. 


MISS JOSEPHINE FARRELL has given us a tip 
[see the New York Times Magazine for October 16]. 
We may have fooled the public into thinking we are 
"highbrow," but we won't be "drab," and we won't be 
"queer-looking." So we have hastened to jump into a new 
cover. See next week's issue. 


IF a rule of biology holds true of journalism an interesting 
chapter could be written on the group of men who not 
half a dozen years ago used to meet around the editorial 
table of the New York Evening Post. Gavit, Strunsky and 
Puckette are there today, under the Gay-Lamont regime, 
maintaining its liberal traditions. From this as a base line 
we find Rollo Ogden, former editor of the Evening Post, 
joining the conservative editorial page of the New York 
Times; Oswald Garrison Villard, former publisher of the 
Evening Post, transforming The Nation, which he now edits, 
from an old-fashioned review of letters to an insurgent week- 
ly in the field of politics, economics, and international rela- 
tions. Meanwhile Fabian Franklin, formerly one of the 
editorial writers of the Evening Post, and Harold de Wolf 
Fuller, of The Nation, started their Weekly Review with 
resourceful financial backing, but slender circulation, in re- 
action to The Nation and The New Republic. These had 
contrived to combine heterodoxy with brilliance in a way 
which made them reach and disturb in quarters hitherto lit- 
tle affected by such propagandsit journals as the old Public 
of the single taxers. While The Freeman has come to rein- 
force the new group, choosing to call itself radical as dis- 
tinguished from its liberal contemporaries, the latest develop- 
ment is the absorption of The Independent by The Weekly 
Review. This gives the conservative wing in the weekly field 
a circulation comparable to that of the other journals of opin- 
ion combined. The genuine loss in this shifting is the retire- 
ment from active editorship of Hamilton Holt of The In- 

dependent who retains only a consulting relationship. The 
plan apparently is to weld the editorial columns of The Week- 
ly Review into the news and pictorial features of The Inde- 
pendent, and a whimsical touch was lent tp the first number 
which starts in well enough with a characteristic article by 
that ardent dean of our intellectual Fascisti, Agnes Repplier, 
but ends lamely enough with Mr. Julius' full page advertise- 
ment of the ten-cent socialist library of the Appeal Publishing 
Company ! 


THE agents of various northwestern railroads are facing 
the problems of the casual laborer under new forms in 
these days of unemployment. Their solutions of the 
problems are interesting, at least. According to the Wenatchee 
(Wash.) World, of September 30, A. A. Piper, local agent 
of the Great Northern Railroad, says: 

Every freight train coming into Wenatchee brings its load of 
hungry men. Every outgoing freight takes its load away. 
There are hoboes among them, but in general they are a dif- 
ferent class than has been stealing rides during past years. 
. . . Few are vicious. They are human, and as long as they 
do not destroy property or steal they are not dealt with severely. 
There are too many of them to attempt to keep them off the 
freights, and special agents are not trying to do so. 

A special agent of the Great Northern at Spokane says: 

We just keep 'em moving. We don't care where they are" 
from or where they are going, so long as they keep getting to 
some other point. I should say that 50 per cent of them range 
in age between 18 and 25 years. There are large numbers of 
them under age. The others range up to 50 years old. Where 
a year ago we would throw one or two bums from a freight 
train when it reached the yards here, today we do not ever 
consider throwing 'em off, for they are in droves. We invite 
them to get back on the train and keep on going. We herd 'em 
together in the yards, find out which direction they are going, 
and then collect 'em outside the yards with orders to take the 
first train going their way. 

And W. S. Smith, assistant special agent of" the Northern 
Pacific, at Spokane, says: 

There is a much greater percentage of young men among the 
idle travelers these days than formerly. The percentage of 
former service men is comparatively small. A few of the hoboes 
are simply professional bums, but most of them will work, if 
the work comes easy and is congenial. They come through 
from the harvest fields of the Dakotas to the fruit orchards of 
Washington and Oregon. They turn around and head back 
for the Middle West. 

Of a trainload of them going through west today, within two 
weeks 75 per cent will pass through going east again. In an- 
other two weeks they will have passed west again. The one 
who has money gathers about him a few congenial souls. They 
travel together, buying food until the money is gone, then they 
work a few days to get a little more, and continue their travels. 
We don't even make an effort to collect fares from them, being 
content to keep them on the move. There are a few rules we 




observe, though, and among them is one that the hoboes must 
keep off the passenger trains. We search all passenger trains 
at divisional points and clear them. We also try to keep them 
off the merchandise trains, confining them to the empties, as 
much as possible. 


FOLLOWING a demand of the Association of Railway 
Executives for an additional wage cut of io per cent 
the railroad brotherhoods announced a strike. This is 
scheduled to become effective on the first group of roads on 
October 28 and thereafter to spread after short intervals to 
other lines. The wages of railroad workers were reduced 
some 12 per cent last July by the United States Railroad 
Labor Board. Since that time changes in working rules 
have occasioned other reductions. Immediately after the 
strike order was announced, the public group on the Railroad 
Labor Board conferred with President Harding. Subsequent 
to this these members of the board proposed a settlement of 
the issue. This called for a retraction of their demand for 
a new wage cut on the part of the rail executives and for a 
reduction in rates based on the decrease in wages decreed 
last July. 


SEVEN amendments to the New York State Constitution 
will be submitted to the voters at the general election 
November 8. Amendments one, three and five are of 
special social import. These provide civil service preference 
for all war veterans, a literacy test for voters and authoriza- 
tion for the legislature to establish children's courts and courts 
of domestic relations. 

There has been wide-spread opposition to the first amend- 
ment. [See the Survey for October 1.] It would give civil- 
service preference to the 450,000 war veterans. Since the 
places in the classified civil service in the state number about 
125,000 its adoption would practically restrict the state civil 
service to veterans for more than a generation. 

Amendment number three provides in brief that after Jan- 
uary 1, 1923, all voters, except for physical disability, shall be 
able to read and write English. At present there is no educa. 
tional qualification for voters in the state although ability to 
read and write English is now a requisite for naturalization, 
and, with the recent amendment, the federal immigration law 
now requires all immigrants upon entrance to this country to 
know how to read and write. Other states have set a pre- 
cedent in requiring that voters shall be able to read and write 
English. Maine, Massachusetts, Florida, California and New 
Hampshire require that voters shall be able to read the con- 
stitution and write their names; Washington demands that 
voters shall be able to read and write English ; Wyoming re- 
quires that they have the ability to read the constitution. Other 
states which have some literacy qualification for voters are: 
Colorado, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Dakota, Louisi- 
ana, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Oklahoma, 
and Arizona. .In four of these states, however, enforcing leg- 
islation has never been passed. 

The change suggested in amendment five, concerning chil- 
dren's courts and courts of domestic relations, is the same as 
that proposed at the Constitutional Convention in 1 91 5. The 
present limitations of the state constitution make it impossible 
for the legislature to confer upon these courts the equity power 
necessary properly to protect the rights of the children who 
come within their jurisdiction. The amendment does not 
enact any new laws; it clears the way for the adoption of any 
legislation which may be necessary to standardize and advance 
the law dealing with child welfare. 

Under the present constitution the children's courts may not 
appoint a guardian of the person. Mary Paddon of the State 
Charities Aid Association points out that this means that 
these courts are often forced to commit children to institu- 

tions when they would be glad to place them in the care of 
dependable relatives if they could do so and at the same time 
afford them full legal protection. In most of the cases 
coming before the children's court, Mrs. Paddon states, the 
relatives are too poor to go to the expense of surrogate court 
proceedings to secure legal guardianship. Further, under the 
present laws, the domestic relations court only has jurisdiction 
over the question of non-support and abandonment. The 
judge who orders a man to support his wife and children can- 
not order the wife to permit him to visit the children regular- 
ly or, if he is brutal, forbid him to annoy them. 


AFAR-REACHING step toward national unification in 
the textile industry is under consideration by the in- 
dependent unions. At the Paterson convention of 
October, 191 9, at which the new Amalgamated Textile 
Workers of America were formed, the executive committee 
of the new organization was authorized to draw up plan's for 
a nation-wide federation of independent textile unions. No 
definite action was taken upon this mandate until a convention 
in New York last May, when such a plan was tentatively 
adopted. The constitution there formulated was drawn up 
in order "to bring all the independent textile unions together 
in an alliance to be called the Federated Textile Unions of 
America, with a per capita tax to provide the means of sup- 
port and provision for an assessment of affiliated bodies to 
support a strike of any memBer of the federation if, in the 
judgment of the federation executive board, an assessment 
is necessary for that purpose." So says The New Textile 
Worker, organ of the Amalgamated Textile Workers of 
America. The need for a strong organization of nation-wide 
dimensions to present a united front to the textile manufac- 
turers of the country has become apparent to the workers 
especially since the industrial depression and the open shop 
drive of the past year. The constitution of the federation, 
which partially embodies the so-called "maximum plan" sub- 
mitted for ratification by the Amalgamated Textile Workers, 
will now be sent to all of the textile unions in the country 
that are not membets of the A. F. of L. for a referendum 
vote. Several unions have already expressed themselves un- 
officially in favor of the federation. 

The purpose of the one big union will be, as stated in its 
tentative constitution : 

... to enable the textile workers of America continually to im- 
prove their condition and discharge their responsibilities to their 
fellow-workers by providing an agency which shall carry on pro- 
paganda and educational work particularly as to the aims and 
methods of effective labor organization for the information and 
benefit of all textile workers; shall advise affiliated bodies in 
case of need ; shall rally affiliated bodies to render moral and 
financial assistance to each other in time of conflict; shall help in 
organizing unorganized textile workers as need and opportunity 
shall arise; and shall constitute a body that shall meet at reg- 
ular intervals for consultation on the textile situation throughout 
the country and at special times as needed. 

The design of the federation, according to its officers, is 
not (contrary to reports published in New York papers in 
the past week) to foment strikes, any more than it is true 
that the Amalgamated Textile Workers are an outgrowth 
of the I. W. W., as these same papers stated. It aims 
rather to establish such machinery for collective bargaining 
and adjusting disputes between the workers and the employers 
as will reduce economic warfare to a minimum. Further 
extension of such a scheme of arrangements as is in existence 
in the silk ribbon industry in New York, a trade agreement 
providing for joint government in the. industry with the so- 
called impartial chairman type of collective bargaining, such 
as that under, which the clothing industry in New York and 
other centers is governed, is the goal of the promoters of the 
federation scheme. 









HIS note introduces Mr. Thomas - 


is an 

industrious, hard-working man with a family of six 
children. He is in hard circumstances today as he has 
had no work except an occasional odd job for the last three 
months. If it is possible for you to direct him to a place of 
employment, I am sure it will be appreciated." 

In presenting this note to the New York Association for 
Improving the Condition of the Poor, the man pulled another 
paper from his pocket saying, "Here's my work reference." It 
read, "The bearer, Thomas , has worked for us for four- 
teen years and we have always found him to be honest, indus- 
trious and sober. We regret that the present business depres- 
sion has compelled us to lay him off. We shall be glad -to 
reemploy him later when business picks up." 

The case is typical of scores that have come to social organi- 

zations during the past year: men, not "floaters," not lodging 
house habitues, but family men long residents of their cities 
and towns, anxious to provide for their wives and children but 
laid off "with regret." 

On its new Sea Breeze property on Staten Island the New 
York A. I. C. P. has much work in the way of clearing wood- 
land, ditching, draining, fencing, which it has planned to do 
over a period of several years, as money became available. 
When applications for work piled up the decision was made 
to put some forty men to work at once, in the hope that people 
would be found who would help answer the question the men 
were daily asking, "Where can I find a job?" These men 
are paid $3 a day. They are free to take a day off at any time 
if they think there is a chance to find work at their regular 
occupations. Some of them work part time at their own 
work, putting in the odd days only on the A. I. C. P. work. 





THAT millions of dollars will be wasted in Ohio's care 
for its wards unless the policies governing its institutions 
are radically changed, is the gist of a report submitted 
to the governor this week by the former board of administra- 
tion through E. C. Shaw of Akron, its former chairman. This 
board retired from office in July when the new administrative 
code, passed at the last session of the legislature, became oper- 
ative. Now that "a sane, competent and sympathetic director 
of public welfare has been secured," as the report cynically 
puts it, a program of corrective, remedial and preventive treat- 
ment of the wards of the state is insistently urged. 

Effective economy is one of the recommendations. This, 
the report says, must be measured in terms of product. "If 
the personnel of our institutions are not selected and held in 
terms of their fitness because we are unwilling to pay adequate 
salary or wages, we are not practicing sound economy," it 
holds. It is pointed out that $320,000 a year was secured in 
the budget appropriation for the purpose of providing money 
for improving the character of such personnel. 

It is further shown that millions of dollars are being spent 
by the state each year "to house and care for an ever increas- 
ing number of insane, feebleminded, epileptic and criminal 
persons, and only a few thousand dollars to study the nature 
and cause of these conditions" and the proper treatment for 
them. The Bureau of Juvenile Research which came through 
unscathed this year from a legislative investigation [see the 
Survey for Sept. 1, page 642], is the only state agency for 
such preventive work. Since this bureau has been inadequate- 
ly financed in the past, the report recommends that its ac- 

tivities be expanded so that "the state may be guided by 
scientific knowledge in dealing with its human problems." To 
this end it is suggested that steps be taken to make complete 
mental and physical examination of every juvenile offender 
committed to a state institution. 

Hospitals for the insane are not meeting the demands of 
modern methods, it is charged: "With few exceptions, the 
medical work is woefully inadequate, and research and inves- 
tigation is almost entirely neglected. Preventive work has 
hardly been started." Funds should be available to secure "the 
prompt recognition and correction of medical and surgical 
diseases, co-existent with the disordered mental states." 

Approximately three thousand persons are admitted to the 
state hospitals for the insane in Ohio each year. The estab- 
lishment of mental clinics and the employment of field work- 
ers to discover incipient cases of insanity and to supervise those 
discharged from hospitals for the insane, are measures advised. 

The situation of the feebleminded in Ohio is also serious. 
It is estimated that there are 15,000 feebleminded in the state. 
Although 10,000 of these need institutional care, there are at 
present facilities for only 3,000. 

Commenting upon the serious overcrowding of penal insti- 
tutions, the report says that "the argument seems absurd that 
the employment of three or four thousand persons in various 
industries and occupations in our penal institutions will have 
any appreciable effect upon the stability of any industry in the 
state." It is suggested that before a new penitentiary is built, 
a "study be made of the present penal population to the end 
that the buildings contemplated may be constructed in a simple 
substantial manner and in a manner that will best serve the 
purpose for which they are erected." 


From Public Opinion and the Steel Strike, supplementary report of the Interchurch World Com- 
mission to investigate the Steel Strike of 1919, just published by Harcourt, Brace and Company 

HOW the blanket of silence was 
held down tight in Pittsburgh is 
shown in the following statement con- 
cerning not a "hunkie strikers' meet- 
ing," but the one public meeting held 
in Pittsburgh during the strike (out- 
side the labor temple). This is the 
statement (condensed) made by Sidney 
A. Teller, resident director of the Irene 
Kaufmann Settlement, before the Com- 
mission of Inquiry in November, 1919- 

The Irene Kaufmar.n Settlement main- 
tains an open forum. 

The position I took was that so long 
as both sides were represented, there was 
no objection to discussing the steel strike. 
The forum committee went down to the 
strike headquarters, asking that a 
speaker be assigned for the following 
Sunday. They were assigned William 
Z. Foster, on the condition that he was 
not needed at any other place to address 
a group of strikers. 

I have had no objection to Mr. Foster, 
irrespective of the way newspapers talk- 
ed about him, because Dr. Tyson and I 
heard him at the Social Workers Club. 
. . . The notices went out for the forum 
meeting, and they delayed it to the very 
last minute trying to get a speaker on 
the other side. For the first time in the 
history of my being at the settlement, 
the Board of Trustees requested that 
the meeting be called off. . . . They said 
it was not wise to discuss the steel strike 
because of the great excitement in the 
city. And then they believed what they 

had read about Foster. ... I said he 
was chosen by the steel workers as their 
representative, and we weren't discuss- 
ing individuals, we were discussing is- 

The president, acting for the Board of 
Trustees, requested that no meeting be 
held until the board met and acted on 
the matter. 

The president of the settlement board 
then called a meeting to bring up for 
discussion the future of the forum in 
the settlement. Fourteen members of the 
Board of Trustees were present, and af- 
ter an hour and a half of discussion they 
voted by a vote of 12 to 2 to uphold 
the principle of the forum. 

The meeting was about to adjourn, 
when I arose and said I wanted them to 
know before they left the room that I had 
received a request from the Civic Open 
Forum, that the postponed meeting of 
October 12, in reference to the discussion 
of the steel strike be held on October 
19. . . . 

Meanwhile it is important to remem- 
ber that the sheriff of the county had is- 
sued an order that there would be no 
meetings held for the discussion of the 
steel strike, and the mayor of the city 
had prohibited a meeting of the strikers, 
or a meeting to discuss the strike any- 
where in Pittsburgh except in the Labor 

The directors wanted to know whether 
I would go contrary to the established 
law and order of the community, and 
the orders of the sheriff and mayor. . . . 

I took the stand that the mayor was be- 
yond his jurisdiction and authority, as 
well as the sheriff. . . . After an hour 
and a half of debate, the directors said: 
"Mr. Teller, the responsibility of what is 
said, the speakers and the audiences of 
the forum, is on your shoulders.". . . 

So I went back to the settlement, and 
found that Mr. J. G. Brown was as- 
signed to us by the strikers committee 
to represent the workers. The meeting 
was held, and Mr. Brown discussed the 
steel strike from his point of view. We 
tried to get some one on the other side, 
but everybody we went to said they had 
no authority, or Mr. Gary had spoken 
for them, or they didn't know the facts 
well enough, or if they spoke they'd lose 
their position with the company. Not 
one person directly connected with the 
steel companies here could we get. The 
only person we could secure was Mr. I. 
W. Frank, a member of my board, of the 
United Engineering Company, who said 
he would speak not for the steel corpo- 
ration or his own concern, but from his 
own personal experience in the foundry 
business. . . . 

I want to add that to my knowledge I 
do not know of another public discussion 
in Pittsburgh connected with the steel 
strike. We sent notices of the meeting 
which Mr. Brown addressed to the news- 
papers. Two reporters where there ex- 
pecting trouble, but there was net even 
a line in the papers the next day on what 
he said. ... 




The Temper of the 
Coal Miners 

THERE will be a nation-wide strike of coal miners if 
the operators try to reduce wages next April. The 
union leaders must go to jail rather than obey any 
injunction to call off the strike. No presidential 
commissions wanted. If the federal authorities are determined 
to interfere, let 'em first take over the mines. 

Such is the temper of the rank and file of the United Mine 
Workers as gaged during their recent convention at Indiana- 
polis. Little of this was put into the formal expression of 
adopted resolutions. The leaders felt it would have been 
unwise. The delegates were led to wait until the convention 
reconvenes next February for the formulation of demand's and 

The whole convention turned on the contest over Alex 
Howat, the president of the Kansas miners. The administra- 
tion had set out to curb him ; it virtually asked the convention 
for a vote of confidence and the leadership of the union was 
made to hinge on the issue. The convention upheld the 
policy of John L. Lewis, the international president ; it wants 
united action on the eve of a fight ; that point was settled but 
the side issues were unquestionably larger than the specific 
thing voted on. 

"Out of all our officials Howat's the one nearest to being 
a rank-and-filer" ; so delegates put it. He has led the Kansas 
miners for many years but he is still "one of the boys." His 
own friends say, "Alex acts first and thinks afterward." It 
is the instinct of the local leader when he finds working con- 
ditions changed, as he believes, unfairly, or fellow workers 
displaced or badly placed in the mine, to say, "Pick up your 
tools; let's go home." If a judge decrees there must be no 
strikes it is instinctive to retort, "Lay the mine idle; tell the 
court to go to hell." Howat, the miners say, does what they 
feel like doing. "It gets the union nowhere," the Lewis men 
say. "It would if all the leaders would support it," the 
Howat men retort; Lewis replies that the burden of proof 
is on them. 

Two little strip pits in Kansas employing forty men fur- 
nished the test cases. At the Dean mine the superintendent 
ordered a coal loading machine to do work which had former- 
ly been done by common labor. He said that the change was 
to be only temporary. When Howat went to the mine to 
adjust the grievance the superintendent broke off the confer- 
ence by walking away. 

"At the Reliance mine," Howat told the convention, "the 
superintendent said that he was not going to need two of the 
men any longer, that the other two men could do the work. 
When these two said the work was too heavy for less than 
four the boss told them to go home. He said the pit-boss and 
himself would do the work. The crane man on the steam 
shovel said he did not believe it was right for union men to 
work with non-union men (the bosses) and he was told 'You 
can go home too.' The pit was idle a week before I knew 
about it. I ordered no strike. 

"Order the men back to work yourself; why ask me to do 
the dirty work?" Howat's speech ran. "The mines were laid 
idle by the company because the company was trying to force 
new conditions. If the contract was violated, they broke it 
first. We're not going to let them spring new conditions at 
one little point and then begin to spread those conditions all 
over Kansas. They can start up these pits any time under the 
old conditions. They would have started them long ago ex- 
cept they're hoping our international officers or this conven- 
tion will make me order the men back. I'll order no men back 
to give up any conditions they have won so far. I'll be 
kicked out of the union first. The Kansas Industrial Court, 
that I've been fighting and which has now got four jail sen- 

tences hanging over me for one strike, is also telling our men 
to go back to work. We'll see the Industrial Court in hell 
before we'll surrender." 

Howat's defense was punctuated with volleys of cheers; 
President Lewis had hard work getting attention for his re- 

"The violation of contract by the president of the Kansas 
miners is clear and admitted. Howat had only to take up 
the grievances through the regular channels, while the men 
remained at work, to get redress, and if the regular course of 
procedure had failed then the men could have struck with 
the support of the international. Must those miners remain 
forever idle because a superintendent walked away from Alex 
Howat?" (Yells of "Sure — why not?") "I assume that 
the mine workers' union is a business institution. We ask the 
privilege of making contracts and our contracts cover 75 per 
cent of the tonnage of the country. We plead, as we are now 
with the Mingo operators in West Virginia, 'We will carry 
out our contract if you will only sign one.' And they point 
to the record in Kansas — -705 unauthorized strikes in 45 
months; 300 illegal stoppages in the little district of Kansas 
in one year. If you cannot justify your existence before the 
bar of public opinion you will not last long. Witness the 
recent example of the Ku Klux Klan." 

The storm over Kansas raged for days. John H. Walker, 
president of the Illinois State Federation, supported Howat. 
"To vote down Alex is to help vote the Kansas Industrial 
Court law upon all of us. The case involves a principle: if 
coal operators can change conditions as they see fit without 
giving the men a chance to take up the grievances before the 
new conditions go in, then everything we have won will begin 
to go." 

So many delegates wanted the floor for Howat's side that 
it took twenty-six minutes to quiet the convention when Sec- 
retary Green was recognized. 

"It is our trust to keep the faith for collective bargaining. 
Until we get a better plan we must follow the old path. I 
know of one A. F. of L. union [Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers] which declared against the principle of contracts 
and it is now just about out of existence. This is not the 
age of revolution. How do you expect to organize Pennsyl- 
vania and West Virginia if you don't keep the contracts you've 
already got?" 

Such is the gospel according to the international officers. 
Despite it, there were on a roll call 1,781 votes which stuck 
to Howat's position, the administration carrying its mandate 
with 2,753 votes. Majority delegates said, "Alex has the 
right spirit but we've no choice at present but to stick with our 
international officers." The large minority remains, driving 
the union toward less cautious leadership. All seemed united 
against any wage reductions. The talk of the delegates every- 
where was for more aggressive measures. Their expressions 
on the floor made it improbable that their leaders would sub- 
mit to another injunction of the sort which ended the 1919 

The wishes of the rank and file as contained in resolutions 
for the convention included demands for wage increases of 
from 10 to 60 per cent; demands that coal companies be for- 
bidden to increase the price of coal ; the six-hour day and five- 
day week, as the only cure for unemployment ; and from scores 
of locals, the nationalization of coal mines. The convention's 
resolution as adopted demands "the immediate nationalization 
of the coal mining industry," the drafting of a bill to be pre- 
sented in Congress for purchase of the mines and operation by 
the federal government with equal representation of the min- 
ers' union in the control, a campaign "to convince the majority 
of the American people of the justice of our proposals," and 
an allowance with the railway unions for nationalization of 
railroads as the first step; a committee was appointed to elab- 
orate and press the program, to change it from the paper 



plan it has been hitherto into the definite demand of the 

The resolution for nationalization and another for a labor 
party represent concessions to district leaders and to the feel- 
ing of the rank and file. The international leadership has 
campaigned for neither idea; the union's official journal has 
contained no discussion of either. Slack employment such as 
at present in the mines turns the miner's attention to the for- 
mer; on the latter he thinks more and more as Congress re- 
mains inert or judges become overt. He will hardly think 
less about them if there comes the long turmoil of a national 
strike, though the strike would be only for a new contract at 
the old wages. Heber Blankenhorn. 

Pioneer in Public Health 

DR. STEPHEN SMITH of New York city, who is 
to be honored at the forthcoming Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of the American Public Health Association 
in New York City next month, is the most extra- 
ordinary figure in the annals of public health in America. 
To him no one could ever address the taunt "Physician, heal 
thyself," nor "Practise what you preach," for Dr. Smith is 
now in his ninety-ninth year and during this full lifetime 
has been peculiarly free from illness. Whether or not one 
may state that his longevity is due to practising health, certain 
it is that he could easily have ruined his health and cut his 
life short by unhealthful living. So unusual is the period 
of Dr. Smith's career that it is difficult to grasp the fact that 
he had already had an honorable career in the practice of 
medicine before most of those who will honor him next 
month were born. He graduated from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons seventy-one years ago and became 
a teacher in that institution three years later. 

It is impossible to contrast public health conditions in New 
York city when Dr. Smith entered the field of public health 
with those at present for the simple reason that at the earlier 
date no statistics of deaths by causes were kept. In fact, it 
is probably due entirely to Dr. Smith's activities that vital 
statistics became available in New York city in 1868. We 
learn that in 1864 Dr. Smith was made a member of the 
Council of Hygiene; that the investigations of this council 
were organized and supervised by him; and that its report 
in 1865 so aroused the public as to bring about legislation in 
April, 1866, creating the Metropolitan Board of Health of 
which Dr. Smith was made a commissioner, remaining such 
until 1875. It was Dr. Smith, too, who drafted a bill for 
a National Board of Health which was enacted in 1878. Dr. 
Smith was a member of this board during its all too short 
career. He was similarly active in the establishment of the 
New York State Board of Health. 

In 1 88 1 he became a member of the State Board of 
Charities and a year later, at the request of the governor, 
resigned in order to be appointed the state commissioner in 
lunacy, a post which he held for six years. He was again 
made a member of the State Board of Charities in 1893 and 
was reappointed for successive terms until his resignation in 
19 1 8 at the age of ninety-five. Of the one hundred meetings 
of the board preceding his retirement, he attended ninety-six, 
all of which were held after he reached the age of eighty 

The list of the honors and testimonials which have come to 
Dr. Smith is a very lengthy one, but instead of reproducing 
it, it probably would be more agreeable to Dr. Smith to re- 
call some of the extraordinary improvements that have taken 
place in public health in the city in which he has passed his 
active career. 


For seventy-one years a leader in the public health movement 

Without entering into the refinements of corrected rates, 
the outstanding fact is that in 1870, not an unusual or 
epidemic year, the death rate in New York city was 29 per 
1,000 and that fifty years later, in 1920, it was 13 per 1,000 
— considerably less than half of that of 1870. If the death 
rate of 1870 had prevailed in 1920, in greater New York 
there would have been 153,000 deaths instead of 73,000. 
In looking at the classification by causes, one must be on 
guard against changes in fashions of diagnosis in a fifty-year 
period. For instance, in 1870, one per thousand of deaths 
was reported as due to "convulsions," a term which nearly has 
disappeared. Doubtless these deaths from convulsions were 
largely among young children, which would make the fall 
in the death rate in the early age period even more striking. 
The deaths from diarrheal diseases among children (aside from 
convulsions) show a drop from 4.15 to .48 per thousand. 
Only two important causes, as recorded, show an increase, 
namely, cancer, from .38 to 1.01 per thousand, and heart 
disease, from .74 to 1.89 per thousand. The other diseases 
of middle and later life show slight decreases, including 
Bright's Disease, and apoplexy. Pulmonary tuberculosis, as 
to which diagnosis has changed relatively little, decreased 
from 4.27 to 1. 19, and other forms of tuberculosis from 1.84 
to .20. Even violent deaths, suicides excepted, show a fall 
from 1. 1 8 to .73. 

Making all allowances for changing elements in the popu- 
lation, it still reads almost like a fairy tale. New York's 
claim to be a civilized city can safely be rested on the enor- 
mous increase in the happiness and efficiency of its people as 
reflected in these figures. Not all of this is due to the health 
agencies established so largely through the efforts of Dr. 
Smith, but a large but undetermined part of it is directly due 
to the municipal- and state authorities of health, in the estab- 
lishment of which Dr. Smith was so effective a pioneer. No 
tribute which will or could be paid to him next month would 
be in excess. Homer Folks. 





Mr. Hoover's Hand 

THE temper of at least one member of the President's 
Unemployment Conference was revealed by his re- 
mark concerning the economists who had been asked 
to serve as an advisory committee. "I don't like 
those fellows," he said. "I saw one of them out in the hall 
talking to Sam Gompers." Mr. Gompers, it may be re- 
marked, was a member of the conference. 

That attitude of hostility even toward those who dared 
converse with leaders of organized labor was characteristic 
of some of the members of the unemployment conference. 
These went to Washington firmly believing that things must 
be much worse before they could be any better. They al- 
most resented an unemployment conference as an interference 
with the orderly course of natural law. Unemployment in 
their minds was restoring labor to its normal place. It was 
reducing labor costs and surely making workers more docile. 
Secretary Hoover did not allow this point of view to find 
public expression. The instinct for oratory so manifest in 
public servants was ruthlessly suppressed. The firebrands 
present were not allowed to illuminate the landscape. More 
than that, under the leadership of the secretary of commerce 
the opinions of a number of the members of the conference 
were changed. Some of those who at first looked upon un- 
employment as a cure for industrial disease soon found them- 
selves willing to make sacrifices to find jobs for the workless. 
This change of attitude was due to a notable exhibition of 
persuasive power on the part of Mr. Hoover. 

The conference worked almost exclusively through com- 
mittees. These committees were organized with great skill. 
All of the important groups were represented and all of the 
committees brought in unanimous reports. The lions and 
the lambs and the intermediate species all lay down together. 
This cooperation was in part a testimonial to the times. 
Labor had small hope of accomplishing anything. But to a 
greater extent it was a witness of the skill shown by Secretary 
Hoover. He was ubiquitous. Recalcitrant members an- 
nounced privately, with great solemnity and sometimes with 
passion, what they would and what they would not do. In 
the end many of them behaved more generously and with a 
larger sense of public obligation than they would have behaved 
without the stimulus of Mr. Hoover. The battles were, 
however, fought behind closed doors. When the public ses- 
sions were held the peace encompassed by prior understanding 
reigned. The secretary of commerce opened each meeting 
and the chairman of the reporting committee read his message. 
An agreed report was heard by an assemblage of well-behaved 
delegates surrounded by a crowd of the idly curious always 
to be found in Washington. The spectacle was not im- 
pressive. The unleashed conflict which is the soi'l of drama 
was lacking. Occasionally a delegate arose to offer a half- 
hearted inquiry or a feeble objection to some point. That 
was all. In the end the reports of the committees without 
consequential changes became the recommendations of the 

These details of procedure are important for the light they 
throw upon the work of the President's Unemployment Con- 
ference. The body has now adjourned, and while a permanent 
committee has been left to consider new things, the report 
of the conference is in essential complete. It bears the mark 
of its origin. The most acute criticism made of the United 
States Food Administration was that Herbert Hoover con- 
ceived the American food problem to be a temporary emer- 
gency, and that when the war was over nothing of permanent 
service to the nation was left. That is also true_pf the un- 
employment conference. It explains the unanimous reports. 
Every one was convinced that what was done was not a 
precedent. A unique crisis, unprecedented in history and 

probably not to be paralleled in the future, seemed to be upon 
the delegates. They were interested in this particular un- 
employment period and in no others. Least of all did they 
desire to increase the scope of government to provide against 
industrial insecurity. All were willing to acquiesce in a pro- 
gram which, despite its labyrinthine intricacies, still in sub- 
stance amounted chiefly to providing relief for men p~ 
porarily unemployed. 

The conference was essentially a business affair. The 
ports presented were such as would not seem to be offen; 
to a conservative Republican administration very much p , 
suaded that the sum of political wisdom was concentrated 
the maxim of that early Democrat, Thomas Jefferson, wl 
believed the least possible government was the best possib 
government. At the outset of the conference Presiden 
Harding had emphatically announced himself against nove. 
social experiments and against aid from the national treasury. 
The citizens who collaborated with Mr. Hoover appear to 
have taken the President's admonitions much to heart. They 
proposed no new governmental activities. The most they 
asked was a $400,000 appropriation for the United States 
Employment Service, but this was qualified by the pronounced 
opinion that the federal agency ought to be chiefly an in- 
strumentality for the exchange of information while state 
and municipal offices performed the direct service. 

The suggestions actually made related to measures by which 
business might now be stimulated. Manufacturers, shipping 
interests, men familiar with the construction industry, and 
others, pointed out what they thought ought to be done to as- 
sure a return of prosperity. In the construction report it was 
observed that the building industry alone could profitably upe 
two million workers. A number of admirable suggestio 
were made. Some of these may prove effectual. But nowhe 
did the conference indicate any realization that employmei 
or unemployment in the building industry presented any pro' 
lem to which the government should attend. The conference 
pointed out that abuses such as those exposed by the Unter- 
myer committee in New York reduced the volume of employ- 
ment in construction. But it was assumed that these were 
temporary evils which might be removed by a conference 
called by state and municipal officials and participated in by 
all those groups which are concerned in the building in- 
dustry. Perhaps that is the correct view for the United 
States in the year 1921. It does not seem, however, to promise 
much for a future in which the emotion generated by the 
extreme necessities of this crisis will have cooled. 

The emphasis of the conference was given to an attempt 
to awaken the interest of local communities in unemployment. 
A considerable measure of success was attained in this. The 
conference was informed that a large number of cities had 
organized unemployment committees in response to the ~^n- 
eral appeal. Different industries, notably the United States 
Steel Corporation and the Standard Oil Company, had 
hastened their plans in order to hire more men during the 
coming winter. All tha^t is gain. The methods used were 
akin to those which made a success of the Food Administra- 
tion during the war. An official appeal was made for un- 
official action. The extent to which that appeal is obeyed 
will afford one measure of the success of the conference. 

In two ways the conference did seek to diminish un- 
employment during future periods of industrial depression. 
It urged states and cities and the nation, too, to formulate 
programs of public works over long periods of time and to 
concentrate public works during those seasons when private 
demand is light. This policy is utterly right. Only a per- 
sistent habit of drift in American politics makes it needful 
now to advocate such a procedure. Yet the common practice 
of local and state governments has been to build much when 
industry was booming and to build little during hard times. 
{Continued on page no) 




of the 

President's Conference on Unemployment 

Adopted at JVashingto?!^ October I J 

For Permanent Recovery of Employ- 

i. Readjustment of railroad rates 
to a firm basis of the relative value 
of commodities with special restric- 
tion of the rates upon primary com- 
modities, at the same time safeguard- 
ing the financial stability of the rail- 

2. Speedy completion of the tax 
bill with its contemplated reduction 
of taxes, in order that business now 
held back pending definite determi- 
nation may proceed. 

3. Definite statement of tariff leg- 
islation in order that business may 
determine its future conduct and pol- 

4. Settlement of the financial re- 
lationships between the government 
and the railways, having in mind the 
immediate necessity for increased 
maintenance and betterments, mak- 
ing effective increased railway em- 
ployment and stimulation of general 
employment in order that the rail- 
ways may be prepared for enlarged 
business as it comes. 

5. Limitation of world armament 
and consequent increase of tranquility 
and further decrease of the tax bur- 
den not only of the United States but 
of other countries. 

6. Steps looking to the minimizing 
of fluctuation in exchange because re- 
covery from the great slump in ex- 
ports (due to the economic situation 
in Europe) cannot make substantial 
progress so long as extravagant daily 
fluctuations continue in foreign ex- 
change, for no merchant can deter- 
mine the delivery because of no inter- 
national shipment. 

7. Definite programs of action that 
will lead to elimination of waste and 
more regular employment in seasonal 
and intermittent industries, notably 
in the coal industry, in order that the 
drain upon capital may be lessened 
and the annual income of workers 
may be increased. 

8. In the field of all the different 
industries and occupations the rapidi- 
ty of recovery will depend upon the 
speed of the proportionate adjustment 
of the inequalities in deflation. . . . 
If the buying power of the different 
elements of the community is to be 
restored, then these levels must reach 
nearer a relative plain. For example, 
the farmer cannot resume his full 
power and thus give increased em- 
ployment to the other industries un- 
til either his prices increase or more 
of the other products and services 
come into fair balance with his com- 

1 An emergency program was printed in the 
Survey for October 8, page 43. 

modifies and, therefore, the reach of 
his income. 

United States Employment Service 

The Committee on Employment 
Agencies reported that the ' United' 
States Employment Service was crip- 
pled by a lack of funds. It recom- 
mended that Congress be asked to ap- 
propriate $400,000 to enable the 
United States Employment Service to 
operate in an interstate field of: 

1. Cooperation with the emergency 
employment agencies erected by the 
states and municipalities. 

2. Informing states in which there 
is a scarcity of labor of the situation 
in states where there is a surplus of 
labor of the kinds desired. 

3. Securing and compiling- infor- 
mation on employment opportunities 
throughout the country. 

Foreign Trade 

Regarding foreign trade the con- 
ference made the following sugges- 

1. The approaching conference 
for limitation of armament should re- 
sult in bringing about a reduction in 
the military burdens and consequently 
the budgets of nations which are now 
maintaining excessive military estab- 
lishments, and will b- a long step 
toward arresting constantly increas- 
ing deflation, increasing depreciation 
and extreme influctuation of the vari- 
ous foreign countries. 

2. The United States should be ef- 
fective in the deliberations and the 
decisions of the Reparations Commis- 
sion and other agencies so that its 
efforts may be exerted toward a rea- 
sonable control of the present un- 
regulated payment of reparations by 

3. Authority should immediately 
be granted by Congress to enable the 
administration to deal with the fund- 
ing of foreign debts owing to the 
United States government in such a 
way as to avoid injury to the coun- 
try's foreign trade and employment. 

In conclusion the conference points 
out that broad questions of policy 
such as national shipment, tariff, and 
taxes will have important effects 
upon movements of our commodities 
to overseas markets. 

Construction Industries 

The conference estimated that 
more than 2,000,000 people could be 
employed if construction were re- 
sumed. It made the following recom- 

It is recognized that the construc- 
tion industry is a key industry, that 

there is a vast amount of construction 
needed and that this construction 
work would efford employment to a 
large number of men directly and in- 
directly and would result in the cre- 
ation of permanent and useful wealth 
translating labor into earning capi- 

To meet the present unemployment 
emergency and to make renewed ac- 
tivities in the construction field pos- 
sible, the conference does not require 
special concessions to the industry. 
But it does require a complete and 
prompt removal of unnecessary han- 
dicaps, restrictions and limitations, 
both direct and indirect, these includ- 
ing priorities, credit, freight rates, 
undue cost in relation to labor and 
materials, wasteful building codes 
and the like. ... It is, therefore, 
recommended that Secretary Hoover 
. . . appoint a committee selected from 
the various elements interested in 
construction, such as financiers, labor 
engineers, architects, contractors, ma- 
terial manufacturers and others, to 
be known as the Committee on Con- 
struction Development, which will be 
charged with the responsibility of 
preparing and making effective sug- 
gestions for 

(a) Cooperation with governors 
and mayors in the several states in 
carrying on community conference on 
construction, to the end that local re- 

'strictions may be eliminated, abuses 
done away with and proper local at- 
tention given to the efficient planning 
and development of construction work, 
as it is only through such community 
conference that the local situation can 
be properly appraised. 

(b) Prompt removal of unneces- 
sary or inequitable limitations and 
restrictions which have retarded real 
construction activity. 

Shipping Operations and Ship-Build- 
ing Emergency Measures 
A. Shipping Operation. 

1. We urge the desirability of 
having American ship owners given 
preference to American seamen. This 
rule has already been established by 
the Shipping Board as a fixed policy 
in all ships controlled by it, and it is 
understood that the same method is 
being generally and almost univer- 
sally followed by other large shipping 

2. So far as is practicable we urge 
the abolition of overtime work in 
stevedoring and allied occupations, in 
order to distribute the greatest meas- 
ure of employment among as many as 




3. Split time is desirable wher- 
ever practicable, as a means of dis- 
tributing the limited work: 

(a) A percentage of the crews of 
ships in operation on each voyage to 
give way to unemployed. 

(b) Split time for crews caring for 
vessels tied up. 

4. Hearty cooperation among em- 
ployers and employes toward econo- 
my and cooperation may help to keep 
a greater number of ships running. A 
period of unemployment is not a time 
for either side to resort to legal meas- 
ures which may still further disrupt 
industry and aggravate existing un- 
employment. When the desire arises 
on the part of any one engaged in 
industry to change existing conditions, 
ample opportunity should be given 
for mutual discussion and considera- 

B. Ship Building. 

1. The committee . . . urges that 
the work in the ship yards be divided 
up among as large a number of work- 
men as possible. 

2. We strongly suggest to the 
Shipping Board the great desirability 
of expediting the disposal and the 
breaking up of the Shipping Board's 
wooden vessels and others that are 
unsuitable tonnage, with the idea of 
providing work in the way of dis- 
mantling these ships, and using the 
material for commercial purposes. 

3. We suggest that it would be a 
good policy at this time to overhaul 
periodically and keep in first-class 
condition such ships tied up as are 
likely to be put to use soon. 

4. It seems to this committee that 
it might be quite advantageous for 
American ship yards in the United 
States, not engaged, to give their at- 
tention in some measure to other 
lines of industrial activity with a 
view toward giving employment to 
the local population. 

Proposals for Permanent Measures 

1. Decision on Jones Act. Prompt 
action on the enforcement or amend- 
ment of the Jones Act in order to 
extend aid to shipping and to relieve 
it from its present uncertainty. 

2. Disposal of Shipping Board's 
ships. This committee confirms its 
belief that the expressed policy of 
the federal government to retire from 
the ownership and operation of ships 
should be made effective at the ear- 
liest practicable date. 

3. A marine code and unified ad- 
ministration. A single organic ma- 
rine law adequately administered by 
one federal department instead of by 
many as at present would facilitate 
close cooperation with shipping in- 
terests and would go far toward al- 
leviating present legislative and ad- 
ministrative burdens from shipping. 

4. Coastwise laws. It is the belief 
of this committee that the present 
coastwise shipping laws should be 
faithfully enforced and that we can 
with advantage at this time extend 
them to include all of our insular 

5. American goods in American 
ships. It is only logical that Ameri- 
can ships should be aided to the ex- 
tent that they be given successful 
carriage and federal controlled pro- 
ducts and that every possible help 
and encouragement be extended to 
American ships carrying the mail. 

Unemployment Statistics 

The conference made the following 
recommendations : 

1. That the present practice of the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics of collect- 
ing from manufacturing concerns on 
the fifteenth of each month data con- 
cerning the number of employes on 
the payrolls and the amount of their 
earnings and of publishing monthly 
indices of the changes therein be ex- 
tended to cover transportation, trade, 
mining and quarrying. 

2. That in securing the data con- 
cerning the state of unemployment in 
mining and quarrying, the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics collaborate with the 
United States Geological Survey. 

3. That in securing data concern- 
ing the state of employment in rail- 
road transportation, the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics collaborate with the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. 

4. That where competent, reliable 
state bureaus of labor statistics exist or 
become established, such as the Massa- 
chusetts and New York bureaus, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics collect 
through such bureaus within such 
states instead of collecting directly 
from the establishments. 

Business Cycles 

In its discussion of unemployment 
and business cycles, the conference 
said: 'The ebb and flow in the de- 
mand for consumable goods may not 
be subject to direct control; but on 
the other hand it should be possible 
in some measure to control the ex- 
pansion of the national plants and 
equipment. If all branches of our 
public works and tjhe construction 
work of our public utilities, railways, 
telephones, etc., could systematically 
put aside financial resources to be 
provided in the times of prosperity 
for the deliberate purpose of improve- 
ment and expansion in times of de- 
pression, we would not only decrease 
the depth of depressions but we would 
at the same time diminish the height 
of booms. . . . For a rough calculation 
indicates that if we maintain a re- 
servation of about 10 per cent of our 
average annual construction for this 
purpose we could almost iron out the 
fluctuations in unemployment. . . . 
In order to guide such a policy it is 
fundamental that an accurate statisti- 
cal service be organized for deter- 
mining the volume of production of 
stocks and the consumption of com- 
modities, the value in construction in 
progress through the nation, and an 
accurate return of the actual and not 
theoretical unemployment. ... As 
a first step in such a program, statis-. 
tical services adequate to this pur- 
pose should be immediately authoriz- 

ed and carried out by the federal 


The conference recommended that 
"as the preferential car supply was 
permitted to exert its evil influence in 
1920 with most disastrous results . . . 
the Esch-Cummins Act be hereafter 
rigidly enforced to the end that there 
shall be no preferential use or assign- 
ment of railroad cars in the coal in- 

As an aid to the prevention of un- 
employment, the conference recom- 
mended that the Committee of Rail- 
way Executives be asked gradually 
to accumulate and maintain along 
other lines a quantity of bituminous 
coal sufficient to take care of their 
requirements for a period of at least 
five months. The conference urged 
that Congress authorize the payment 
of all monies now owing the rail- 
roads by the federal government. 

In regard to the metal raining in- 
dustry the conference reported that 
international conditions and the slack- 
ness in the building trade were re- 
sponsible for unemployment. 

The conference recommended that: 

1. All prices and all wages should 
be so adjusted that a normal reason- 
able ratio will be established between 
the incomes of farmers, laborers, 
manufacturers and merchants in or- 
der that the purchasing power of the 
farmer mav be restored thus hasten- 
ing the resumption of normal trade 
manufacturing and the employment 
of labor. 

2. Railroad freight rates on com- 
modities transported to and from the 
farm must be substantially reduced 
without delay. 

3. Prices of material's, farm im- 
plements and supplies must be ad- 
justed to the price level of farm 

4. The aggregate of charges be- 
tween the farmer and the food con- 
sumer is excessive and ways should 
be found to reduce them. 

5. Better graded facilities must be 
provided for agriculture. 

6. Exports for agricultural pro- 
ducts should be stimulated. 

7. Any tariff legislation which 
may be enacted should develop and 
maintain a just economic balance be- 
tween agriculture and other indus- 
tries and treat fairly both producers 
and consumers. 


The conference reported that the 
Class I railroads employed in Au- 
gust, 1920, upward of 600,000 more 
men than in March, 1921. 

The conference recommended the 
passage of such a measure as Senate 
bill 2337 to make possible a program 
of railroad funding. It also recom- 
mended that the policy of immediate 
general buying be urged upon the 
public as a patriotic duty. 



(Continued from page 107) 
No one capable of thought defends such a habit. The Presi- 
dent's conference may claim the credit for conducting a na- 
tional campaign of education on this subject. 

An interesting light is shed upon the work of Mr. Hoover's 
conference by a comparison of the work of the first Inter- 
national Labor Conference on the same subject. The Peace 
Conference instructed the League of Nations through its 
labor section to take up the question of unemployment at 
its first meeting. This was done. The International Labor 
Conference considered such things as unemployment insurance 
and national labor exchanges, topics wholly or partly ignored 
by the President's Conference on Unemployment. The work 
done under the direction of the secretary of commerce would 
hardly be classed as an unemployment activity if the program 
of the League of Nations' body were the criterion. It is an 
appropriate test. What the recent Washington conference 
did was to consider the industrial depression and to offer 
business suggestions. The chief part which the labor rep- 
resentatives were able to play in such a meeting would be 
to oppose plans which they regarded as injurious. This is 
all that seems to have been done. The trade unionists 
entered the conference without a program and they left it 
without gains. That they experienced no losses is probably 

due to the energy of Secretary Hoover who refused to permit 
the reports to become partisan. 

In reporting the activities of this conference it is needful 
to recall that American labor unions quite as much as Amer- 
ican employers have frustrated any serious effort to deal with 
unemployment as such. The measures which Great Britain 
and other industrial countries have taken to protect their 
people against the suffering of unemployment have been 
tabooed by Samuel Gompers quite as forcefully as, for 
example, by Judge Gary. In fact Mr. Gompers has in other 
years been more active in combating unemployment insur- 
ance than have most of the conservative employers. The 
tradition of individualism still runs strong in the American 
labor movement. It is one of the potent forces which still for- 
bids any adequate consideration of unemployment. 

With this handicap and with many others the President's 
Conference on Unemployment labored. Within barriers it 
could not tear down much helpful work that was done. The 
detailed recommendations are reported on another page. To 
these things the conference added the promise of more when 
it created a permanent committee to continue its work. That 
committee, which may recall the conference to life, is charged 
with the responsibility of considering permanent readjust- 
ments. In that lies the ground for hope. 

William L. Chenery. 

The Labor Spy in West Virginia 

By JVi?ithrop D. Lane 

PROMINENT in the headquarters of District 17 of 
the United Mine Workers of America, in Charleston, 
West Virginia, there is a photograph. This photo- 
graph shows the delegates who attended a convention 
of the union held in Williamson, county seat of Mingo 
county, in the latter part of June, 1920. The convention 
was in a sense a celebration of victory, because those who at- 
tended it believed that the union had at last broken into the 
unorganized stronghold of Mingo county ; it was also a coun- 
cil for the future, held to discuss plans for securing better 
terms from the operators. Shoulder to shoulder with his 
fellow delegates and union members in this picture stands a 
man named C. E. Lively. 

Three weeks ago Mr. Lively took the witness stand in 
Lewisburg, West Virginia, and swore that at the time the 
convention was held he was a secret operative of the Baldwin- 
Felts Detective Agency. He swore also that he was a member 
of one of the Mingo locals of the union and an accredited 
delegate to the convention. He had assisted, he declared, in 
the organizing of several locals in that county. He had been 
on intimate terms with union leaders and had gained their 
confidence. He had administered the "obligation," or oath, 
to new members of one local. He had opened a restaurant 
in the little town of Matewan, and this restaurant was situ- 
ated directly underneath the meeting place of the union in 
that spot ; in fact, the union was his landlord, and he paid his 
rent to it. His restaurant was known as a good "union" 
restaurant, and was a sort of hanging-out place for members 
of the union. He had befriended the" union in small ways, 
he said, such as paying bills for it, for which he was later 
reimbursed by union officials. His life during all of this time 
was, in fact, a dual life. He was an active member of the 
union, on one hand, and a secret agent of the Baldwin-Felts 
Detective Agency, on the other. Every day or so he mailed 
reports to his superior officers in the detective agency, at Blue- 
field, West Virginia, being careful to use addresses that would 
not allow his discovery and signing his reports with the mystic 
but significant symbol "No. 9." 

Mr. Lively, whose testimony I heard, is a young man, 
thirty-four years of age, with a wife and five children. He 
spoke directly, and' with a frankness that showed he consid- 
ered his conduct entirely praiseworthy. He was not discomfited 
by a rather disagreeable cross-examination. Of medium size, 
stockily built, and with a smile that played pleasantly about 
his features, he showed unmistakeable signs of a winning per- 
sonality ; it was easy to imagine him gaining the confidence of 
any group of workmen. The case in which he testified was 
that of a miner tried for having shot at the property of a 
coal company and having attempted, with other members of 
the union, to kill a guard at that place. Violence of this sort 
has marked the conflict between union and non-union forces 
in Mingo county for a year and a half. Both sides have taken 
part in a species of guerilla warfare. The main outlines of 
this warfare are familiar enough to readers of the daily 

Mr. Lively had, it happens, given testimony of a similar 
nature even more fully on another occasion. He had appeared 
before members of the Committee on Education and Labor of 
the United States Senate in Washington last July in connec- 
tion with that committee's investigation of the West Virginia 
trouble. Extracts from that testimony are given here. They 
show the incredulity and even indignation with which some 
members of the committee heard his story. 

After saying that, following service in other states, he had 
returned to West Virginia in January or February, 1920, 
just at the time when the miners of Mingo county were be- 
ginning to organize, Mr. Lively thus described, in answer to 
questions, some of his activities in Mingo county. The quota- 
tions are from the stenographer's official record: 

Mr. Damron [representing several coal operators in Mingo 
county, who were presenting testimony to thf committee] : 
What, if anything, did you pose to the union miners at Mate- 
wan .as? 

Mr. Lively: Just as an ordinary miner, and as belonging to 
the union, a member of the miners' union. 

Mr. Damron: At that place did you undertake to get into 
the confidence of the miners' union? 






Mt. Lively, labor spy, in the employ of the Baldtvin-Felts Detective Agency, attend- 
ing, as a union member, a meeting of the United Mine Workers at Charleston, W . Fa. 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. . . . 

Mr. Damron: Did you get into their confidence? 

Mr. Lively: I think I did. 

Mr. Damron: In what way did you get into the confidence 
of the various local unions that were being organized in the 

Mr. Lively: By getting into the confidence of the organizers 
of these various local unions, making myself an active member. 

Mr. Damron: Did you assist in the organization of any of 
the locals in that county? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Damron: What locals? 

Mr. Lively: Mr. Lavender, who had charge, and Mr. Work- 
man got me to assist in the organizing of War Eagle, Glen 
Alum and Mohawk. . . . 

Mr. Damron: Now, Mr. Lively, with what local did you 

Mr. Lively: Stone Mountain local. 

Mr. Damron: Did you have membership in that local? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir, I deposited my card. 

Mr. Damron: And did you assist the miners and the or- 
ganizers in organizing the various mines, in getting members 
to join? 

Mr. Lively: Only those three named. 

Mr. Damron: Would you make reports to your organization, 
which I believe was at Bluefield, is it not? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Damron: Of what information you would get from day 
to day? 

Mr. Lively: Well, I would make reports of what informa- 
tion I would get. I had no regular time to make reports. When 
I decided it was necessary I would make a report, so I would 
maybe make two or three reports, and sometimes go three or 
four days without making a report. 

Senator McKellar: How much were you getting for the work 
at this time, $75 a month [the amount Mr. Lively had testified 
he received when first going to work for the Baldwin-Felts De- 
tective Agency] ? 

Mr. Lively: Two hundred and twenty-five dollars and ex- 

Senator McKellar: They had raised your salary? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Lively's knowledge of conditions at Stone Mountain, 
where he was a member of the local, may have borne unex- 
pected fruit. The Stone Mountain Coal Company was one 
of those that were active in discharging employes who joined 
the union. On May 19, 1920, thirteen Baldwin-Felts agents 
with guns came to evict employes of that company who had 
become union members. The result is well known. An alter- 
cation arising between the Baldwin-Felts men and persons 
gathered around the little station in Matewan, miners and 
citizens, a battle ensued in which ten people were killed, seven 
Baldwin-Felts men and three others. Mr. Lively was in 
Charleston that day, possibly with a view to avoiding the 
necessity of taking sides when the agents of the detective com- 
pany went about their job. He returned in a day or two. 
A new task was then assigned to him. Mr. Damron asked, 
"And in addition to making investigations of matters con- 
nected with the organization of the union, did you take up 
the investigation of this killing?" to which Mr. Lively an- 
swered, "Yes, sir." 

After Mr. Lively had testified that he had attended a con- 
vention of the union in Charleston some years ago, at the same 
time that he was an agent of the Baldwin-Felts concern, mem- 
bers of the committee took a hand in the questioning: 
Senator McKellar: What and when was that convention? 

Mr. Lively: It seems to me it was in May. It was in 1913. 

Senator McKellar : May, 1913? 

Mr. Lively: Yes. 

Senator McKellar: The convention of the United Mine 

Mr. Lively: Yes. 

The Chairman [Senator W. S. Kenyon, of Iowa]: You were 
a delegate to that convention? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: You were not a detective at the time? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: You were one of the Baldwin-Felts detec- 
tives at that time? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: Did they know that at the convention when 
you were there as a delegate? 
• Mr. Lively: No sir. 

The Chairman: It was a part of your detective work to be 
a delegate? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: And find out what was going on? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Senator McKellar: You didn't let anybody know what you 
were doing except the Baldwin-Felts people? 

Mr. Lively: No, sir. 

The Chairman: Your business was to make a report of the 
meeting to the Felts Baldwin people? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Lively then testified that he had worked in various 
states, mentioning Colorado, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, 
and Kansas. 

The Chairman: Did you work as a detective in those 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: Or as a miner? 

Mr. Lively: Well, both sometimes. 

Senator McKellar: Did you affiliate with the miners at the 
time, as if you were a member of their organization? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Senator McKellar: And at the same time you were giving re- 
ports to the Felts Baldwin agency? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

Senator McKellar: All the time? 

Mr. Lively: Yes, sir. 

The Chairman: Were your expenses paid by the miners 
when you went to the convention, or did the Felts Baldwin 
agency pay your expenses? 

Mr. Lively: Well, the miners paid my expenses there to 
that Charleston convention, yes. I felt that it was necessary 
that I leave them pay them in order to keep off suspicion, or 
else they would wonder why I would not want them to pay 

After some further testimony concerning expenses, this 
colloquy took place: 

Senator McKellar: If you had disclosed your connection with 
the detective agency, do you suppose the miners would have 
let you in there at all? 

Mr. Lively: Let me in there? 

Senator McKellar: Yes. 

Mr. Lively: I think they would have turned me over to 
the undertaker. 

Senator McKellar: They would have turned you over to the 
undertaker — and you did not disclose to them or to anybody 
your dual capacity? 

Mr. Lively: No, sir. 

Senator McKellar: And you accepted money from tht miners 
on the theory that you were aiding them in your business. 

Mr. Lively: I have. [Mr. Lively testified that the Westci.. 
Federation of Miners had at one time paid him a salary.] 



Senator MoKellar: And at the same time, while you were 
accepting money from the miners as their representative and 
employe, or as their representative, you were really, as you 
have just said, in truth and in fact, the paid agent of the 
company that you knew was opposed to the miners. That is 
true, is it not? 

Mr. Lively: Well, I was in the pay of the detective agen- 
cy. .. . 

Senator McKellar: And did you think that was right? Now, 
while you are testifying, do you think that was the right action 
on your part? 

Mr. Lively: Yes. 

Senator McKellar: And you cannot see anything wrong in 
that action? 

Mr. Lively: I do not. . . . 

Senator McKellar: And are those the views of your em- 
ployers, the detective agency that employed you? Was it 
their idea and did they tell you that your action was right, 
that action on your part? 

Mr. Lively: I do not remember having talked with them 
anything along that line. . . . 

Senator McKellar: And did they approve of that conduct 
on your part? 

Mr. Lively: They never said anything against it. 

It having developed later that Mr. Lively had been vice- 
president of a local in Colorado at the same time that he was 
agent of the Baldwin-Felts concern, Senator; McKellar's 
opinion of the Whole affair was thus expressed : 

Senator McKellar: And do you think that you would have 
been elected if they had known in whose employ you were? 

Mr. Lively: Been elected? I do not think I would have 
'appeared before the committee at Washington. * 

Mr. Avis [representing the Williamson Coal Operators' As- 
sociation] : He has that right. That is the method practiced 
by the Department of Justice. 

Senator McKellar: I certainly hope that it is not practiced 
by the Department of Justice. I would feel much more 'against 
the Department of Justice if I thought that. 

Mr. Avis: I think it is practiced in every department at 

Senator McKellar: I do not believe it. 

Mr. Vinson [also representing the operators] : But the de- 
struction of the Monte [Molly] McGuires in Pennsylvania was 
done exactly 'as this was done. 

Senator McKellar: I will say that it violates every idea of 
right that I ever had. I never would have believed that a 
thing like this would happen, and I am not surprised that you 
are having trouble down there in Mingo county. 

The precise extent to which the use of under-cover men is 
resorted to in West Virginia, the number of men engaged iiv 
it and the exact value of their services 'to their employers, 
would be difficult to determine. W. E. E. Koepler, secretary 
of the Pocahontas Operators' Association, which embraces the 
two intensely non-union counties of Mercer and McDowell, 
told me that his association had a contract with the Baldwin- 
Felts Detective Agency, but declined on grounds of "policy" 
to tell me how many men the agency supplies. "I guess the 
number is large," he said, "because I know the bill is a pretty 
big one. You see, this is the home of the Baldwin-Felts 
agency. We're right on the home ground." Thomas L. 
Felts, partner of W. G. Baldwin in the agency, lives in Blue- 
field, Mercer county, and the agency maintains an office 

George Bausewine, Jr., secretary of the Williamson Coal 
Operators' Association, embracing the operators of Mingo 
county, told me that his association was enjoying the services 
of ten Baldwin-Felts operatives. "We have retained the 
Baldwin-Felts Agency since March, 1918," he said. "We 
claim that we have a right to employ secret service men, or 
detectives, to protect our interests. We want to know what 
our men are doing, what they're talking about. We want 
to know whether the union is being agitated." He said that 
the usual duty of a Baldwin-Felts man was to work in the 
mines, under cover, and learn what was going on. The 
individual operators had nothing to do with the selection of 
the men, he said ; that was left to the agency. 

I talked with Thomas L. Felts. He said his agency sup- 
plied two kinds of men to the operators. One of these is 

the guard or police officer, who is a private watchman and 
operates openly. The other is the detective or secret service 
man of the Lively type. The secret service man, said Mr. 
Felts, might be called upon to perform any kind" of crime 
detection. "And, of course," he added, "I'm frank to say that 
if some one comes in and agitates around for the union, the 
secret service man reports it to the company." He intimated 
that now that the non-union operators Were securing in- 
dividual contracts with their employes — the so-called "yellow 
dog" contracts — whereby the employe agrees to have nothing 
to do with a labor organization during his employment by 
the company, the use of secret service men might be reduced. 

Mr. Felts said that, in his individual capacity, he also fur- 
nishes to the county sheriffs in that region men who are sworn 
in as deputy sheriffs and become public officials. These men 
are pledged to serve the whole community, yet their salaries 
are paid by the private operators. "It works this way," said 
Mr. Felts. "A mine manager calls me up and says, 'Mr. 
Felts,' or 'Tom,' 'I want a man to be deputized up here on 
my property. Can you get me one?' So I get him one, and 
the man goes up and the sheriff deputizes him." He thought 
that he had supplied perhaps twenty men who had been 
deputized by the sheriffs of Mercer and McDowell counties, 
but I suspect that the number is a larger one. 

Mr. Felts estimated that from 250 to 300 men had been 
deputized in Mercer and McDowell counties in the spring 
of 1920, when the union, gaining a foothold in Mingo county, 
adjoining McDowell, threatened to extend its activities to 
the mines in those counties. 

Mr. Felts is a respected resident of Bluefield. The busi- 
ness people and other successful folk there regard him as one 
of their leading citizens. It was in the office of the Pocahontas 
Operators' Association that I was introduced to him, and 
there I heard him entertain an audience of six or eight men — 
mine superintendents, coal operators and others — with stories 
of the exploits of his agency in serving the opponents of union 
labor. As we talked together for two hours or so afterward, 
he revealed an intense hostility to labor organizations and 
labor leaders in general. He seemed to regard a labor organi- 
zation as necessarily "outlaw." A man who induced another 
man to join a union was apparently, in his eyes, a menace, to 
be watched as closely as one would watch a suspected thief. 
The United Mine Workers of America he singled out for 
special condemnation and referred to several of its officials by 
name as "bad ones" and "criminals." He apparently made 
little distinction, in regard to their desirability or value, be- 
tween one union and another. 

The miners of West Virginia regard the Baldwin-Felts 
Detective Agency as one of the most serious obstacles to the 
securing of what they deem their "rights." They look upon 
the practice of the operators in employing agents of that con- 
cern, as well as armed guards and deputy sheriffs, as a de- 
liberate method of excluding the union from non-union fields, 
and they assert that there can be no peace in the industrial 
struggle in that state until this kind of opposition is abandoned. 
Whether the miners are justified in this contention is, in my 
judgment, properly a matter for governmental inquiry. I do 
not think that the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, 
which has announced that it will resume its hearings on the 
West Virginia conflict on October 24, can perform any 
greater public service than to call Thomas L. Felts and some 
of the coal operators who employ his agency, to the stand, and 
secure for public enlightenment all that can be learned of the 
activities of this agency and its relations to the industrial 
struggle now raging there. The nature of the contracts be- 
tween it and the operators employing it, the number of men 
supplied, the kind of services rendered and the specific meth- 
ods pursued by the so-called detectives in their task of espion- 
age — all of these have a direct bearing, not only upon what 
is happening in West Virginia, but upon industrial strife and 
unrest throughout the nation. 

Birth Control 

By Arthur Gleason 


WITH the announcement of the Voluntary Parent- 
hood League that Marie C. Stopes of London is 
coming to America to give an address in the 
Town Hall, New York, the last week in Octo- 
ber, and the call for the First American Conference on Birth 
Control the second week of November sent out by the com- 
mittee of which Margaret Sanger is chairman, the question of 
birth control is set squarely before American public opinion, 
and the work of education enters a new chapter in this coun- 

In the United States today physicians are prevented by law 
from giving information to married couples, no scientific and 
worthy literature- on the control of parenthood exists, and 
hospitals are afraid to advise the mothers of the poor. In 
countries such as Holland and New Zealand, the necessary 
knowledge is practically universally obtainable. In England, 
such literature as Wise Parenthood is widely circulated. Our 
own country is today the most backward of modern civilized 
nations in the knowledge which mothers are given. 

Marie Stopes is a doctor of science and a doctor of philos- 
ophy. She is the author of Married Love, Wise Parenthood, 
Radiant Motherhood, and A Letter to Working Mothers. 
At the coming meeting she will speak on Constructive Birth 
Control, as expressed in her Motherhood Clinic recently estab- 
lished in London. Although her book Married Love was 
suppressed bv the authorities here, her meeting has as patrons 
Dr. M. J. Exner, Dr. A. A. Brill, Dr. Henry P. De Forest, 
Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Owen R. Lovejoy, Katharine 
Anthony, Harriot Stanton Blatch, „Gelett Burgess, the Rev. 
John Haynes Holmes, Mrs. George D. Pratt, Maj. George 
H. Putnam, Dr. William J. Robinson, Mrs. Charles Tiffany, 
Mrs. Henry Villard, Mrs. Felix Warburg, Jesse Lynch 
Williams. The meeting, moreover, is planned as one of the 
steps toward opening birth control clinics in America under 
the Voluntary Parenthood League of which Mary Ware 
Dennett is director. 

The key to Marie Stopes' thought is fairly given in these 
quotations : 

Motherhood is too sacred an office to be held unwillingly. 
Wise parents . . . guide nature, and control the conception 
of the desired children so as to space them in the way best 
adjusted to what health, wealth and happiness they have to 

To those who protest that we have no right to interfere 
with the course of nature, one must point out that the whole 
of civilization, everything which separates man from animals, 
is an interference with what such people commonly call "na- 

I should like to take this opportunity of urging young couples 
who truly love, to have all the children to whom they can 
give health and beauty, even if by doing so they sacrifice their 
personal luxuries. 

More than ever today are happy homes needed. It is my 
hope that this may serve the state by adding to their numbers. 

The discussion at the conference in November will center 
upon the medical and social aspect of birth control and its 
relation to national health. Associated with this are the 
family problems of economy and health, the personal individ- 
ual problem of the mother. There will be a closed session 
with medical men on contraceptives: a scientific discussion of 
methods and application. These medical men are to the num- 
ber of nearly two hundred, members of the American Public 
Health Association, who will be in attendance at their bi- 
centennial just following the conference. This medical study 
will be considered in relatipn to the law of the matter. A 
plan will be formulated for amending the present laws govern- 
ing the use of contraceptives which make it a criminal offense 
to give information concerning them and which class such 
information as obscene and indecent. The plan will be to 

procure changes in the various state laws. This requi 
development of state groups with representative leadei 

Further, the birth control conference will deal wit 
psychological data as suppressions. The subject of mi 
and birth control will be taken up, and for the use of tl 
vention Havelock Ellis is sending over a symposium of 
from European sources. Statistics not previously collat 
be presented. Over-population and its relation to war, 
and misery, will be considered. The whole "population 
tion" will be opened up by Harold Cox, who comes 
England for the purpose. Mr. Cox is the editor of the 
burgh Review, and a former member of Parliament. I 
distinguished essayist and a trenchant speaker. In addi 
leading the discussion at one of the sessions, he will- 
principal speaker at a mass meeting to be held in the- 
Hall in November. I 

The program, furthermore, includes the formation 
American birth control league. The hope is to open 
clinics, immediately after the conference, in states where 
are no laws against giving contraceptive information, 
further job is to devise the best legislative means of amen 
the present laws on information relating to birth contro 
those states where the giving of information is a crimi 

This conference is in control of a different group from t 
which is bringing Marie Stopes to America. Margaret San-, 
is chairman of this conference and W' nst on Churchill, Pr 
Irving Fisher, Mrs.. James Lee Laidlaw, Dr. and Mrs. / 
Emmett Holt, Mrs. Maxfield Parrish, Mrs. Homer F 
Gaudens, Dr. Edith Swift, Prof. Walter B. Pitkin, Dr. W. 
Robie, Mary Shaw, Dr. Kate W. Baldwin, Dr. Mary H; 
ton, Mrs. Charles Tiffany, Mrs. Ernest Poole, Mrs. Willi" 
Straight, are among those sponsoring it. 

Whereas Mrs. Sanger and her group emphasize the need 
a legislative campaign, state by state, the Voluntary Paren 
hood League advocates a change in the federal law. Omitting 
the differences in policy and tactics between the Voluntary 
Parenthood League and the birth control conference, and 
grouping their objectives, the immediate aims are: 

i. The amendment of legislation, federal and state, which 

makes it a criminal offense to give information concerning the 

use of contraceptives, and which classes such information with 

obscenity and indecency. t 

2. The establishment of birth control clinics and motheiV- 
hood clinics, for the giving of information which will frea 
marriage from unnecessary poverty and ill health, which will^ 
give the child the' birthright of being wanted and provided^ 
for, and which will ennoble the marriage relationship and the 
function and office of parenthood. 

3. The discussion of such race matters as relative over-pop- 
ulation as it concerns the supply of food, the competition for 
markets, the colonization of alien regions, and war. There is 
further the decay of particular nations and races, relative to 
other nations and races; and the decay of particular classes 
inside the nation. 

A few years ago, when Arnold Bennett wrote the preface 
for Adelyne More's Fecundity versus Civilization, he listed 
the'principal arguments against birth control and the use of 
contraceptives as four: the hygienic, the religious, the political, 
and the industrial. To these should perhaps be added the 

A rather convincing body of expert medical scientific 
opinion has gradually formed itself to the effect that the use 
of the best modern contraceptives is not injurious. So the 
hygienic argument has lost its early vigor. The political and 
the industrial arguments urge a large and ever-increasing 
population for cannon-fodder and factory-fodder. An excel- 
lent statement of this is quoted in the Manchester Guardian 
of June 29, 1916: 



192 1 

i n ■? 


f Section 21 1 of the Federal Penal Code 
Passed in 1873 

■* VERY obscene, lewd, or lascivious, and every filthy 
vboolc, pamphlet, picture, paper, letter, writing, print, 
other publication of an indecent character, and every 
tide or thing designed, adapted, or intended for pre- 
■•ting conception or producing abortion, or for any in- 
ent or immoral use ; and every article, instrument, 
stance, drug, medicine, or thing which is advertised 
described in a manner calculated to lead another to 
; or apply it for preventing conception or producing 
ortion, or for any indecent or immoral purpose; and 
ery written or printed card, letter, circular, book, 
mphlet, advertisement, or notice of any kind giving in- 
mation directly or indirectly, where, or how, or of 
om, or by what means any of the hereinbefore-men- 
led matters, articles, or things may be obtained or 
le, or where or by whom any act or operation of 
kind for the procuring or producing of abortion 
i be done or performed, or how or by what means 
x . r cepti.on may be prevented or abortion may be pro- 
K. ed, whether sealed or unsealed ; and every letter, 
^acket, or package, or other mail matter containing any 
Slthy, vile, or indecent thing, device, or substance and 
very paper, writing, advertisement, or representation 
hat any article, instrument, substance, durg, medicine, 
>r thing may, or can be, used or applied, for preventing 
conception or producing abortion, or for any indecent 
or immoral purpose; and every description calculated 
to induce or incite a person to so use or apply any such 
article, instrument, substance, drug, medicine, or thing, 
is hereby declared to be non-mailable matter and shall 
not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post 
office or by any letter carrier. Whoever shall knowing- 
ly deposit or cause to be deposited for mailing or de- 
livery, anything declared by this section to be non-mail- 
able, or shall knowingly take, or cause the same to be 
taken, from the mails for the purpose of circulating or 
disposing thereof, or of aiding in the circulation or dis- 
position thereof, shall be fined not more than five thou- 
sand dollars, or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. [Italic ours.] 

Mr. Walter Long (president of the Local Government Board) 
/ agreed that they must do everything in their power to recover 
,' the birthrate, as it was never more essential that our great 
race should expand and cover the globe. 

The sentimental and the religious arguments are closely 
allied. The religious position has rarely been more frankly, 
more earnestly, stated than by a distinguished member of the 
Society of Jesus, Father Stanislaus St. John. In a letter to 
Marie Stopes he writes: 

Let me take in illustration of my meaning the case you give 
of the worn out mother of twelve. The Catholic belief is that 
the loss of health on her part for ,a few years of life and the 
diminished vitality on the part of her later children would be 
a very small price indeed to pay for an endless happiness on 
the part of all. 

The facts of the situation in the United States are these: 
The federal law was passed in 1873. Included in its terms 
(Section 211 of the Penal Code) is the prohibition of informa- 
tion on the control of parenthood equally with "every obscene, 
lewd, or lascivious, and every filthy book, pamphlet, picture" ; 
and all, equally, are "hereby declared to be non-mailable mat- 
ter." This bill was lobbied into law by the driving force and 
sincerity of Anthony Comstock who had failed to distinguish 
'n his own mind between the vile literature, which he so vigor- 
ously and righteously and usefully fought, and the scientific 
study of birth control. 

Congress in 1909 made it illegal to transport by express or 
any public carrier all the items prohibited to the mails in 
Section 21 1. 

Stimulated by the federal act of 1873, the various states 

'ossomed out into "obscenity" legislation, much of which took 

form of the federal law. Twenty-four states and Porto 

Rico specifically penalize contraceptive knowledge in their 
obscenity laws. Twenty-four states and the District of Co- 
lumbia, Alaska and Hawaii have laws by which, on the basis 
of the federal law, contraceptive knowledge may be suppressed 
as obscene. What is obscenity ? It has never been accurately 
defined in law. By throwing a rich adjectival rhetoric around 
"pamphlets, pictures, packages," the federal act was able to 
create an atmosphere of filthy horror for knowledge concern- 
ing motherhood. The device was as skilful as the red mist with 
which Archibald Stevenson, Senator Lusk and Ralph Easley 
have surrounded all thoughts, words and deeds that are lib- 
eral. Twenty-two states prohibit drugs and instruments. 
Eleven states make it a crime to possess instructions in con- 
traception. Fourteen states make it a crime to tell where or 
how the knowledge may be gained. Four states have laws 
authorizing search and seizure of contraceptive instructions. 
Certain exemptions from the penalties of these laws are made 
in some of the states for medical colleges, medical books, physi- 
cians and druggists. Two states are without obscenity stat- 
utes, though police power can suppress knowledge on the 
basis of the federal act. The two comparatively free states 
are New Mexico and North Carolina. 

In the case of eight states prohibiting the deposit of infor- 
mation in the Post Office the question is undecided whether 
repealing the federal prohibition will of itself void the state 
laws, or whether police power to withhold mail will remain. 
The Voluntary Parenthood League believe that, just as the 
passage of the federal law stimulated the repressive activities 
of the states, so the repeal of the federal act will result in 
clearing twenty-four states at one stroke of their legislation, 
and in moving the other twenty-four states to join the pro- 
cession. Margaret Sanger urges the attack state by state. 

But to leave the subject here is to leave it involved in the 
machinery and materialism of method. The impulse of birth 
control comes from deep sources. It comes from pity for the 
plight of the poor, from the horror of war, from the sickness 
of an acquisitive society. But the profound source of the 
birth control movement is in the ideal of the happy and fruit- 
ful marriage. It is in the consciousness that the relationship 
of man and woman and child is the one abiding value in 
secular changes. To fail in it is to miss the good life. To 
succeed is to come as near to happiness as is permitted to 
human beings. 

The birth control clinics of Holland were started in 1884 
by the famous pioneering feminist, Dr. Aletta Jacobs, and 
today there are fifty-four of them. They are situated in the 
office or home of the physicians, nurses and midwives who give 
information on the control of conception for a nominal fee 
or no fee. It was in 1916 that Margaret Sanger, publicist and 
trained nurse, opened a clinic in Brownsville, N. Y. The 
police raided it, and jailed the pioneers. Mrs. Sanger looks 
to the establishment of several clinics as the result of the birth 
control conference. 

Marie Stopes established a clinic in London in March of 
1 92 1. The idea back of this clinic is not alone to spread infor- 
mation on control but information on "radiant motherhood." 
The patrons of her work are such persons as Edward Carpen- 
ter, John Robert Clynes, Harold Cox, Sir Lynden Macassey, 
Maude Roydon, George Roberts, Admiral Sir Percy Scott. It 
will be noted in that list that labor is represented. One weak- 
ness of the American movement has been the timidity of 
American labor to face the "population question." It is ex- 
pected that as the result of the coming visit of Marie Stopes 
such clinics as hers, say three in number, will be started in 
this country. 

Gradually the fact is emerging that there exists and can be 
communicated knowledge which will bring alike health and 
happiness in marriage and the family life. When that little 
and intimate group of the family is made secure, then the other 
problems oi. racial disease, poverty and war will begin to find 
their answers. 




Conducted by 

Housing Legislation in Illinois 

HOUSING bills were before the Illinois General Assem- 
bly in 191 7 and 1919, but failed of passage. The feeling 
that something should be done, but that the bills pro- 
posed were not satisfactory, led to the creation by legislative 
act in 1 91 9 of the Illinois Housing and Building Commission, 
for the purpose of reporting proposed legislation upon housing, 
building, and zoning to the General Assembly in 1921. 

Upon its organization, this commission, after rather careful 
deliberation, decided upon certain principles in connection 
with proposed legislation with reference to housing standards. 
These principles were substantially the following. 

A single bill should be drawn applicable to the whole state, 
establishing minimum standards. By such a bill no standards 
were to be reduced, and cities were to be empowered to raise 
such standards as they saw fit. The bill as drawn sought in 
accordance with this plan to establish minimum standards for 
the whole state, leaving in force any higher standards which 
might exist, and giving a full discretion to cities to raise the 
standards above the suggested state minimum. This plan for 
a bill applicable alike to all cities of the state was adopted be- 
cause of the possibility of serious constitutional difficulties 
should an effort be made to classify the city of Chicago sep- 
arately from other communities. The bill as drawn was there- 
fore made applicable to all cities of 5,000 or over; and its 
provisions regarding water and sewage were made applicable 
to all cities with public water or sewer systems. 

Having adopted the plan of a single bill applicable to all 
cities of more than a certain size, the commission took into 
consideration the existing housing standards in the state, with 
the idea of setting higher standards in a number of important 
matters, but not attempting the ideal. It was known that if 
the ideal were atempted no possibility of enactment existed. 
The city of Chicago contains a very large proportion of the 
urban population of Illinois. The other larger cities of the 
state which had adopted very complete standards with respect 
to housing conditions had largely copied the standards of 
Chicago. The commission considered it necessary to keep the 
existing standards, but to improve them in a series of impor- 
tant respects. The idea-was that no existing standards should 
be lowered, and that much higher standards for the whole 
state should be established as to height of dwellings, courts, 
basement and cellar occupancy, fire protection, and some other 
matters. The commission proceeded upon the assumption that 
the more serious problems in the present housing situation of 
Illinois should be dealt with, without attempting to handle 
all of the present problems. The plan of the proposed bill was 
that of establishing minimum standards which should not in 
any respect be lower than existing standards, and which 
should in a number of important particulars be higher; leav- 
ing to each community the possibility of establishing higher 
standards than those set as a minimum. 

The commission decided after a good deal of deliberation 
that the administration of a proposed state housing law should 
be left to the building and health departments in the several 
cities. This decision was reached because of the fact that home 
rule in utilities and other matters is a serious problem in 
Illinois. The effort to set up a state administration was cer- 
tain to result in failure. The commission believed that the 
control over structural matters should be vested in local build- 
ing departments; and that control over plumbing and purely 
sanitary matters, as well as over the maintenance of sanitary 
conditions, should be vested in the city health department. - 

The bill as finally drafted was endorsed by the Woman's 
City Club of Chicago and by the Chicago Woman's Club. 

After a full opportunity for presentation of the issues both 
for and against the bill, it was endorsed by the Illinois Com- 
mittee on Social Legislation, a delegate body containing rep- 
resentatives of the various social and philanthropic organiza- 
tions of the state. The various architectural organizations 
also endorsed the bill. 

The chief opponent of the bill was Charles B. Ball of the 
Chicago Health Department, one of the recognized authori- 
ties in this country upon housing matters. The grounds of 
Mr. Ball's opposition were primarily three: that the stand- 
ards of the bill were too low; that the bill sought to impose 
Chicago standards upon the smaller cities of the state; and 
that the bill if enacted would reduce the powers of city health 
departments. Curiously enough, the building interests of 
Chicago and other cities united against the bill on the ground 
that it was too stringent, and the smaller cities of the state 
brought pressure to prevent its passage on the ground that it 
was too restrictive. The union of forces desiring better legis- 
lation with those desiring no legislation brought about the 
defeat of the measure. 

The Illinois Housing and Building Commission was more 
successful with its recommended bill for the revision of the 
zoning act of 1919. As a result of its work a satisfactory zon- 
ing act is now upon the statute books of this state. The com- 
mission also recommended several acts for the regulation o\ 
rentals, and obtained passage of legislation permitting courts 
to grant stays of execution for not exceeding six months in 
actions for eviction after the termination of leases. The leg- 
islation in Illinois is similar in some respects to legislation en- 
acted in New York and Massachusetts. W. F. Dodd. 

Former Counsel to the Illinois Housing 

and Building Commission. 

A Home Ownership Experiment 

NOT only permanent escape from the tyranny of "hous- 
ing conditions," but effective defense against that 
oppression has found another expositor in the Beekman 
Hill Cooperative Association, Inc., of New York, originally 
a "child" of the Young Women's Christian Association. 

This association, recently incorporated under the laws of 
New York state, will be the medium of exchange, in the cases 
of forty-one persons, from inadequate and expensive quarters 
to four-room modern homes. These persons are professional 
men and women of New York on "professionally" slender 
salaries, who have become stockholders and resident owners. 
The purpose of the association upon its organization was 
to engineer a model housing project; to demonstrate a thor- 
oughly practical solution to the problem of the rooming house 
and the kitchenette, bath and bed apartment, which hover 
around the hundred-dollar-rent mark. When the dwellings 
on East Fiftieth street which have been bought and remodeled 
for the group of stockholders are opened for occupancy in 
September, their experiment will have taken shape. It is the 
hope of the members that similar groups of horns-seekers may 
find the plan useful as a guide to independent operations in 
other localities, as well as in New York. 

No interests but those of the residents themselves control 
the property. Voice in the proceedings is on an equal basis, 
no member being allowed more than one vote. Membership in 
the corporation and residency in the colony calls for a sole 
investment of $2,000. This buys the maximum of 400 shares 
at $5 a share. Rentals range from $50 to $57-50 monthly. 



P r\ r> t /-\ 



The investment pays 5 per cent interest. From the beginning 
shares sold rapidly. When it was found, however, that many 
persons who ought to take advantage of the colony and who 
wanted an interest in it were being kept out for lack of the 
entire $2,000, a loan fund was established, and money, fur- 
nished by women of means in New York, was loaned at 6 per 
cent. As the investment pays 5 per cent, this means that the 
resident has only I per cent to pay on his loan. Total invest- 
ment in the project reaches $150,000. As the mortgage on 
the property decreases, rents will decrease, so that ultimately 
the rentals will be set at just enough to cover the cost of up- 
keep and repairs. Capital stock is $66,000, divided up into 
13,200 shares, all of which have been sold. 

Management of the property is in the hands of seven 
directors elected by the members of the association from with- 
in their own group. The officers of the board of directors are 
all women. The president is Grace P. Drake; vice-president, 
Vera Schafer; secretary, Louise Griffith; treasurer, Grace 
Marrett. Most of the owners are women, although a few 
men have joined the colony with their wives, and one apart- 
ment home will be owned by a brother and sister. Persons not 
living on the property cannot own shares. 

It was a year ago last May that the idea of this cooperative 
association was first conceived by secretaries in the economic 
division of the industrial department of the National Board 
of the Y. W. C. A. At no time, however, has that organiza- 
tion been represented in the finances of the group. Succeed- 
ing months were filled with the business of stirring up inter- 
est in the project, the work of organization, followed by de- 
bating among members as to location of the property, and 
number and arrangement of the rooms. There was the fac- 
tion that stood out for Greenwich Village, another for the 
Riverside Drive neighborhood, another for Morningside 
Heights. But when the Beekman Hill opportunity came its 
unusual value as an investment won over the varied prefer- 
ences of the members. 

Decision was immediately followed by months of struggling 
in the courts to get transfer of ownership, to get possession 
legally and then actually (for tenants refused to get out), and 
a harrowing contingent liability suit. Only the Italian fore- 
man can accurately describe his troubles in trying to wreck 
the buildings properly from the top down when tenants moved 
out "from the bottom up"; how people in the upper stories 
called the police to stop him, and how he worked underneath 
and above and around them until he drove them out. 


(Tune: America) 

AN international hymn, written by Ivanona Bryson 
Sturdevant, and now being sent broadcast by the 
Disarmament Committee of the National League of 
Women Voters. 

My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee I sing: 
Land where my fathers died, 
Land of my mothers' pride, 
From every mountainside 

Let freedom ring. 

God bless all peoples here, 
God bless them far and near, 

And set them free. 
Free them from selfish might, 
Lead them to see the light, 
Teach them to love the right, 

And liberty. 

All countries shall be free, 
All men shall brothers be, 

This is our song; 
Let mortal tongues awake; 
Let all that breathe partake; 
Let rocks their silence break. 

The sound prolong. 

Our fathers' God, to thee, 
Author of liberty, 

Thy praise we sing; 
Soon will all lands be bright 
With freedom's holy light: 
O, speed this by Tby might, 

Great God, our King. 

These apartment homes are to have no rooms requiring 
electric light by day. Each has four rooms, including kitchen 
eight feet by ten. There is a storeroom nine feet by four for 
each tenant and an individual locker for packages in the 
basement entrances. Numerous other contrivances for econ- 
omy of energy and money have been worked out by the archi- 
tect, Charles M. Duke, under advice of the women mem- 
bers. Tenants on the south side of East Fiftieth street, near 
Avenue A, who have been looking out day after day upon 
rows of weather-stained brown stone fronts will be grateful 
for the row of soft gray stucco, cool green shutters and win- 
dow panes leaded in white. Shrubbery will be put out around 
the hospitable doorways. The apartments are being built 
around an open courtyard, so that the rear homes will look 
out one way onto the court and fountain, the other way onto a 
big garden which will stretch the full length of the property 
at the back. Nancy Woods Walburn. 

A Churchmi-n's Protest 

WELL-MEANING people often look upon 'the church 
as an agency for the curbing of restless political spirits. 
But Sunday schools are not divinely called to enlighten young 
foreigners in civics. When good people establish Bible classes 
to prevent the growth of bolshevism, or other real or imag- 
inary evils, they are undermining public confidence in the 
church. Alliances between the church and the state have 
always resulted disasterously for the church, as well as for 
all spiritual life. Germany, Austria and Russia are the latest 
witnesses to this truth. And one of America's foremost New 
Testament scholars concluded a brilliant series of lectures on 
church history with the prediction that recent ecclesiastical 
inclination toward such a union is the sign of senility. 

No one realizes this more quickly than the immigrant, 
who is reminded of many European follies, among them the 
summons issued by Charles V. to lay and ecclesiastical princes 
of the Holy Roman Empire to meet in Diet at Worms to 
curb by secular and religious means the dangerous movements 
sweeping over Germany. Propaganda for ulterior objects 
always leaves evil results. Honesty alone can bear continued 
investigation. If political desuetude is the end in view, frank 
and open efforts should be undertaken to render the immi- 
grant innocuous. With aught but honesty the guiding prin- 
ciple, the failure of the church will be as tragic as the end of 
war-time propaganda for international purity of motive. 
Christ's church is either concerned in the foreigner as a man 
— a soul — endeavoring to accomplish the end by treating him 
with dignity, or else it is unworthy of the holy founder. 

A brief explanation of existing tendencies seems essential. 
Popular anxiety for a uniform language is not based, as is 
commonly imagined, upon necessity. Switzerland is perhaps 
the best functioning commonwealth in the West, but uses 
three official languages. Nor is America less a nation, or 
less efficient, for having several language groups. Indeed, 
too rapid disappearance of all non-English dialects would work 
harm by withdrawing valuable cosmopolitan influences which 
hitherto have enhanced America's greatness. 

When through marvelous industrial development America 
became, in the last half century, the Mecca for the world's | 
surplus population, there began to be entertained doubt as tO| 
the essential rapidity of assimilation. And yet, future his- 
torians will wonder at the adaptibility both of the foreigner 
and of American social life that produced such speedy and 
perfect fusion ; nor will they be at loss to recognize in native 
scorn the chief deterrent to even better results. This is not 
so evident to contemporaries, however. 

In brief, early Anglo-Saxon-American traditions are strug- 
gling for perpetuity wherewith the minority pursues the aim 
in view. But the immigrant complains: 

They call us aliens, we are told, 
Because our wayward visions stray, 
From that dim banner they unfold — 
The worn-out dream of yesterday. 






'M?^®z?z33^<r?vmF-K < ^^s^/T! ^t^^as^v~ 


Were the Golden Rule operative in the field of Americani- 
zation, the immigrant would be a problem only in diminutive 
proportions. For whereas good influences reach him only 
intermittently, evil is on his every side. This is the rule 
whenever men migrate, whatever their race, because they are 
loosening healthful bonds of social value. Thus the little 
girl, kneeling on the bank of the Hudson River, prayed with 
analytical discernment: "Good-bye, God, we're going West." 

Americans old and new are our problem. Circumstances 
compel the foreigner to make the most of his physical and 
spiritual surroundings; in the former to meet in economic 
competition men on the ground before him; in the latter be- 
cause his very nature strives for justification in the eyes of his 
associates. The native, instead of feeling this pressure, may 
be rocked to sleep by a false sense of superiority, founded on 
the resultants of conditions which are accidental and passing. 

The foreigner is here. He is here in large numbers. No 
amount of argument or even deportation can sever him from 
the complex American social fabric. Following the Golden 
Rule — or learning how not to do it from war-weary Europe 
— we look to the spirit of fairness in give and take to guide 
us in Americanization policies. The native-born should" treat 
the foreign-born as he would like to be treated were he in 
Mexico, or in Canada. 

Christian Americanization should recognize that Garibaldi 
is spiritual kin to Paul Revere ; that Kossuth is related to 
George Washington ; that Gustavus Adolphus dared for re- 
ligious liberty as did Roger Williams. Details of American 
history may help when placed in a setting of universal hero- 
ism. Dealing with native and foreign — old citizen and new — 
the New World will serve humanity if it possesses the true 
perspective of American idealism as evidenced in history and 

looks to the glorious future for the realization of the fairest 
hopes of mankind. Thereby shall we aid our Fatherland. 

F. C. Green. 

Community Buildings 

PROBABLY owing to the prevailing high cost of building, 
the construction of community buildings as war memorials 
has not proceeded as rapidly as might have been expected from 
the enthusiasm expressed, in the months after the Armistice, 
for this form of perpetuating the idealism engendered by the 
war period. The time lost for actual construction, however, 
has been so much time gained for a perfection of plans; and 
to judge from such material as is at hand, there is a whole- 
some return from exaggerately grandiose plans to simpler 
ones in which ideas of service and harmony with traditional 
architecture prevail. 

One of the most interesting sets of plans offered is Floor 
Plans for Community Buildings, prepared by Guy Lowell 
and published by the Board of Home Missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Fred Eastman, educational director of this 
organization, contributed his experience gained in managing 
such houses, and Mr. Lowell endeavored to suggest practicable 
schemes, ranging from modest "social rooms" in connection 
with a small church to much larger buildings with separate 
rooms for varied activities. The plans are marked by an 
unusual simplicity and economy — the latter effected often by 
facilities for throwing several rooms together; by making the 
size of different rooms exactly as required and no more, and( 
by giving the minimum of space to useless halls atid passages. 


a«a zsoo jarr 


Ti i ■ ■? ■ ■ i .T. ■ . iT T *"* ""^ " 




The building which is reproduced on the preceding page, dis- 
plays these features. The center of interest in the lobby or 
social room is the large fireplace around which seats are to be 
grouped, an ideal place for smaller gatherings. 

"Constructive Ventures 


SOME of the books and manuals especially prepared for 
the woman voter have, we are told, already proved 
futile. They assume, for the most part, that American 
women have a mentality, when it comes to civic matters, 
similar to that of the newly arrived immigrant; and so in 
terse paragraphs, often emphasizing a word here, a phrase 
there, by the use of different type, they try to drive home some 
of the simplest concepts with a maximum of vigor and a 
minimum of appeal to the natural interests of women or, for 
that matter, of any intelligent and moderately well educated 
reader. The Extension Department of the University of 
North Carolina has done well to entrust the compilation of a 
citizenship manual for women to Prof. Howard W. Odum, 
director of the university's School of Public Welfare, who 
realizes that "the ideals of social service and achievement" 
and "the systematic study of present-day social problems" are 
vital factors in the education of citizenship where women are 
concerned. But- in addition to "the qualities which woman's 
entrance into formal government will bring," he sees as "one 
of the great possibilities of the century . . . the 'contributions 
to the growth of a richer social mind, made deeper and more 
composite by the interplay of the minds and spirits of men 
and women set free for unbounded development and growth." 
A large part of his section of the manual is devoted, therefore, 
to a discussion of the new motives and viewpoints in the 
exercise of civic rights and functions which, while they are 
traditionally closer to women's sphere than men's, really make 
up the new element in social and national life that is common 
to men and women. 

The separate problems of government, of city, county, vil- 
lage and open countryside are reviewed in that light; public 
service and the "Teal Americanization problems" are dis- 
cussed as the tasks of a citizenship that is desirous of building 
up a safe social environment for all groups and individuals. 
The state and the community, as Professor Odum pictures 
them, are essentially those sought, not by any specific economic 
or" other group interest or even in fulfilment of preconceived 
theories of social organization, but simply as expressions of 
the normal desires of fathers and mothers for the welfare of 
children. "Constructive ventures in government" thus arise 
from the experience of a nation that endeavors with progres- 
sive thoroughness to embody in its laws and institutions simple 
human ideals that have been lost sometimes in the midst of 
racial and economic strife or overlaid by wrong doctrines and 
perverse ambitions. 

Once Upon a Time 

Long ago, before any of you children were born, or your 
parents or grandparents either, fifty-five good and wise Amer- 
icans came together and decided that they would no longer obey 
the cruel king zvho ruled over them and their people. Among 
other things, they said: "He has endeavored to prevent the 
population of s hese states ; for that purpose obstructing the laws 
for natural'v. in of foreigners, refusing to pass others to en- 
courage thei igrations hither." They also said: "He has com- 
bined with tys to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 
constitution unacknowledged by our laws." 

TN some .' ../ way, the Declaration of Independence of the 
United States might, perhaps, be explained to children — 
but not in Kansas; for, if there be in the Kansas schools any 
sons and daughters of immigrants who are anxious to join 
the citizenship of this country without loss of self-respect — 
without, that is, binding themselves in advance as to what 
party they are not going to vote for or how they are going to 
vote on referenda for constitutional amendments — there might 
be some awkward questions for the teacher to answer. For, the 

courts of that state exclude applicants for citizenship from 
the right to vote for no other reason than that they are mem- 
bers of a party not recognized as legitimate. Judge W. G. 
Fairchild, of the district court covering Harvey, McPherson 
and Reno counties, in a recently published statement thus ex- 
plained this practice on his own part and that of the other 
Kansas judges: 

■ One of the essential elements to grant the naturalization of a 
foreigner is that he is satisfied with and approves our present 
form of government, . . . 

A government of which one seeks to become a citizen can 
justly require that every applicant for naturalization should 
be satisfied with and approve the then existing form of govern- 
ment of which he is seeking to become a citizen, and no person 
who is dissatisfied with such form of government or wishes to 
change or alter it or joins it for the purpose of agitating a 
change and creating a disturbance is entitled to citizenship; 
and a membership in the Non-Partisan League is simply ac- 
cepted as evidence of dissatisfaction and desire to change our 
present form of government and therefore of the applicant's 
failure to meet the requirements of the law showing that he 
would be a good citizen. 

The Negroes of Buffalo 

MEMBERS of the Committee on Negro Welfare of . 
the Social Welfare Conference of Buffalo recently 
charged that the colored people of the city were compelled 
to live "under very insanitary conditions, in old houses 
which were overcrowded, and that they were obliged to pay 
exorbitant rents." These statements were sharply challenged 
by the Realty Owners and Improvement Association. Frances 
M. Hollingshead, director of the Buffalo Foundation, with 
the assistance of Anna L. Holbrook of the Children's Aid 
Society and a staff of volunteers, thereupon made a study of 
conditions. Records were made of 429 families. There were 
found to be 477 child members of these families belonging 
to 199 different households, thus leaving over half of the 
homes without children. Only 277 of these children were re- 
ported as attending school. There were 748 boarders, 57 per 
cent of the households studied having one or more. Gainful 
occupations demanded the services of 99 of the women. As 
to the charge of insanitary living conditions, investigation 
showed that over one-fourth of the families were in homes 
of more than six rooms, while only 37 families occupied homes 
of three rooms or less. "Two-thirds of the families were 
found to be paying less than $30 a month rent, although an 
impression has seemed to prevail that $30 to $40 a month 
was being demanded quite commonly. In checking over re- 
sults there were no homes under six rooms noted at a rent 
of $40 or more." No great overcrowding was found and 
conditions were much better than had been expected. 

Garden Suburb of Ypres 

LAST year the Belgian government decided to create as 
soon as possible in the devastated area of Flanders several 
hundred houses for working-class families. It found that it 
would be cheaper and more practicable to build on new ground 
than to rebuild existing quarters. Hence a number of garden 
suburbs or villages were projected, the first, called Batavia, 
outside of Roulers. The plan for Kalfvaart, Ypres, is based 
on the model of the old Flemish village rather than that of 
the modern English garden suburb. This means that most 
of the houses are in large blocks with a liberal allowance of 
garden space behind them. The more important buildings, 
stores and larger residences provide the main architectural 
features and prevent these rows of houses from being monoto- 
nous in appear, nee. The general effect is said to be devoid 
of archaeological pretensions but intimate and neighborly. 
Most of the houses have large kitchens, which are also the 
living rooms, and each has a scullery and three bedrooms. 
The exteriors are of white-washed stucco with brick orna- 
ments and red tiles. 





Conducted by 

Is the Juvenile Court Passing r 


DURING the past summer a woman who was an in- 
fluential member of the finance and publicity commit- 
tees of a county children's association put these ques- 
tions to me: "Our association is asked to work for a public 
opinion that will demand and help to secure a juvenile court 
law that will unify court procedure for children throughout 
the county. Now, if, as some persons say, juvenile courts 
are going out of fashion, why work to establish one in our 
county? Why not rather work directly for that which is 
to take the place of the juvenile court?" 

During the past year a man who has long been influential 
in promoting studies of the needs of children in southern 
states and in promoting effective legislation to that end, 
asked practically the same question in this form: "If the 
juvenile court is passing in these communities where it has 
been most effective for the longest time, why not in states 
where many child welfare agencies have not as yet been de- 
veloped, skip the juvenile court stage altogether?" 

Such questions indicate doubts even among experienced and 
thoughtful people as to the permanent need of and the place 
for a juvenile court. These doubts should be cleared up as 
soon as possible. To this end the following facts and at- 
tempts at interpretation seem to me revelant and important. 
As soon as earnest, systematic, and persistent efforts were 
made in various communities to develop a probation service 
that would be of real service to children, the importance of 
educational and so-called "case work" processes as contrasted 
with compulsory and disciplinary processes began to be rec- 
ognized. For example: As long ago as 1912, Prof. Wil- 
lard E. Hotchkiss, who had made an official investigation of 
the juvenile court situation in Chicago, read a paper before 
the National Conference of Social Work in which he raised 
the question as to whether the school or the court was the 
best agency to organize probation service. In 1914, in his 
book, The Juvenile Court and the Community, Thomas D. 
Eliot definitely argued that the school, primarily, but as- 
sisted by other constructive agencies, ought to supplant the 
juvenile courts as centers for the administration of the per- 
sonal work being attempted by probation officers. 

In the Survey [May 3, 1919] Henrietta Additon and 
Neva R. Deardorff, both of whom had had intensive ex- 
perience in the Juvenile Court of Philadelphia, condemned 
the failure of advocates of the juvenile court to heed the 
mggestion of Messrs. Hotchkiss and Eliot. They said : 
The National Probation Association has proceeded as if 
othing had been said. Social workers all over the country, 
irh inside juvenile courts and outside in private agencies, 
iave gone on trying to perfect the technique of juvenile 
aurts, to improve the laws governing them, to standardize 
hem, extend them to new' communities, to build up auxiliary 
:rvice about them." In other words juvenile courts, at 
east for the future, are a mistake; their advocates have 
"backed the wrong horse." The thing to do is to give up 
iuvenile courts we have and everywhere work for some- 
nng v.! -» If there are still states and counties in which no 
jvenile courts are in effective operation, so much the better; 
lere will be no child welfare machinery to scrap and we 
in proceed at once to build new machinery that will be 
sally up to date. This machinery must all be run from 
central power station in connection with the public schools, 
the words of the writers: 
As one tries to visualize just what larger school responsibility 
would entail in the way of machinery, he sees that the solu- 
tion does not present insurmountable difficulties. Each city, 

probably each county, would require an extension or a reor- 
ganization of its personnel to include a department of adjust- 
ment, to which teachers, policemen, and others could refer 
all children who seemed to present problems of health, mental 
development, of behavior, or of social adjustment. For good 
work, this would require the services of doctors, nurses, psychia- 
trists, field investigators, recreational specialists, and other peo- 
ple skilled in the diagnosis of various kinds of troubles and 
in their prevention and cure. Special schools for physically 
and mentally handicapped children, houses of detention, paren- 
tal homes and special schools for the incorrigible child, tem- 
porary shelters, clearing houses and child-placing agents should 
be assigned to this department. Where the community lacks 
some of this equipment, it would be the duty of this depart- 
ment to demonstrate the need and work to build up the proper 
equipment. Some of the special institutions would probably 
serve an entire state and so would logically belong under the 
state board of education. 

This is a large order, and cannot be set up presto even on 
its purely case-work and educational side by the schools any 
more than has proved possible by courts. For my part, I 
hail the day, already clearly dawning, in which there shall 
be an individualized study and understanding of every child 
upon which firm foundation all of his technical education, 
discipline, and social treatment shall be based. To this end 
a sound philosophy, not only of juvenile courts but of 
education, progress in the care of the child's health, studies 
of his mentality and personality, and the service of visiting 
teachers will all contribute. Those concerned in realizing 
all this have ahead of them a work of decades, not merely of 
days. The present danger is not that individualized service 
to the child in connection with the schools shall be built 
up too fast. The work that can be done for children in con- 
nection with schools should be speeded up to the limit of 
sane and well coordinated possibilities. The danger is that 
we should loosely think the schools can do it all — that there 
are no permanent services to children that courts must render, 
that it is a waste of time to work for socialized courts until 
they are available everywhere, not only in urban communities 
but in every rural county. As I see it, there are three situa- 
tions in which the compulsion now based on a court decision 
is necessary and will always be necessary in every com- 

First : In the control and discipline of some persistently 
delinquent children. Although such cases may be few where 
what we call "case work" is good, still children are found, and 
in my opinion will continue to be found, to whom society will 
continue to say "you must." In such cases a court must 
act or the present power of the court must be lodged else- 
where. Second: In situations, where parents, other adults, 
boards of education, agencies and institutions dispute as to 
the custody and guardianship of children, a judicial decision 
followed by enforcement is persistently necessary for the im- 
mediate future. Courts must continue to give -these deci- 
sions or this judicial power must be lodged elsewhere. 
Third: Wherever, adults need to be disciplined and super- 
vised because of overwork, neglect, abuse, and contribution to 
neglect and delinquency of children, the judicial function 
is necessary. Such cases also will prove to be persistent in 
society. Either courts must continue to give and back up 
all such decisions or the judicial function must be lodged 
elsewhere. In my opinion no department of adjustment or 
any other conceivable "case-work" agency can adequately 
care for children in these situations without use of the judicial 
decision. Is it therefore wise in our zeal to make more rapid 
progress in child welfare in any community, to fail to rec- 

1 r> 



ognize frankly the persistent nature of at least these three 
situations affecting children and to insist on waving them 
away as negligible in number and importance? 

It may be conceded that 25 per cent, 50 per cent or pos- 
sibly even 90 per cent of the cases of children now brought 
into our courts as truants, neglected and delinquents might 
be cared for by skilful "case work" alone without any de- 
pendence whatsoever upon the compulsory decision of a 
court. It does not follow that for the remainder a court 
is unnecessary. If any considerable number of children on 
account of their own conduct, or merely as victims or wit- 
nesses on account of the conduct of adults must still go to 
court there must still be maintained in every urban commu- 
nity, and also in every county of the rural districts, the com- 
plete socialized law, judge, court procedure, separation from 
evil persons and influences, and case-Work personnel for in- 
vestigation, custody and possibly temporary after-care which 
we now think of as done by the best probation officers. 

If this analysis of persistent need of courts is right no 
apology is necessary on the part of any probation association 
or other champions of the juvenile and domestic relation 
courts for insisting that in every community in both city 
and country the best facilities shall be provided in connection 
with courts for the irreducible minimum of children who 
must still be brought to courts. 

So much for the confused and mistaken idea that has been 
growing up that the day is at hand when socialized courts 
with jurisdiction over delinquent and neglected children and 
children whose custody and guardianship are in dispute will 
be no longer necessary. 

There are other factors that have added to the confusion: 
Dr. Eliot in his book cited above has argued not that all 
court service to children is unnecessary but rather that what- " 
ever service is necessary should be rendered not by a so- 
called juvenile court but by a family or domestic relations 
court. Judge Baker of Greely, Colo., in his article, The 
Passing of the Juvenile Court [the Survey, March 12, 
1 921] also takes the same position. All this is largely a 
question of name and jurisdiction. Unfortunately, it has 
often been misunderstood as argument that no court at all 
having jurisdiction over children, or over adults .^here the 
welfare chiefly concerned is that of children, is needed. 

Another cause of doubt and confusion as to the future of 
the juvenile court is the contention by some that all courts 
should confine themselves strictly to judicial functions and 
not permit themselves to become responsible for administra- 
tion. Dr. Eliot and Judge Baker have insisted upon this. 
As I understand the Objection of persons in controversy over 
questions of labor against "government by injunction," there 
is a similar distinction between judicial and administrative 
functions of courts. From the angle of pure logic there is 
much to be said in both situations for the separation of func- 
tion. In practice, however, it is difficult if not impossible 
to keep the functions absolutely separate. Surely this is the 
case in respect to delinquent and neglected children and 
children whose custody and guardianship is in dispute. If 
jurisdiction in such juvenile situations must permanently re- 
side in courts, if it be the duty of these courts to see that 
justice and equity toward these children prevail, even to the 
extent of a judicial decision as to what equity for the in- 
dividual child is, the court must have the power to see that 
a complete socialized procedure in the care of each child is 
followed. This can only be done by trained persons who 
will take the judge's orders, whether court officials or not. 
The most satisfactory way in large jurisdictions, at least, 
is for the court itself to have trained social workers. Even 
a priore logic can hardly deny that a judge who is really ex- 
pected to give equitable decisions must have possession of 
all the data necessary to the reaching of such decisions and 
in backing these decisions up whenever necessary. 

The idea that the juvenile court has possibly outlived its 
usefulness is therefore due to three facts: There is a grow- 
ing recognition that so-called case work with children (wher- 
ever judicial authority is not essential) could be and should 
be enormously developed outside the courts and especially in 
connection with schools. Many students of the juvenile 
court movement believe that counts having jurisdiction of 
present juvenile court judges should also have the jurisdic- 
tion of judges in so-called family or domestic relations courts, 
the latter being perhaps a better final name for the enlarged 
court than juvenile court. The accumulation of unneces- 
sary administrative functions respecting children in any court 
is unwise. -" 

When all this has been said, however, the indisputable 
fact remains that in both urban and rural communities there 
will always be a minimum number of services in behalf of 
children that courts and courts alone can adequately give. 
These services include all questions of disputes over doubtful 
custody and guardianship ; control and discipline of parents 
and other custodians and guardians, and of other adults 
who neglect or abuse children ; control and discipline of a 
minimum number of so-called juvenile delinquents whom 
educational and case-work methods alone have not sufficed 
to control. 

In short, it should be understood that while juvenile court 
prophets look for a decrease of numbers of children in courts, 
complete socialized courts with juvenile jurisdiction will al- 
ways be needed and should be fought for if necessary with 
crusading zeal until available for every child who needs them 
in city and in country. Henry W. Thurston. 

New York School of Social Work. 

Salvaging the Child 

THE Department of Child Welfare of Westchester 
County, N. Y., is an outstanding illustration of a 
public department infused with the highest standards for 
the care and protection of children. It is endeavoring to 
translate that care into human terms. Since the department 
is now in its fifth year it has passed the experimental stage. 
Its results are an indication of what can be done through 
a public agency in case the mixture of ingredients is right. 
The commissioner of charities and corrections, V. Everit 
Macy, a man of public spirit and- large means, the personnel 
of the staff, and the unstinted backing from private sources, 
especially from the Westchester County Children's Associa- 
tion, have contributed in no small degree to this success. 

In general the duties of the department are "the super- 
vision and care of all children under the age of sixteen sup- 
ported by public funds away from their families by the County 
of Westchester, and the administration of the county's plan 
for relief in the home to mothers with young children." 

The chief factors of last year's work of the department 
have been a reduction in the number of dependent children 
under the department's care to the lowest point within six 
years, a decrease in the applications for mothers' allowances 
and an increase in the number of allowances discontinued, 
the increasing value of the mental clinic, the continued in- 
creased expense of maintaining children in private institu- 
tions, and the cooperation from citizens and private agencies. 

In its administering of the mothers' allowances and in pro- 
viding adequate care for its dependent children in the houses 
of their own mothers the department has kept abreast of the 
best modern practice. It was one of the first counties in 
New York state to make provision for such children in their 
own homes. Now the belief in such relief has grown until 
forty states and forty-two counties in New York state are 
rendering some form of mothers' assistance. 

As a result of an amendment to the New York Board of 
Child Welfare Act passed in 1920, the provisions of the act 
are made mandatory so that every county in New York state 



is now required to appropriate funds for the relief of widowed 
and other dependent mothers. The law has also been amend- 
ed to include the wives of men in state hospitals for the in- 
sane and of men sentenced for five years or more to a state 
prison. For the most part in other counties of the state these 
families would be cared for by boards of child welfare under 
the provisions of the Widow's Pension Law. In Westchester 
county, however, the work is carried on by the Department of 
Child Welfare under the general provision of the poor law 
and chapter 242 of the Laws of 1916 which created the office 
of commissioner of charities in Westchester county and pre- 
scribed the duties of that office. 

The Department of Child Welfare is now striking a bal- 
ance in the number of applications it receives for mothers' 
allowances to the number of families to whom it is necessary 
to grant relief. During 191 9 allowances were granted to 
123 families while 42 were discontinued. During 1920, on 
the other hand, allowances were granted to only 81 families 
while 56 were discontinued. At the end of the year 278 
families including 942 children under 16 years were receiving 
this form of relief. It is expected that the high-water mark 
will be reached during the present year, and that thereafter 
the number of mothers' allowances will tend to decrease 
rather than to increase. The disapproval of applications for 
allowances last year was due to no financial need. 

The death of the husband and father is the primary cause 
of dependency in the group of families receiving mothers' al- 
lowances in Westchester county. In regard to these deaths 
Miss Taylor states that "tuberculosis is the great first cause 
of the dependency resulting from illness and death." During 
1920 there were 72 families in the county in which the hus- 
band and father died of tuberculosis who were receiving 
mothers' allowances, or 21.56 per cent of all those granted 
during the year. Since most of these families were entirely 
self-supporting previous to the sickness of the man, Miss 
Taylor estimates that the families would not have become 
dependent except for his illness and death. Moreover, aside 
from the cost of investigation and supervision, relief for these 
families cost the county $26,796.00 in 1920 or 21.63 per cent 
of the total amount spent for mothers' allowances. But this 
represents only the cost to the county for these families for 
one year. The total amount expended for their relief to the 
first of the year amounted to $69,901.57. Further, there are 
57 of the families with 196 children under the age of 16 still 
remaining dependent. 

But even this does not picture the appalling cost of this 
disease as reflected in one piece of work. There are also 
children dependent away from their families to be considered. 
The causes of deaths are more difficult to determine for this 
group. There were, however, last year 117 children, repre- 
senting 57 different families which became dependent through 
the immediate agency of tuberculosis. The cost of actual 
relief for these children during one year amounted to $20,- 
704.39 while the total cost of their care since their commit- 
ment is $48,584.67. Further, 70 of these children in 33 fa- 
milies were still dependent the first of the year. 

There has, of course, been considerable debate as to the 
efficacy of mothers' allowances. Upon this- score Miss Taylor 
states that their mothers' allowance system is not "creating a 
new class of dependents as some feared it would do, but that 
it is merely a new and more efficient method of administering 
relief, a method which deals largely with those families whom 
their own communities have already recognized as in need of 
aid." As proof of this statement she cites the fact that 213 
families were-already receiving public relief through an over- 
seer of the poor or the commissioner of charities before the 
mothers' allowances was granted. 

The ideals of the department are of special import and 
break ground for welfare work done by public agencies. One 
of its precepts is that "practically everyone is better for being 
able to some extent to support himself." Therefore, each 
family is encouraged to seek that degree of self-support which 



"All child welfare zvork is based upon normal industrial 

conditions and is liable to be thrown out of gear the 

moment these conditions alter" says Maternity and Child 

Welfare which publishes this cartoon 

does not result in overwork on the part of the mother or 
neglect of the children. Of the 334 families receiving allow- 
ances last year only 20 were totally without any income 
through effort of their own or that of their relatives. Such 
assistance, slight as it may be, contributes materially to the 
sense of self-respect and of independence. 

Another tenet tenaciously held to is the belief "in a thor- 
ough gathering not of opinions but of facts regarding the 
families in whom it proposes to recommend that the county 
shall invest the dollars of the tax-payers and the time of its 
workers." The department makes certain that "the homes 
we have saved through public funds are the right ones to save, 
that they are being rightly maintained and that the relief 
given and intended to be adequate is really enough to build 
strong bodies and strong minds in little children." 

The investigation of new applications for the public sup- 
port of children and the endeavor of the staff of the depart- 
ment to work out some plan for the return of children to 
their parents and relatives have contributed largely to the 
reduction in the number of dependent children under care. 
January first of the present year saw a reduction of 91 chil- 
dren dependent at the beginning of the year or the lowest 
number in five years. 

The department has analyzed the circumstances surround- 



ing the commitment through the operation of the poor law, 
of the 230 children who became its wards in this manner in 
1920. In these cases the family breakdown was brought 
about in general either through "the inability of the parents 
to maintain longer a home for their children or an especial 
need on the part of the children which neither their own 
family nor private charities in the community could meet." 
This is to which indication of the extent the problem of the 
family colors the problem of the child. It is further the ex- 
perience in Westchester county that the "needs of a child be- 
yond those of food and shelter are fulfilled infinitely better in 
family home surroundings than in the less normal life of the 
institution." For that reason the staff takes great pains to 
give the wards of the county care in boarding homes. 

The snug dovetailing of its work with that of private 
agencies is one of the distinct contributions of the department. 
Some eighty private organizations, for instance, have assisted 
in its work either by personal service or by material gifts. 
The Westchester County Children's Association denoted ser- 
vice in salaries amounting to nearly six thousand dollars. In 
addition the association furnished the department with an 
automobile and paid its running expenses, paid the traveling 
expenses of four agents and assisted in other ways. 

Miss Taylor and her staff, however, are not resting satis- 
fied with these contributions to child welfare work by a public 
department. They are challenging the social consciousness of 
their country in the hope that a county juvenile court, a 
parole system for juvenile delinquents, increased facilities for 
probation, more special classes for mental defectives, more 
mental, dental and medical clinics, and more family homes 
for children may be secured. "The wards of the Department 
of Child Welfare are not a bedraggled little group for 'the 
charities' to look after," states the last report of the depart- 
ment. "They are the children in your community who need 
a boost now to make them the independent men and women 
of the future." P. L. B. 

Juvenile Court Dynamics 

THE legal principles and the procedure concerned in the 
development of the juvenile court have been modified 
under the impact of fresh ideas and in response to new social 
concepts. This range of influences and ideas Judge Edward 
F. Waite, of the Juvenile Court of Minneapolis, terms the 
dynamics of the juvenile court movement. A discussion of 
them as factors in social progress is presented in a pamphlet 
published by the state Board of Control of Minnesota. 

Judge Waite states that foremost among these factors is 
the increased appreciation of the value of the child to the 
community. With the increase in scientific knowledge, and as 
individualistic conceptions of life have been supplanted by 
social ideals, "people rather than kings," he says, have become 
the object of concern; especially has the child become the cen- 
ter of community interests. The development of an apprecia- 
tion of the relative moral irresponsibility of juveniles is an- 
other factor discussed. The common law, Judge Waite points 
out, conceded to children under seven freedom from criminal 
responsibility for their acts. Responsibility for acts was de- 
batable for the ages seven to fourteen. "Modern psychology," 
he says, "has confirmed this attitude by providing it with 
scientific reasons, and has advanced it further with the period 
of adolescence." 

There has likewise grown up a sentiment advocating refor- 
mation over punishment as the social motive in dealing with 
offenders. Although Judge Waite does not discuss reforma- 
tory methods in detail, he shows that the principal reform to 
which young offenders respond is the educational one. 

Along with the interest in mental behavior has come an 
increased appreciation of the effect of heredity and environ- 
ment on character. Judge Waite states that a "clearer recog- 
nition of these universal life-shaping tendencies could hardly 

fail to open the public mind toward new methods for the pre- 
vention and correction of social ills." 

To the layman it is of interest that Judge Waite emphasizes 
so insistently the community responsibility for conditions re- 
sulting in inherited and environmental handicaps. He de- 
scribes the acceptance of social solidarity as a fact of every- 
day life, stating that when recognition of this as a substantial 
thing seizes hold upon the minds and hearts of men social 
progress ceases to be the nebulous plaything of philosophers. 
He concludes: 

What wonder, then, that at the opportune time these great 
and true ideas pro